Akira (1988 film)
Japanese theatrical poster
|Directed by||Katsuhiro Otomo|
by Katsuhiro Otomo
|Music by||Shōji Yamashiro|
|Edited by||Takeshi Seyama|
|Budget||¥1.1 billion ($9 million)|
|Box office||¥1.7 billion (Japan)|
$49 million (worldwide)
Akira (Japanese: アキラ Hepburn: Akira) is a 1988 Japanese animated post-apocalyptic cyberpunk film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, produced by Ryōhei Suzuki and Shunzō Katō, and written by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on Otomo's 1982 manga of the same name. The film had a production budget of ¥1.1 billion ($9 million), making it the most expensive anime film of its time.
Set in a dystopian 2019, Akira tells the story of Shōtarō Kaneda, a leader of a biker gang whose childhood friend, Tetsuo Shima, acquires incredible telekinetic abilities after a motorcycle accident, eventually threatening an entire military complex amidst chaos and rebellion in the sprawling futuristic metropolis of Neo-Tokyo. While most of the character designs and settings were adapted from the manga, the plot differs considerably and does not include much of the last half of the manga. The soundtrack, which draws heavily from traditional Indonesian gamelan as well as Japanese noh music, was composed by Shōji Yamashiro and performed by Geinoh Yamashirogumi.
Akira premiered in Japan on July 16, 1988 by Toho, but was initially unable to recoup its budget. It was released the following year in the United States by pioneering animation distributor Streamline Pictures. It garnered an international cult following after various theatrical and VHS releases, eventually earning over $80 million worldwide from home video sales. It is widely regarded by critics as one of the greatest animated and science fiction films ever made, as well as a landmark in Japanese animation. It is also a pivotal film in the cyberpunk genre, particularly the Japanese cyberpunk subgenre, as well as adult animation. The film had a significant impact on popular culture worldwide, paving the way for the growth of anime and Japanese popular culture in the Western world as well as influencing numerous works in animation, comics, film, music, television and video games.
On 16 July 1988, a singularity destroyed Tokyo. By 2019, Tokyo had been rebuilt. Now known as Neo-Tokyo, it is plagued by corruption, anti-government protests, terrorism, and gang violence and is on the verge of collapse. During a massive protest, the hot-headed Shōtarō Kaneda leads his vigilante bōsōzoku motorcycle gang against the rival Clown gang. Kaneda's best friend Tetsuo Shima inadvertently crashes his motorcycle into Takashi, an esper (person with extrasensory perception) who escaped from a government laboratory with the aid of a resistance organization. The accident awakens psychic powers in Tetsuo, attracting the attention of a secret government project directed by Japan Self-Defense Forces Colonel Shikishima. Assisted by esper Masaru, Shikishima recaptures Takashi, takes Tetsuo with him, and arrests Kaneda and his gang. While being interrogated by the police, Kaneda meets Kei, an activist belonging to the resistance movement, and tricks the authorities into releasing her and his gang.
Shikishima and his head of research, Doctor Ōnishi, discover that Tetsuo possesses powerful psychic abilities similar to Akira, the esper responsible for Tokyo's destruction. Takashi's fellow esper Kiyoko forewarns Shikishima of Neo-Tokyo's impending destruction. However, Neo-Tokyo's parliament dismisses Shikishima's concerns, leading him to consider killing Tetsuo to prevent another cataclysm.
Meanwhile, Tetsuo escapes from the hospital, steals Kaneda's motorcycle, and prepares to flee Neo-Tokyo with his girlfriend, Kaori. The Clowns ambush them, but after a severe beating are rescued by Kaneda's gang. During the intervention, however, Tetsuo begins suffering intense headaches and hallucinations, and he is returned to the hospital. Kaneda joins Kei's resistance cell after overhearing their plan to rescue Tetsuo and the other espers.
At the hospital, the espers confront Tetsuo, and he aggressively fights back with his psychokinetic powers and escapes. These powers are beginning to make him egomaniacal and unstable. Kaneda, Kei, and the resistance group infiltrate the hospital and are drawn into Shikishima and the espers' attempt to stop Tetsuo. He overpowers them all and flees the hospital after learning from Kiyoko that he can gain help from Akira, who is in cryonic storage beneath the Olympic Stadium construction site.
Kei and Kaneda escape military custody because of Kiyoko, who is hoping to stop Tetsuo using Kei as a medium. Shikishima stages a coup d'état against the Neo-Tokyo government and directs all of its military forces to destroy Tetsuo. Tetsuo returns to his gang's former hangout, Harukiya Bar, to obtain drugs to control his powers. He murders the bartender and destroys the bar in the process. When his former friends Yamagata and Kai arrive and confront him, he cold-bloodedly slaughters Yamagata in front of Kai; Kaneda is informed by Kai of what happened and vows to avenge his friend. Tetsuo rampages through Neo-Tokyo, arriving at Akira's cryogenic storage dewar under the stadium. Kiyoko has Kei fight Tetsuo, but he easily defeats her and exhumes Akira's remains. Using a laser rifle, Kaneda fights Tetsuo in a duel, and Shikishima fires an orbital weapon at him, but both fail to stop him.
Shikishima and Kaori approach the stadium to find Tetsuo in great pain; Shikishima offers to return Tetsuo to the hospital, heal his injuries, and help control his abilities, while Kaori attempts to restrain Tetsuo. However, Kaneda arrives and duels with Tetsuo again. Unable to control his powers, Tetsuo mutates into a gigantic mass, consuming all matter, engulfing Kaneda and killing Kaori. As the mass grows, the espers awaken Akira to stop it. After reuniting with his friends, Akira creates another singularity that draws Tetsuo and Kaneda into another dimension. The espers teleport Shikishima to a safe distance as the singularity destroys Neo-Tokyo in a mirror of Tokyo's previous destruction, and they agree to rescue Kaneda, knowing that they will not be able to return to this dimension as a result.
In the singularity, Kaneda experiences Tetsuo's and the espers' childhood, including Tetsuo's dependence on Kaneda during their childhood, and how the children were trained and altered before Tokyo's destruction. The espers return Kaneda to his world, informing him that Akira will take Tetsuo to safety and that Kei is developing psychic powers.
The singularity disappears, and water floods the city. Ōnishi is crushed to death when the laboratory collapses on him. Kaneda discovers that Kei and Kai have survived, and they drive off into the ruins, while Shikishima watches the sunrise. Finally, Tetsuo introduces himself at another unspecified level of existence.
While working on the Akira comic, Katsuhiro Otomo did not intend to adapt the series outside of the manga; however, he became "very intrigued" when the offer to develop his work for the screen was put before him. He agreed to an anime film adaptation of the series on the grounds that he retained creative control of the project — this insistence was based on his experiences working on Harmagedon. The Akira Committee was the name given to a partnership of several major Japanese entertainment companies brought together to realize production of an Akira film. The group's assembly was necessitated by the unconventionally high budget of around ¥1,100,000,000, intended to achieve the desired epic standard equal to Otomo's over 2,000-page manga tale. The committee consisted of Kodansha, Mainichi Broadcasting System, Bandai, Hakuhodo, Toho, Laserdisc Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation who all forwarded money and promotion towards the film. The animation for the film was provided for by animation producers, Tokyo Movie Shinsha (now TMS Entertainment).
Akira had pre-scored dialogue (wherein the dialogue is recorded before the film starts production and the movements of the characters' lips are animated to match it; a first for an anime production and extremely unusual even today for an anime, although the voice actors did perform with the aid of animatics), and super-fluid motion as realized in the film's more than 160,000 animation cels. Computer-generated imagery was also used in the film (created by High-Tech Lab. Japan Inc. and the cooperative companies for computer graphics, Sumisho Electronic Systems, Inc. and Wavefront Technologies), primarily to animate the pattern indicator used by Doctor Ōnishi, but it was additionally used to plot the paths of falling objects, model parallax effects on backgrounds, and tweak lighting and lens flares. Unlike its live-action predecessors, Akira also had the budget to show a fully realized futuristic Tokyo. The film's production budget was ¥1.1 billion ($9 million), making it the most expensive anime film of its time.
The teaser trailer for Akira was released in 1987. The film's main production was completed in 1987, with sound recording and mixing performed in early 1988. It was released in 1988, two years before the manga officially ended in 1990. Otomo is claimed to have filled 2,000 pages of notebooks, containing various ideas and character designs for the film, but the final storyboard consisted of a trimmed-down 738 pages. He had great difficulty completing the manga; Otomo has stated that the inspiration for its conclusion arose from a conversation that he had with Alejandro Jodorowsky in 1990. He later recalled that the film project had to begin with the writing of an ending that would bring suitable closure to major characters, storylines, and themes without being extraordinarily lengthy, so that he could know in reverse order which manga elements would make the cut into the anime and thus suitably resolve the manga's various elements into a lean, two-hour story.
Otomo is a big fan of Tetsujin 28-go. As a result, his naming conventions match the characters featured in Tetsujin 28-go: Kaneda shares his name with the protagonist of Tetsujin 28-go; Colonel Shikishima shares his name with Professor Shikishima of Tetsujin 28-go, while Tetsuo is named after Shikishima's son Tetsuo Shikishima; Akira's Ryūsaku is named after Ryūsaku Murasame. In addition, Takashi has a "26" tattooed on his hand which closely resembles the font used in Tetsujin 28-go. The namesake of the series, Akira, is the 28th in a line of psychics that the government has developed, the same number as Tetsujin-28.
A key animator who worked on Akira was former Shin-Ei animator Yoshiji Kigami. He animated several entire scenes in Akira, such as the action scene in the sewers. He later joined Kyoto Animation, and died in the 2019 Kyoto Animation arson attack at the age of 61.
Akira was released by Toho on July 16, 1988. At the Japanese box office, the film had a distribution income (distributor rentals) of ¥750 million in 1988. This was equivalent to a Japanese box office gross of approximately ¥1.7 billion in 1988. The film was initially unable to recoup its budget, as its earnings from the domestic distribution income was less than the budget.
Fledgling North American distribution company Streamline Pictures soon acquired an existing English-language rendition created by Electric Media Inc. for Kodansha, which saw limited release in North American theaters on December 25, 1989. Streamline became the film's distributor. In the UK, Akira was theatrically released by Island Visual Arts on January 25, 1991, and was re-released on July 13, 2013 celebrating the 25th anniversary of the film and again on September 21, 2016. In Australia, Akira was theatrically released by Ronin Films. In Canada, the Streamline dub was released by Lionsgate (at the time known as C/FP Distribution), who would eventually become Manga Entertainment's owner through their media operating unit Starz Distribution, in 1990. In 2001, Pioneer released a new English dub which was produced by Animaze and ZRO Limit Productions and was presented in select theaters from March through December 2001. GKIDS later announced that it would distribute the film within North America, with a theatrical release scheduled for December 2018. In total, the film went on to gross $49 million at the worldwide box office, as of 2016.
VHS releases included the initial Streamline Video offering (May 1991), which received later wider distribution by Orion Home Video (September 1993). In the UK, Akira was released on video by Island World Communications in 1991. The film went on to earn over $80 million worldwide from home video sales. The success of this release led to the creation of Manga Entertainment, who later took over the release. The original VHS release of Akira started up Manga Entertainment Australia and VHS distribution was handled by Ronin Films and PolyGram until 1994 when Siren Entertainment took over all of Manga Entertainment Australia's distribution including Akira under a special license from PolyGram, who handled Island's video distribution. Akira was re-released on video in 1994, and again on DVD in 2001 and distributed by Madman Entertainment and The AV Channel. Pioneer Entertainment issued a DVD and a VHS with a new English dub (the dub produced by Animaze) in 2001. This was one of the few releases from Geneon to feature THX-certified audio and video. In 2002, Manga released a two-disc DVD featuring the new Pioneer/Animaze English dub followed in 2004 by another two-disc set containing the original Japanese as well as both the Streamline and Pioneer/Animaze dubs. This version did not contain standard English subtitles, only closed captioning subtitles. In 2005, Manga Entertainment and Boulevard UMD released Akira on UMD for the Sony PSP in the United Kingdom using the original Streamline dub.
In 1992, video-distribution company the Criterion Collection, which specializes in licensing "important classic and contemporary films", released a LaserDisc edition of Akira. The release is notable in that Akira is the first animated film to be released by Criterion and for more than twenty years their sole animated film to be released until their 2014 Blu-ray/DVD release of Fantastic Mr. Fox (2009).
A Blu-ray disc edition of the film was released on February 24, 2009 in North America by Bandai Entertainment under the Honneamise label. A Blu-ray edition of Akira was subsequently released in Australia by Madman Entertainment under exclusive license from Manga Entertainment UK and Kodansha. Madman has recently released a DVD/Blu-ray combo which license is separate from the standalone Blu-ray release because instead of the DVD version being the Manga Video UK version, it uses Madman/Manga's 2001 Special Edition DVD release which is licensed from Manga UK. The Blu-ray release is the first use the format's highest audio sampling rate (Dolby TrueHD 5.1 at 192 kHz for the Japanese audio track) and first to use the hypersonic effect (only available on the Japanese track and on high-end audio systems). Beyond Japanese with English subtitles, the Blu-ray also features the 2001 Pioneer/Animaze English dub (TrueHD 5.1 at 48 kHz). The DVD version was again released in 2012 by Bandai Entertainment. The film was licensed again by Funimation following Bandai Entertainment's closure shortly after its DVD release. The Funimation release includes both English dubs, Streamline in stereo and Pioneer in 5.1 surround (both TrueHD at 96 kHz). Funimation released a 25th anniversary Blu-ray/DVD combo and separate DVD release on November 12, 2013, which features the TrueHD Japanese audio and both English dubs (TrueHD at 96 kHz on Blu-ray). Best Buy released a limited edition exclusive Blu-ray Steelbook the same year.
On April 24, 2020, an Ultra HD Blu-ray version was released in Japan by Bandai Namco Entertainment, featuring a 4K HDR remaster sourced from the original 35mm film print, as well as the 192 kHz audio transfer created for prior Blu-ray releases.
The Streamline dub version first premiered on the Sci-Fi Channel in the 1990s during their week-long anime events and Saturday Anime block. The Pioneer dub of the film has aired twice on Adult Swim's Toonami block, once on December 7, 2013, with a rating of TV-MA-V, and again on December 20, 2014, both times with explicit language and nudity censored. It has aired numerous times on Australian FTA station SBS.
On review aggregator, Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval score of 90% based on 48 reviews, with an average rating of 7.62/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Akira is strikingly bloody and violent, but its phenomenal animation and sheer kinetic energy helped set the standard for modern anime."
Anime News Network's Bamboo Dong commends the Limited Edition's DVD for its "superbly translated" English subtitles and the commendable English dubbing, which "sticks very close to the English translation, and the voice actors deliver their lines with emotion". THEM Anime's Raphael See applauds the film's "astounding special effects and clean, crisp animation". Chris Beveridge comments on the Japanese audio, which brings "the forward soundstage nicely into play when required. Dialogue is well placed, with several key moments of directionality used perfectly". Janet Maslin of The New York Times commends Otomo's artwork, stating "the drawings of Neo-Tokyo by night are so intricately detailed that all the individual windows of huge skyscrapers appear distinct. And these night scenes glow with subtle, vibrant color". Richard Harrison of The Washington Post comments on the pace of the film, stating that the author "has condensed the narrative sprawl of the comics to provide coherence, though there's a bit of "Back to the Future Part II" incompleteness to the story. That hardly matters, since the film moves with such kinetic energy that you'll be hanging on for dear life".
Variety commends the film's "imaginative and detailed design of tomorrow to the booming Dolby effects on the soundtrack" but criticizes the "slight stiffness in the drawing of human movement". Kim Newman of Empire commends the film's "scintillating animated visuals, with not one – not one – computer-assisted shot in sight". Chicago Tribune's Dave Kehr commends Otomo's "excellent animation-specific ideas: Vehicles leave little color trails as they roar through the night, and there are a number of dream sequences that make nice use of the medium`s ability to confound scale and distort perspective". Helen McCarthy in 500 Essential Anime Movies claims that the anime "remains fresh and exciting, easily holding its own against the products of two decades of massive technical advancement". Meanwhile, in February 2004, Dan Persons of Cinefantastique listed the film as one of the "10 Essential Animations", simply referring to the film as "the film that changed everything."
Akira is now widely regarded as one of the greatest animated movies of all time and prompted an increase in popularity of anime movies in the US and, generally, outside Japan. It is still admired for its exceptional visuals. In Channel 4's 2005 poll of the 100 greatest animations of all time featuring both film and television, Akira came in at number 16. On Empire magazine's list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, Akira is number 440. It showed again on Empire's list of The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema, coming in at #51. IGN also named it 14th on its list of Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time. The Akira anime also made TIME magazine's list of top 5 anime DVDs. The film also made number 16 on Time Out's top 50 animated movie list and number 5 on the Total Film Top 50 Animated Films list. The film was ranked #1 by Wizard's Anime magazine on their "Top 50 Anime released in North America" list in 2001. It was ranked #4 on The Hollywood Reporter critic's list of "10 Best Animated Films for Adults" in 2016. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times selected Akira as his "Video Pick of the Week" in 1992 on Siskel & Ebert and the Movies. For its wider 2001 release, he gave the film "Thumbs Up."
Akira has also been regarded as one of the greatest science fiction films of all time. It was ranked number 22 on The Guardian's list of best sci-fi and fantasy films, included on Film4's list of top 50 science fiction films, and ranked number 27 on Complex magazine's list of 50 best sci-fi movies. Phelim O'Neill of The Guardian draws a parallel on Akira's influence on the science-fiction genre to Blade Runner and Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Akira is considered a landmark film in the cyberpunk genre, particularly the Japanese cyberpunk subgenre. The British Film Institute describes Akira as a vital cornerstone of the cyberpunk genre, along with Blade Runner and Neuromancer. Rob Garratt of South China Morning Post calls Akira one of "the most influential sci-fi visions ever realised" on film, comparable to the influence of Blade Runner. Akira is also credited as a breakthrough for adult animation, proving to global audiences that animation was not just for children.
Akira is regarded by many critics as a landmark anime film, one that influenced much of the art in the anime world that followed its release with many illustrators in the manga industry citing the film as an important influence. Manga author Masashi Kishimoto, for example, recalls becoming fascinated with the way the poster was made and wished to imitate the series' creator Katsuhiro Otomo's style. The film had a significant impact on popular culture worldwide. The film led the way for the growth in popularity of anime outside Japan as well as Japanese popular culture in the Western world. Akira is considered a forerunner of the second wave of anime fandom that began in the early 1990s and has gained a massive cult following since then. It is credited with setting the scene for anime franchises such as Pokémon, Dragon Ball and Naruto to become global cultural phenomena. According to The Guardian, the "cult 1988 anime taught western film-makers new ideas in storytelling, and helped cartoons grow up".
Akira has influenced numerous works in animation, comics, film, music, television and video games. It inspired a wave of Japanese cyberpunk works, including manga and anime series such as Ghost in the Shell, Battle Angel Alita, Cowboy Bebop, and Serial Experiments Lain, live-action Japanese films such as Tetsuo: The Iron Man, and video games such as Hideo Kojima's Snatcher and Metal Gear Solid, and Squaresoft's Final Fantasy VII. Outside of Japan, Akira has been cited as a major influence on Hollywood films such as The Matrix, Dark City, Kill Bill, Chronicle, Looper, The Dark Knight, Midnight Special, Inception, and Godzilla, television shows such as Batman Beyond, Stranger Things, and video games such as Core Design's Switchblade, Valve's Half-Life series and Dontnod Entertainment's Remember Me. John Gaeta cited Akira as artistic inspiration for the bullet time effect in The Matrix films. Akira has also been credited with influencing the Star Wars franchise, including the prequel film trilogy and the Clone Wars film and television series. Todd McFarlane cited Akira as an influence on HBO animated television series Spawn. Akira has also influenced the work of musicians such as Kanye West, who paid homage to Akira in the "Stronger" music video, and Lupe Fiasco, whose album Tetsuo & Youth is named after Tetsuo Shima. The popular bike from the film, Kaneda's Motorbike, appears in Steven Spielberg's film Ready Player One, and CD Projekt's video game Cyberpunk 2077. Deus Ex: Mankind Divided video game developer Eidos Montréal also paid homage to the film's poster. The season four premiere of Rick and Morty ("Edge of Tomorty: Rick Die Rickpeat") features a scene in which Morty, and then Rick, are transformed into a giant tendrilled monster that Jerry and Beth later refer to as "an Akira".
When Tokyo was chosen to host the 2020 Summer Olympics in the 2013 bidding process, several commentators claimed that Akira predicted the future event. In 2017, Akira was referenced in several Tokyo Olympic promotions. In February 2020, during the coronavirus pandemic and 147 days before the Olympics, a scene in Akira which calls for the cancellation of the 2020 Olympics (147 days before the event) led to a social media trend calling for the cancellation of the 2020 Olympics. The Summer Olympics were eventually postponed to 2021, rather than canceled altogether.
Johnny Yong Bosch, Kaneda's voice actor in the Pioneer English dub, was nominated for Best Actor and Best Actor in a Comedy at American Anime Awards, but lost to fellow Naruto and Persona voice actors Vic Mignogna and Dave Wittenberg, respectively.
|AKIRA: Original Soundtrack (Symphonic Suite AKIRA)|
|Soundtrack album by |
Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組)
|Genre||Anime, film, gamelan, noh|
|Label||Victor Music Industries, Demon Records/JVC Records, Milan Records|
|Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組) chronology|
AKIRA: Original Soundtrack (Symphonic Suite AKIRA) was recorded by Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組). The music was composed and conducted by musical director Shōji Yamashiro (pseudonym of Tsutomu Ōhashi), and performed by the collective Geinoh Yamashirogumi. The soundtrack draws heavily from traditional Indonesian gamelan music, in addition to elements of Japanese noh music.
It features music which was additionally re-recorded for release. "Kaneda", "Battle Against Clown" and "Exodus From the Underground Fortress" are really part of the same song cycle — elements of "Battle Against Clown" can be heard during the opening bike sequence, for example. The score is generally sequenced in the same order that the music occurs in the film. The North American version featured extensive production notes by David Keith Riddick and Robert Napton.
AKIRA: The Original Japanese Soundtrack; an alternate soundtrack was also released. This version included music as it appeared in the film with dialogue and sound-effects albeit ordered out of sequence.
In 1988, Taito released an Akira adventure game for the Famicom exclusively in Japan. Another Akira game for the Atari Jaguar, Super NES, Genesis and Sega CD was being developed, but canceled along with prospects of another Akira title for the Game Boy and Game Gear handheld consoles. International Computer Entertainment produced a video game based on Akira for the Amiga and Amiga CD32 in 1994. To coincide with the DVD release in 2002, Bandai released Akira Psycho Ball, a pinball simulator for the PlayStation 2.
Since 2002, Warner Bros. acquired the rights to create a live-action remake of Akira as a seven-figure deal. However, the live-action remake has undergone several failed attempts to produce it, with at least five different directors and ten different writers known to have been attached to it. By 2017, director Taika Waititi was named as the film's director for the live-action adaptation. Warner Bros. had scheduled the film for release on May 21, 2021, and filming was planned to start in California in July 2019. However, Warner Bros. put the work on indefinite hold just prior to filming as Waititi had chosen to first direct Thor: Love and Thunder, the sequel to Thor: Ragnarok which he had also directed.
- "Akira: The Story Behind The Film". Empire. June 21, 2011. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average) (Japan)". World Bank. 1988. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- "How 'Akira' Has Influenced All Your Favourite TV, Film and Music". VICE. September 21, 2016. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
- Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-56976-222-6. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- Blanc, Michelle Le; Odell, Colin (2014). Akira. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-84457-809-2. Archived from the original on February 5, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- "Akira as #1 anime movie". Movie Cricket. Archived from the original on November 28, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Ten best anime movies of all time". Screen Junkies. Archived from the original on December 16, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- O'Neill, Phelim (October 21, 2010). "Akira: No 22 best sci-fi and fantasy film of all time". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "Akira". Top 50 Science Fiction Films. Film4. 2011. Archived from the original on December 31, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Barone, Matt (June 8, 2011). "27. Akira (1988)". The 50 Best Sci-Fi Movies. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- "What is cyberpunk?". Polygon. August 30, 2018. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "'Akira' Is Frequently Cited as Influential. Why Is That?". Film School Rejects. April 3, 2017. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- O'Neill, Phelim (June 24, 2011). "Akira – review". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Hughes, David (2003). Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
- "Akira (movie)". CrystalAcids.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "Akira (movie)". CrystalAcids.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- Akira Production Report (DVD). Madman Entertainment. November 13, 2001.
- Production insights, Akira #3 (Epic Comics, 1988).
- "Interview with Akira creator Katsuhiro Otomo (3/4)". Akira 2019. December 29, 2009. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2016 – via YouTube.
- "Akira Program Notes". Austin Film Society. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Director Interview (DVD). FUNimation Entertainment. November 12, 2013.
- "The Incredible Artists of Kyoto Animation: Part 1". Anime News Network. August 21, 2019. Retrieved September 2, 2019.
- "キネマ旬報". Kinema Junpo. キネマ旬報社. February 7, 1989 – via Google Books.
- "Statistics of Film Industry in Japan". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
- "Akira: Looking back at the future". The Japan Times. July 11, 2018. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Interviews with Streamline Pictures' co-founders Carl Macek and Jerry Beck in Protoculture Addicts #9 (November 1990), and company spotlight in Protoculture Addicts #18 (July 1992).
- "Akira". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- "Otomo Takes Manhattan", Marvel Age #100 (Marvel Comics, May 1991).
- Sevakis, Justin (September 14, 2015). "What Ever Happened to Manga Entertainment?". Answerman (column). Anime News Network. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- "Akira (35 mm)". Australian Classification Board. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- @Criterion (October 25, 2011). "In 1992 we released Katsuhiro Otomo's landmark AKIRA on laserdisc: ow.ly/i/jTnf" (Tweet). Retrieved August 16, 2015 – via Twitter.
- "About Criterion". The Criterion Collection. The Criterion Collection. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Amidi, Amid (December 27, 2013). "Criterion's First Animated Feature Release in 20 Years: A Sign of Things to Come?". Cartoon Brew. Cartoon Brew, LLC. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Akira on Blu-ray."Bandai Announces Akira Blu-ray" . Retrieved October 14, 2008. Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "Akira comes on Blu-ray this Summer – I4U News". I4u.com. March 23, 2007. Archived from the original on April 7, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Madman Entertainment release of Akira on Blu-Ray. Madman.com.au . Retrieved November 19, 2009. Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "Funi Adds Seikishi, Yamato: R, One Piece: Strong World, Fairy Tail Film, Akira". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- "Akira 25th Anniversary Edition Includes Streamline, Pioneer Dubs". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "Akira DVD/Blu-ray 25th Anniversary Edition (Hyb)". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on September 4, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
- Lawler, Richard. "4K 'Akira' Blu-ray arrives next year before the series continues". Engadget. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
- "Toonami to Show Akira, Summer Wars, 1st FMA Film, Trigun Film". Anime News Network. November 16, 2013. Archived from the original on April 6, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- Akira | Movie Trailer, News, Cast, Interviews | SBS Movies Archived October 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "Akira (1998)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on December 20, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
- Dong, Bamboo. "Akira Limited Edition Metal DVD Case". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on April 4, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- See, Raphael. "Akira". THEM Anime. Archived from the original on April 3, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Beveridge, Chris (April 17, 2002). "Akira: Special Edition (& Limited Edition)". Mania.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Maslin, Janet (October 19, 1990). "Akira (1988) Review/Film; A Tokyo of the Future In Vibrant Animation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Harrison, Richard (December 25, 1989). "'Akira' (NR)". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "Review: 'Akira'". Variety. December 31, 1987. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Newman, Kim (March 18, 2002). "Akira". Empire. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- Kehr, Dave (March 30, 1990). "Japanese Cartoon Akira Isn't One For The Kids". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- McCarthy, Helen. 500 Essential Anime Movies: The Ultimate Guide. — Harper Design, 2009. — P. 12. — 528 p. — ISBN 978-0061474507
- Persons, Dan (February–March 2004). "The Americanization of Anime: 10 Essential Animations". Cinefantastique. 36 (1): 48. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- "Channel4 – 100 Greatest Cartoons". Channel 4. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "The 500 greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Archived from the original on October 14, 2013.
- "TOP 25 ANIMATED MOVIES OF ALL-TIME". IGN. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "5 Top Anime Movies on DVD". Time. July 31, 2005. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2011.(subscription required)
- "Time Out's 50 Greatest Animated Films – Part 4 – Time Out Film – Time Out London". Time Out. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- 50 Greatest Animated Movies Archived May 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Wizard lists Top 50 Anime". Anime News Network. July 6, 2001. Archived from the original on April 2, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- "Critic's Picks: 10 Best Animated Films for Adults". The Hollywood Reporter. August 12, 2016. Archived from the original on December 1, 2018. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- Lent, John A. (2001). Animation in Asia and the Pacific. John Libbey. ISBN 978-1-86462-036-8. Archived from the original on June 26, 2018. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
- "30 years of Akira – teenage kicks, anime-style". British Film Institute. July 16, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- Garratt, Rob (November 17, 2019). "How Akira and Blade Runner predicted the neon urban ugliness of Tokyo and Hong Kong in 2019". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
- "Akira – Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes". Uk.rottentomatoes.com. Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Kishimoto, Masashi (2006). Naruto, Volume 10. Viz Media. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4215-0240-3.
- "Akira: the future-Tokyo story that brought anime west". The Guardian. July 10, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
- "Tetsuo: The Iron Man". Mandiapple.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Hopper, Ben (February 20, 2001). "Great Games Snatcher". GameCritics.com. Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- "Final Fantasy VII's Legacy Gets Everything About Final Fantasy VII Wrong". Paste Magazine. April 13, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
- "200 Things That Rocked Our World: Bullet Time". Empire. EMAP (200): 136. February 2006.
- Proyas, Alex. "Dark City DC: Original Ending !?". Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Mystery Clock Forum. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
- "30 Years of Akira: The Triumph and Legacy of a Legendary Film". Crunchyroll. July 16, 2018. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
- Woerner, Meredith (February 2, 2012). "Chronicle captures every teen's fantasy of fighting back, say film's creators". io9. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- "Rian Johnson Talks Working with Joseph Gordon-Levitt on LOOPER, Hollywood's Lack of Originality, Future Projects and More". Collider. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- Osmond, Andrew (June 21, 2011). "Akira: The Story Behind The Film". Empire. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- Lambie, Ryan (March 4, 2014). "Godzilla: 10 things we learned from Gareth Edwards". Den of Geek. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Inside ‘Stranger Things’: The Duffer Bros. on How They Made the TV Hit of the Summer Archived October 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Beast, August 7, 2016
- Whitta, Gary (December 1989). "Review - Swtichblade - From the team that put the dangerous into Rick comes Gremlin's mix of action and exploration. Gary Whitta's going underground..." The One. No. 15. EMAP. pp. 113–114.
- "Half-Life tiene varias referencias a Akira". MeriStation (in Spanish). Diario AS. August 29, 2018. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "The most impressive PC mods ever made". TechRadar. June 14, 2018. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "FEATURE: "Life is Strange" Interview and Hands-on Impressions". Crunchyroll. January 28, 2015. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "THE CINEMA BEHIND STAR WARS: AKIRA". StarWars.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
- McFarlane, Todd (1998). Todd McFarlane's Spawn 2 (Special features). HBO Home Video.
- "Lupe Fiasco's 'Tetsuo & Youth' Avoiding Politics". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on November 17, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2014.
- Francisco, Eric. "'Ready Player One' Anime Easter Eggs Include Gundam, Voltron and Much More". inverse.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Peters, Megan (April 25, 2018). "Steven Spielberg Reveals How Hayao Miyazaki Inspires Him". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "Cyberpunk 2077 devs 'will be significantly more open'". PCGamesN. June 12, 2018. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "Here's Some Spiffy Unused Deus Ex: Mankind Divided Art, Inspired by Akira". Kotaku. July 17, 2017. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- McFarland, Kevin (September 9, 2013). "Akira predicted that the 2020 Olympics would be held in Tokyo". Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Ashcraft, Brian (September 27, 2013). "The 2020 Tokyo Olympics Were Predicted 30 Years Ago by Akira". Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Baseel, Casey (July 25, 2017). "The Tokyo Olympics might be taking its Akira anime connection too far【Video】". Sora News 24. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "'Just Cancel it!' trending hard as coronavirus gets Olympic push from '88 anime 'Akira'". The Japan Times. February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- Reidy, Gearoid (February 28, 2020). "30-Year-Old Anime Prediction Sparks Talk of Olympic Cancellation". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- Clarke, James (2012). Animated Films - Virgin Film. Random House. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4481-3281-2.
- "American Anime Awards Finalists Announced" Archived July 11, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Anime News Network. February 7, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
- Lillard, Kevin. "American Anime Awards". Newtype USA. 6 (5) p. 20. May 2007. ISSN 1541-4817.
- Goldmark, D.; Taylor, Y.; Maltin, L. (2002). The Cartoon Music Book. Chicago Review Press, Incorporated. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-56976-412-1. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
The Akira soundtrack, constructed by Shoji Yamashira and performed by the group Geinoh Yamashirogumi, slides through musical cultures and knits them together with the easy grace of Toru Takemitsu.
- Bradley, Paige Katherine (August 28, 2018). "Cue the Gamelan Music, Maestro, Because the Best Anime Ever Made Is Back in Theaters!". Garage Magazine. Vice Media. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Review of the NES/Famicom game by Mobygames.com Archived December 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Ripper, The (April 1994). "Europa!". GameFan. Vol. 2 no. 5. p. 136. Archived from the original on January 5, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- "Warpzone – Jaguar – Angekündigte Jaguar-Spiele". Video Games (in German). No. 32. Future-Verlag. July 1994. p. 32. Archived from the original on August 4, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- Szczepaniak, John (December 22, 2012). "Jim Gregory interview – AKIRA – SNES". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Review of the AmigaCD game by Mobygames.com Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Review of the Akira pinball simulator by Tothegame.com Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Linder, Brian et al. (April 12, 2002). "Akira Hollywood Remake!?" IGN. Retrieved October 24, 2006. Archived March 13, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Busch, Anita; Flemming, Mike (September 19, 2017). "'Akira' Back? 'Thor: Ragnarok' Helmer Taika Waititi In Talks". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Marc, Christopher (April 6, 2017). "Akira: The Tortured History of the Unmade Live-Action Adaptation". IGN. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Kit, Borys (January 5, 2012). "'Akira' Production Offices Shut Down As Warner Bros. Scrutinizes Budget (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014.
- Couch, Aaron (May 24, 2019). "Taika Waititi's 'Akira' Sets 2021 Release Date". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- Patton, Dominic (April 2, 2019). "Leonardo DiCaprio Produced 'Akira' Scores In Latest CA Tax Credits Allocation". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
- Kit, Borys (July 16, 2019). "Taika Waititi to Direct 'Thor 4' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Akira|
- Official website (in Japanese)
- American site (archived by the Wayback Machine)
- Akira on IMDb
- Akira at AllMovie
- "Akira" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- Akira (film) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- Mathijs, Ernest; Mendik, Xavier (2011). "Akira (p. 11)". 100 Cult Films. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-84457-571-8.