لواء التوحيدParticipant in the Syrian Civil War
Official logo of the Tawhid Brigade
|Active||18 July 2012—2014 (central group, some remnants still use the name)|
|Headquarters||Aleppo, Mare', and Tell Rifaat|
|Area of operations||Syria|
10,000 (own claim) (Nov 2012)|
11,000 (Oct 2013)
Army of Mujahideen
Kurdish Front (2014)
People's Protection Units (sometimes, 2014)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2013)
Ghuraba al-Sham Front 
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2014)
People's Protection Units (2012–2014)
|Battles and wars|
The al-Tawhid Brigade (Arabic: لواء التوحيد, translit. Liwa al-Tawhid, lit. 'Brigade of Oneness'), named after Tawhid, the "oneness of God," but often mistranslated as Unity Brigade, was an armed Islamist insurgent group involved in the Syrian Civil War.
The al-Tawhid Brigade was formed in 2012. Reportedly backed by Qatar, al-Tawhid was considered one of the biggest groups in northern Syria, dominating much of the insurgency around Aleppo.
Originally, al-Tawhid was composed of four subunits, the Mountain Knights Brigade, the Darat Izza Brigade, the Free North Brigade, and the Aleppo Shahba Battalions.
Its leader Abdul Qader Saleh was killed in November 2013 in a devastating Syrian Air Force airstrike. Its northern branch, the Free North Brigade, was in 2014 reportedly "superseded" by the Northern Sun Battalion (Shams al-Shamal).
The Tawhid Brigade consisted was organized into three branches:
- The Free North Brigade, as the largest subunit of the Tawhid Brigade, was present in the Kilis Corridor and took over the leadership of several subunits in al-Bab to the east of Aleppo. On 16 June 2017, remnants of the group using its name joined the Sham Legion.
- The Mountain Knights Brigade operated in the southwest of Aleppo Governorate near the border with the Idlib Governorate and the city of Atarib.
- The Darat Izza Brigade, named after the town of Darat Izza, operated in the western part of the city of Aleppo.
Around June 2013 the Tawhid Brigade was reorganised into nearly 30 sub-factions.
In November 2013, the Elite Islamic Battalion left the Tawhid Brigade.
On 2 March 2014, the Northern Storm Brigade announced that they would join the Islamic Front under the leadership of the al-Tawhid Brigade. Also in 2014, the Euphrates Jarabulus Battalions left to join the Dawn of Freedom Brigades.
At some point the 1st Regiment was a member group of the Tawhid Brigade.
The al-Tawhid Brigade was formed in 2012 in order to coordinate the Battle of Aleppo, with the stated mission to found a "civil state in Syria with Islam being the main source of legislation."
In November 2012, the Tawhid Brigade announced their support for the Syrian National Coalition but called for greater representation in the coalition. The brigade's leadership called for "a civil state where the basis of legislation is the Islamic faith, with consideration for all the [minority] groups of Syria". They thereby implicitly rejected an earlier statement they had made, with other local factions, which had called for an Islamic state in Syria and denouncing the Syrian National Coalition.
In August 2013, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the al-Nusra Front, Ahrar al-Sham, the Suqour al-Sham Brigade, and the al-Tawhid Brigade announced that they would besiege the YPG-held city of Kobanî. However, infighting between the groups erupted in January 2014 and some of them began to align with the YPG under the name of the Euphrates Islamic Liberation Front. In March 2014, ISIL captured Sarrin and several other towns and villages from the YPG and the EILF. Clashes continued through May 2014.
On 22 September 2013, the Tawhid Brigade joined the Islamic Front coalition. The group was formed largely from the Syrian Islamic Front and the Syrian Islamic Liberation Front, both of which were officially dissolved in the process.
On 24 September 2013, the Tawhid Brigade co-signed a statement with 11 other rebel groups which called for Sharia law and, allying with al-Qaeda, rejected the authority of the Syrian National Coalition.
On 14 November 2013, a Syrian Air Force airstrike bombarded an army base held by the al-Tawhid brigade in Aleppo killing a commander by the name of Youssef al-Abbas also injuring two others including al-Tawhid's head commander Abdul Qader Saleh. Saleh subsequently died of his wounds in a Turkish hospital.
Following the death of Saleh, the Tawhid Brigade reportedly suffered serious internal divisions and lost considerable members in defections to other rebel factions. They also experienced a sharp reduction in military assistance from Gulf states, due to US pressure to support more moderate rebel groups.
On 10 September 2014, the Tawhid Brigade's eastern branch became a founding member group of the Euphrates Volcano operations room based in Kobanî. By October 2014, al-Tawhid had seen many of its eastern Aleppo province affiliates becoming defunct but re-emerging as break-off groups, and its northern branch Free North Brigade being "superseded" by the Northern Sun Battalion (Shams al-Shamal). Some remnants of the Tawhid Brigade near Azaz allied itself with the People's Protection Units and received equipment and training from the CIA in late 2014.
Their fighters became a core part of the Levant Front as of 2015. However, in October 2016, 4 "battalions" of rebels in Aleppo using the flag of the Tawhid Brigade left the Levant Front and joined the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement.
- Syria air strike hits Islamist brigade leadership Al Ahram (AFP), 15 November 2013
- Top Syrian rebel commander dies from wounds (Reuters), 18 November 2013
- Al-Qaeda fighters kill Syrian rebel leaders Al-Jazeera, 2 February 2014
- "The Levant Front: Can Aleppo's Rebels Unite?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
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- "The Story of Al-Tawhid Brigade: Fighting for Sharia in Syria". Al-Monitor (As-Safir). 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Syria - The Free Syrian Army". Vice. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Jonathan Steele (12 September 2014). "Syrian Kurdish leader hails 'Euphrates Volcano' fight against IS". Middle East Eye.
- "The Revolutionary Command Council: Rebel Unity in Syria?". Carnegie Endowment of International Peace. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
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- Panell, Ian (30 July 2012). "Syria: Fear and hunger amid battle for Aleppo". BBC. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Liwaa al-Tawhid Brigade". Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Syrian air raid kills rebel commander in Aleppo: activists Reuters, 14 November 2013
- Bill Roggio (26 September 2013). "Free Syrian Army units ally with al Qaeda, reject Syrian National Coalition, and call for sharia". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Joshua Landis (2 October 2014). "The Dawn of Freedom Brigades: Analysis and Interview". Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- "Brigade North are free to announce joining the Sham Corps". Qasioun News Agency. 16 June 2017.
- Lund, Aron (2013-08-27). "The Non-State Militant Landscape in Syria". CTC Sentinel. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
- "Tawhid Brigade dismisses 6 battalions over shariah breaches SYRIA NEWS - ZAMAN ALWSL".
- "Northern Storm joins Tawhid Brigade". The Daily Star. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Lund, Aron (4 December 2012). "Aleppo and the Battle for the Syrian Revolution's Soul". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "انضمام لواء التوحيد لجبهة تحرير سوريا الاسلامية". Official Website (in Arabic)
- Brown Moses (23 May 2013). "DIY Weapons In Syria - The Hell Cannon". Brown Moses Blog. Retrieved December 13, 2014.
- "Tawhid Brigade in Aleppo sends support units to al-Qusayr Anadolu Agency". Aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Joseph Sax (19 September 2014). "YPG and Rebel Forces Challenge ISIS in Northern Syria". Institute for the Study of War. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017.
- "Islamists forge Syria's rebel alliance". SBS World News.
- "Syrian air raid kills rebel commander in Aleppo: activists". 15 November 2016 – via Reuters.
- Top Syrian rebel commander dies from wounds
- "As ISIS closes in, is it game over for Syria's opposition in Aleppo?". CNN. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Too Big to Fall". Foreign Policy. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.(subscription required)
- Amberin Zaman (16 September 2014). "Fight against IS helps PKK gain global legitimacy". Al-Monitor.
- "Syrian Civil War factions".
- @Syria_Rebel_Obs (15 October 2016). "Liwa al-Tawhid (ONLY 4 battalions who defected from Jabhat ash-Shamiyah, retaking old brigade name) joining Nur ad-Din Zenki in #Aleppo" (Tweet) – via Twitter.