Hayat Tahrir al-Sham

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tahrir al-Sham)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hayʼat Tahrir al-Sham
Organization for the Liberation of the Levant
هيئة تحرير الشام
Participant in the Syrian Civil War
and the War on Terror
Flag of Hayʼat Tahrir al-Sham
Logo of Hayʼat Tahrir al-Sham
Active28 January 2017 – present
IdeologySunni Islamism
Allegiance Syrian Salvation Government[2][3][4][5]
Leaders
HeadquartersIdlib, Idlib Governorate, Syria
Area of operations Syria
 Lebanon (until August 2017)
Size~31,000 (est. 2017)[10]
  • (including 20,000 al-Nusra Front fighters)[11]
7,000–11,000 (est. early 2018)[12]
15,000–30,000 (late 2018 estimates)[13][14]
Allies
Opponent(s)State opponents

Non-state opponents

Battles and war(s)Syrian Civil War
Originated as
* Al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in Syria)

Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (Arabic: هيئة تحرير الشام‎, transliteration: Hayʼat Taḥrīr al-Shām,[32] "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"),[29][30] commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War. The group was formed on 28 January 2017 as a merger between Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (formerly al-Nusra Front), the Ansar al-Din Front, Jaysh al-Sunna, Liwa al-Haqq, and the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement.[8] After the announcement, additional groups and individuals joined. The merged group is currently led by Jabhat Fatah al-Sham and former Ahrar al-Sham leaders, although the High Command consists of leaders from other groups.[33] Many groups and individuals defected from Ahrar al-Sham, representing their more conservative and Salafist elements. Currently, a number of analysts and media outlets still continue to refer to this group by its previous names, which include al-Nusra Front, Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, and al-Qaeda[34][35] in Syria,[36].[37] The Ansar al-Din Front[38] and Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement[31] have since split off from Tahrir al-Sham. It had an estimated 20,000 members in 2019.[39]

Despite the merger, Tahrir al-Sham has been accused of working as al-Qaeda's Syrian branch on a covert level and is considered one of its branches,[39] and that many of the group's senior figures, particularly Abu Jaber, held similarly extreme views.[40][41] However, Tahrir al-Sham has officially denied being part of al-Qaeda and said in a statement that the group is "an independent entity and not an extension of previous organizations or factions".[6] Additionally, some factions such as Nour al-Din al-Zenki, which was part of the merger, were once supported by the US.[42]

Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham swore allegiance to the Syrian Salvation Government, which is an alternative government of the Syrian Opposition seated within Idlib Governorate.[43][44]. The deputy prime minister for military affairs is Riad al-Asaad, the founder of the Free Syrian Army.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Al-Nusra/JFS co-operated with Ahrar al-Sham for much of 2015–16. Leading Ahrar al-Sham cleric Abu Jaber had long criticized al-Nusra's affiliation to al-Qaeda as setting back the cause of the rebels, and had also been the focus of attempts to unify Islamist rebel elements.[45][8][46] He led a more Islamist and less nationalist faction within Ahrar al-Sham, Jaysh al-Ahrar, which supported merger of Ahrar al-Sham with JFS. There were merger talks in late 2016, but these broke down. In early 2017 it clashed with rival Islamist groups in Idlib, in particular Ahrar al-Sham, but Jaish al-Ahrar detached itself from Ahrar al-Sham to merge with JFS in a new body.[47]

Formation[edit]

Abdullah al-Muhaysini, Abu Taher al-Hamawi, and Abd ar-Razzaq al-Mahdi worked on the formation of the group.[48][better source needed] The new formation was announced on 28 January 2017.

According to Syria analyst Charles Lister, Ahrar al-Sham lost some 800-1,000 defectors to HTS, but gained at least 6,000-8,000 more from the merger into its ranks of Suqor al-Sham, Jaish al-Mujahideen, Fastaqim Union and the western Aleppo units of the Levant Front, and the Idlib-based units of Jaysh al-Islam. JFS meanwhile lost several hundred fighters to Ahrar al-Sham, but gained 3,000-5,000 fighters from its merger with Harakat Nour al-Din al-Zinki, Liwa al-Haq, Jaish al-Sunna, and Jabhat Ansar al-Din into HTS.[47]

On 28 January 2017, the day that Tahrir al-Sham was formed, the group announced the formation of its elite units, the "Inghimasi", some of whom were deployed in Idlib city, according to pro-government media.[49][better source needed]

Consolidation of power (January to August 2017)[edit]

Fighters of Tahrir al-Sham in the village of Mushairfa, northeast of Hama, during the northeastern Hama offensive in October 2017.

On 30 January, there were reports of mobilizations by Tahrir al-Sham and Ahrar al-Sham at the Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing and other nearby areas, and that the two groups were preparing for another round of clashes.[citation needed] On 30 January, it was reported[by whom?] that there were around 31,000 fighters in Tahrir al-Sham,[10] while in March analyst Charles Lister described is as "likely commanding 12,000 to 14,000 fighters".[50]

Soon after the group's formation, many local Syrians began referring to the group as Hetesh, which was an Arabic acronym meant as a pejorative, similar the "Daesh" label applied to ISIL by much of the Arab World. This labeling indicated that many Syrians saw Tahrir al-Sham as no different than ISIL, especially given the similarities between Tahrir al-Sham's recent attacks and ISIL's massive offensive on rebel forces in 2014.[51]

HTS suffered losses from air attacks by Coalition forces. On 1 February 2017, pro-government media reported that the US had conducted an airstrike on Carlton Hotel, in the city of Idlib, which was used by Tahrir al-Sham's former al-Nusra component for troop housing, and hosting meetings of prominent commanders,[52][better source needed] although opposition sources said the hotel was used by the Syrian Arab Red Crescent,[53] and US involvement has not been confirmed.[54] On the same day, the Elite Division of the FSA was attacked by Tahrir al-Sham.[55][better source needed] On 3 February, a US airstrike struck a Tahrir al-Sham headquarters[56] in Sarmin, killing 12 members of HTS and Jund al-Aqsa. 10 of the killed militants were HTS members.[57][58] The airstrike also killed militant commander Ibrahim al-Rihaal Abu Bakr.[56]

There has been resistance to HTS by civilians in rebel areas it controls. On 3 February, hundreds of Syrians demonstrated under the slogan "There is no place for al-Qaeda in Syria" in the towns of Atarib, Azaz, Maarat al-Nu'man to protest against HTS. In response, supporters of HTS organized counter-protests in al-Dana, Idlib, Atarib, and Khan Shaykhun.[59] In Idlib pro- Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham protests were held waving pictures of its emir Abu Jaber on 3 February 2017.[60] Attendance at a speech by HTS cleric Abdullah al-Muhaysini was manipulated by drawing internally displaced persons and impoverished people with promises of motorcycles and refrigerators through a raffle.[61][better source needed]

On 4 February 2017, a US airstrike killed al-Qaeda commander Abu Hani al-Masri, who was a part of Ahrar al-Sham at the time of his death. It was reported that he was about to defect to Tahrir al-Sham before his death.[58] On the same day, Tahrir al-Sham official Muslah al-Alyani criticized other groups for not joining Tahrir al-Sham, arguing that any group that "fought for Islam" would be bombed, regardless of terrorist designations. In his statement, he indicated that one of the reasons why most Ahrar al-Sham fighters refused to join Tahrir al-Sham was because the latter group contained terrorist-designated individuals.[56]

Around 8 February, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi confirmed that 2 senior Jabhat Fateh al-Sham leaders loyal to al-Qaeda, including former al-Nusra deputy leader Sami al-Oraydi, left Tahrir al-Sham after its formation.[62]

A speech was released by Abu Jaber on 9 February.[63] He emphasized his group being an "independent entity" and praised his "brothers" in the "Syrian Jihad". The statement included derogatory rhetoric on Shia Muslims, saying the Shiites (“rejectionists”) will “enslave the region" if the rebels lose the war.[6]

On 12 February, the Bunyan al-Marsous Operations Room, of which Tahrir al-Sham was a member, launched an offensive against the Syrian Army in Daraa's Manshiyah district. Tahrir al-Sham forces reportedly began the attack with 2 suicide bombers and car bombs.[64]

On 13 February, clashes erupted between the previously-allied Tahrir al-Sham and Jund al-Aqsa, also called Liwa al-Aqsa, in northern Hama and southern Idlib.[65][66]

On 15 February, Ahrar al-Sham published an infographic on its recent defections, claiming that only 955 fighters had defected to Tahrir al-Sham.[62] There were also reports that Ahrar al-Sham, the Sham Legion, Jaysh al-Izza, the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria, and the Tamkin Brigade would soon merge to form a new organization called the Syrian Liberation Front.[67][68]

On 19 February, HTS arrested local FSA commander Anas Ibrahim in Atarib, and, in response, an anti-HTS protest was held in the town.[69][70][better source needed]

On 20 February, a Ma'arat al-Numan Shura Council was created by the Sham Legion, Ahrar al-Sham, and Tahrir al-Sham.[71][better source needed]

On 22 February, the Combating Terrorism Center reported that Jabhat Fateh al-Sham had formed the Tahrir al-Sham group due to its fear of being isolated, and to counter Ahrar al-Sham's recent expansion during the clashes in the Idlib Province.[62]

On 22 February, the last of Liwa al-Asqa's 2,100 militants left their final positions in Khan Shaykhun, with unconfirmed reports in pro-government media that they were to join ISIL in the Ar-Raqqah Province after a negotiated withdrawal deal with Tahrir al-Sham and the Turkistan Islamic Party.[72] Afterward, Tahrir al-Sham declared terminating Liwa al-Aqsa, and promised to watch for any remaining cells.[73]

On 26 February, a US airstrike in Al-Mastoumeh, Idlib Province, killed Abu Khayr al-Masri, who was the deputy leader of al-Qaeda.[9][74] The airstrike also killed another Tahrir al-Sham militant.[75][76] Abu Khayr's death left HTS freer to move away from al-Qaeda's control.[47]

In early March 2017, local residents in the Idlib Province who supported FSA factions accused Tahrir al-Sham of doing more harm than good, saying that all they've done is "kidnap people, set up checkpoints, and terrorize residents."[77]

On 16 March, a US airstrike struck an al-Qaeda meeting in the village of al-Jinah, just southwest of Atarib, killing at least 29 and possibly over 50 civilians; the US claimed the people targeted in the strike were "al-Qaeda militants" but the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), local residents and local officials have said that the building struck was a mosque filled with worshipers.[78][79][80]

On the morning of 21 March (local time), according to local activists, a US drone strike in Darkoush, Idlib Province, killed Abu Islam al-Masri, a high-ranking HTS commander. HTS commander Abu al-'Abbas al-Darir was also killed in the drone strike.[81] On the same day, Tahrir al-Sham launched the 2017 Hama offensive against Syrian Government forces.[citation needed]

On 24 March, two flatbed trucks carrying flour and belonging to an IHH-affiliated Turkish relief organization were stopped at a HTS checkpoint at the entrance to Sarmada. HTS then seized the trucks and the flour, which was intended for a bakery in Saraqib. The seizure caused 2,000 families in the area to be cut off from a free supply of bread.[82]

In April 2017, Jaysh al-Islam attacked the HTS and expelled it from the territories under its control in Eastern Ghouta.[83]

On 3 May, HTS arrested Suhail Muhammad Hamoud, "Abu TOW", a former FSA fighter, in a house raid in Idlib. Earlier, al-Hamoud had published a photograph of him smoking in front of a HTS billboard that prohibited smoking.[84]

On 20 May, the main faction of the Abu Amara Battalions joined Tahrir al-Sham, which "now boasts a fighting force of some 50,000 militants" according to one pro-government media source.[85] However, the covert operations unit of the Abu Amara Battalions based in Aleppo remained independent.[86]

On 27 May, Tahrir al-Sham and Saraya Ahl al-Sham clashed with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in the western Qalamoun Mountains near Arsal, Lebanon–Syria border. 33 fighters were killed from both sides.[87]

On 29 May, Tahrir al-Sham arrested opposition activist and FSA commander Abdul Baset al-Sarout after accusing him of participating in an anti-HTS protest in Maarat al-Nu'man.[88]

On 2 June 2017, defectors from the Northern Brigade's Commandos of Islam Brigade reportedly joined Tahrir al-Sham, although Captain Kuja, leader of the unit, stated that he is still part of the Northern Brigade.[89][90]

During 18–23 July, HTS launched a series of attacks on Ahrar al-Sham positions, which were quickly abandoned.[47] On 20 July 2017, the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement led by Sheikh Tawfiq Shahabuddin announced its withdrawal from Tahrir al-Sham amid widespread conflict between HTS and Ahrar al-Sham, and became an independent Islamist group.[31] On 23 July 2017, Tahrir al-Sham expelled the remnants of Ahrar al-Sham from Idlib, capturing the entire city[91] as well as 60% of the Idlib Governorate.[92] HTS was now the dominant armed group in opposition-held NW Syria.[47]

On 18 August 2017, Tahrir al-Sham captured 8 rebel fighters from the town of Madaya after it accused them of wanting to return to Madaya during a ceasefire agreement.[93]

Attacks (early 2017)[edit]

On 25 February 2017, 5[94] Tahrir al-Sham suicide bombers attacked the headquarters of the Syrian military intelligence in Homs, killing dozens of security forces, including the head of the military security in Homs.[95] Pictures of the attackers were released on Twitter.[96] One of the attackers was a Khan Shaykhun native called Abu Hurayra (Safi Qatini), according to social media sources.[97] The State Security branch chief and Military security branch chief died in the attack, according to social media sources.[98] Hassan Daaboul was among the 40 assassinated by Hayyat Tahrir al-Sham.[36] The explosion killed Ibrahim Darwish, a Brigadier General and the state security branch's chief.[99] Syrian reporter Moussa al-Omar posted pictures of officers and soldiers who were killed.[100] The War Center Media gave a figure of six suicide attackers and a death toll of thirty.[101] The death toll was given at twenty by Moussa when he posted it a breaking.[102] The death toll was given at thirty five on 24 February according to Moussa.[103] The injured numbered fifty four and the dead numbered forty seven on 25 February according to Moussa.[104] Abu Yusuf al-Muhajir, a Tahrir al-Sham military spokesman was interviewed by Human Voice on the bombings.[105] Twenty-six names were released.[106] Sheikh Samir bin Ali Ka'aka Abu Abdurrahman from Eastern Ghouta suggested that the attack was carried out by Iranians in a dispute between Russians and Iranians.[107] Geneva-based opposition Syrians claimed that the Homs strike was carried out by the government.[108] The attack took place the same time as the beginning of the Geneva Four talks.[109] The attack was praised by Liwa Omar al-Farouq Brigade leader in Ahrar Al-Sham, Abu Abdul Malik (Mahmoud Nemah).[110] The attack was mentioned in an article in the publication Al-Masra by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.[111] HTS leader Abu Mohammed al-Julani mentioned the Homs attack, stating that it was a message for the "defeatist politicians" to "step aside."[112] It has been disputed that the raid did resulted in the death of Ibrahim Darwish.[113] Tariq Abdelhaleem posted a tweet on the Homs attack by Tahrir al-Sham.[114]

On 11 March 2017, Tahrir al-Sham carried out a twin bombing attack in the Bab al-Saghir area of Damascus's Old City, killing 76 and wounding 120. The death toll included 43 Iraqi pilgrims.[115] The attacks were at a shrine frequented by Shi'ite pilgrims and militiamen.[116] They were described in a statement attributed to Tahrir al-Sham as targeting Iran-backed militias and pro-Assad fighters.[117]

Beginning of decline, leadership passes from Abu Jaber (late 2017)[edit]

From September to November 2017, there were a series of assassinations of HTS leaders, in particular foreign clerics associated with the most hardline elements, such as Abu Talha al-Ordini, Abu Abdulrahman al-Mohajer, Abu Sulaiman al-Maghribi, Abu Yahya al-Tunisi, Suraqa al-Maki and Abu Mohammad al-Sharii, as well as some local military leaders, including Abu Elias al-Baniasi, Mustafa al-Zahri, Saied Nasrallah and Hassan Bakour. There was speculation that the assassinations were carried out either by pro-Turkish perpetrators, given the hostility between Turkey and HTS in Idlib, or by supporters of Johani's attempt to turn the organization away from hardline Salafi-jihadi positions. There were also high-profile defections from HTS in the same period, including Abdullah al-Muhaysini and Muslah al-Alyani.[118] In December, HTS arrested several prominent jihadi activists, former members of al-Nusra who remained loyal to al-Qaeda and rejected HTS's turn away from Salafi-jihadist positions. The move was interpreted as an attempt to re-establish as a more pragmatic, pan-Sunni group, with a more civilian structure. Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri denounced this turn.[119][120]

HTS announced Abu Jaber's resignation as the group's leader on 1 October 2017. He was succeeded by Nusra Front founder Abu-Muhammad al-Julani, who had already been the de facto military commander.[121][122]

On 1 October 2017, the ibn Taymiyyah Battalions based in the town of Darat Izza defected from Tahrir al-Sham.[123]

In October 2017, Russia claimed to have injured Abu Mohammed al-Joulani in an air raid; HTS denied the claim.[124][122]

In November 2017, violent clashes erupted between the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement and Tahrir al-Sham in northern Idlib and western Aleppo, mainly in the area between Atme and Khan al-Asal.[125] HTS established the Syrian Salvation Government in Idlib, as a rival to the Syrian Interim Government recognized by other rebels.[83]

In early 2018, there were reports that HTS had been significantly weakened, and now had "a small presence in Eastern Ghouta and declining influence in Idlib, northern Hama, and western Aleppo provinces", with just 250 men in Eastern Ghouta[83] and a total of 12,000 fighters.[47]

In February 2018, Tahrir al-Sham was accused of killing Fayez al-Madani, an opposition delegate tasked with negotiations with the government over electricity delivery in the northern Homs Governorate, in the city of al-Rastan. Hundreds of people, including fighters of the Men of God Brigade, part of the Free Syrian Army's National Liberation Movement group,[24][25][126] proceeded to demonstrate against HTS in the city on 13 February. In response, HTS withdrew from Rastan and handed over its headquarters in the city to the Men of God Brigade.[127] A breakaway faction of former HTS members was formed in February 2018, called the Guardians of Religion Organization.[128][better source needed]

HTS was left excluded of the 24 February ceasefire agreement on Eastern Ghouta. In late February, a group of armed factions, including Failaq al-Rahman and Jaysh al-Islam, wrote to the UN declaring they were ready to "evacuate" remaining HTS fighters from Eastern Ghouta within 15 days.[83] At the same time in Idlib Governorate, Ahrar al-Sham, Nour al-Din al-Zinki and Soqour al-Sham entered into conflict with HTS, taking significant territory.[83]

During late 2017 and early 2018, it co-operated with Turkey in Idlib, leading to deepening tensions between the more pragmatic leadership and more hardline (especially foreign fighters) elements hostile to working with Turkey. Some of the latter split in February 2018 to form Huras al-Din. The HTS leadership also cracked down on remaining ISIS splinter cells active in Idlib. By August, when HTS entered into (unsuccessful) negotiations with Russia and Turkey, HTS was estimated to have around 3,000–4,000 foreign fighters, including non-Syrian Arabs, out of a total of 16,000 HTS fighters. On 31 August, Turkey declared HTS a terrorist organization.[45]

2019[edit]

Revival and victory in Idlib[edit]

In January 2019, HTS was able to seize dozens of villages from rivals, and afterwards, a deal was reached in which the civil administration was to be led by HTS in the whole rebel-held Idlib Governorate.[129]

In the wake of the 5th Idlib inter-rebel conflict, HTS gained control of nearly the entire Idlib pocket, after defeating the Turkish-backed National Front for Liberation. Following their victory, Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham would immediately violate the ceasefire treaty brokered by Turkey and Russia by placing combat units in the demilitarized zone along the Idlib-Syrian Government border, and attack SAA encampments near the area. In response to these attacks, Syrian president Bashar al-Assad increased the number of troops garrisoned near Idlib, which some have argued is an impending renewed offensive in the region, following the Northwestern Syria Campaign, where pro-government forces retook the formerly rebel-controlled Abu al-Duhur Military Airbase that was captured by the FSA and Army of Conquest in 2015. In 2019, the U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary Defense Michael Mulroy stated that “Idlib is essentially the largest collection of al Qaeda affiliates in the world.” [130][131][132][133] In July 10-11 57 pro-government fighters were killed when Tahrir al-Sham militants attacked Syrian positions near the fortified village of Hamamiyat. 44 militants were also killed.[134][135]

Ideology and governance[edit]

Abu Jaber, one of Tahrir al-Sham's leaders, has Salafist jihadist beliefs. This has resulted in him being arrested several times by the Syrian government. He was imprisoned at the Sednaya Prison in 2005 and released among several jihadist prisoners in 2011 who would form several Salafist rebel groups during the Syrian Civil War.[6] Abu Jaber has also professed a belief in "Popular Jihad", a bottom-to-top approach in which jihadists would win the hearts and minds of the people, before setting out to establish jihadi governance, after receiving enough popular support, which is notably the opposite of ISIL's "elite Jihad" top-to-bottom approach.[40]

Analysts have also argued that the group continues to maintain many of al-Nusra Front's al-Qaeda ideologies.[136] Syrian reporter Abdullah Suleiman Ali also said that many of the former Jabhat Fateh al-Sham fighters still answered to al-Qaeda, and held an increasing amount of sway over the new group, despite its public rebranding.[136] The Combating Terrorism Center also reported that despite public statements by some of Tahrir al-Sham's top figures, the group was still largely the same al-Qaeda-aligned group it was, back when it was known as al-Nusra.[62] Lebanese researcher Muhammad Alloush said that the goal of forming Tahrir al-Sham was to unite all groups with al-Qaeda's extreme ideology under one banner, and to obtain as many weapons as possible.[136]

On 18 June 2019, HTS released a statement offering condolences to Egypt's former President Muhammad Morsi upon his death.[137]

Public opinion[edit]

Students of the Free Aleppo University in al-Dana protest against the closure of several faculties by the Syrian Salvation Government which is affiliated with Tahrir al-Sham.

The ECHO Research Centre at Laurentian University conducted an opinion poll on 4,858 residents in several areas of Syria between 10 July 2017 and 28 July 2017. According to the poll's results, 77% of those surveyed disagreed with the Salafist ideology Tahrir al-Sham and other Salafist groups promote in Idlib, 73% rejected HTS-affiliated local councils in Idlib, 66% agreed that HTS is part of al-Qaeda in Syria, and 63% claimed that the dominance of HTS in Idlib will lead to a "second Tora Bora". Of those who participated in the poll, nearly all of them (close to 100%) considered HTS to be contrary to the goals of the Syrian opposition, although they were split in its extent. 51% of them considered HTS to be contrary to the opposition since its inception, 42% considered HTS to be previously consistent with the opposition, but is no longer so, and 7% considered HTS to be a counter-revolutionary organization.[138]

Structure[edit]

Member groups[edit]

[better source needed]

The groups in italic are defectors from Ahrar al-Sham which either left to join Jabhat Fateh al-Sham in the last few days of its existence, or joined its successor group Tahrir al-Sham.

Disclaimer

This list is based on official announcements by Tahrir al-Sham[145][better source needed] and may not necessarily express the full extent of allegiances to the group. These groups may or may not become independent in the future; however, effort will be made to accordingly add or remove groups, based on the status given to them by the commanding office of Tahrir al-Sham. This list may not be a full comprehensive list of member groups.[citation needed]

Leadership[edit]

Since October 2017, the "general commander" or emir of Tahrir al-Sham is Abu Mohammad al-Julani, who is also Tahrir al-Sham's "military commander" and the emir of Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, who also led its predecessor organisation al-Nusra Front, the Syrian branch of al-Qaeda.[248]

Previously, the general commander of Tahrir al-Sham was Hashim al-Shaykh, also known as Abu Jaber, who was the leader of Ahrar al-Sham between September 2014 and September 2015.[249] On 1 October 2017, Abu Jaber resigned from his position as the general leader of Tahrir al-Sham and was replaced by Abu Mohammad al-Julan. Abu Jaber took another position as the head of HTS's Shura council.[7]

Individuals in italic are defectors from Ahrar al-Sham, which either left to join Jabhat Fateh al-Sham in the last few days of its existence, or directly joined Tahrir al-Sham.

Former groups[edit]

Former leaders[edit]

Political relations[edit]

Al Qaeda[edit]

Ayman al-Zawahiri has opposed the split of HTS from Al Qaeda, stating that it was done without his consent.[275] Several Al-Qaeda circles and supporters have also condemned Joulani and compared him to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi because of the group's conflicts with other rebel groups, and have described him as an 'opportunist' as well as making claims that he is an agent of foreign powers.[276]

Ahrar al-Sham[edit]

According to Abdul Razzaq al-Mahdi, who was a leading scholar in Tahrir al-Sham, the groups do not particularly hate one another in the political or social battlefield. Certain members, however, do believe that a war between the two would be possible, since Ahrar al-Sham's attendance at the Astana talks labels it as a "moderate" faction, often seen as blasphemy within groups such as Tahrir al-Sham.[277]

In February 2018 Ahrar al-Sham and the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement merged and formed the Syrian Liberation Front then launched an offensive against Tahrir al-Sham seizing several villages and the city of Maarrat al-Nu'man.

Designation as a terrorist organization[edit]

Country Date References
 United States 11 March 2017 [278][279]
 Canada 23 May 2018 [280]
 Turkey 31 August 2018 [281]
 United Kingdom [282]

Most of the international community considers Tahrir al-Sham to be a terrorist organization.[35] The US embassy in Syria confirmed in May 2017 that HTS had been designated a terrorist organization in March 2017.[283] The United States Ambassador to Syria stated that "HTS is a merger and any group that merges into it becomes part of al-Qaeda's Syrian network."[279] and "the core of HTS is Nusra, a designated terrorist organization. This designation applies regardless of what name it uses or what groups merge into it."[284]

Canada designated Tahrir al-Sham as a terrorist organization on 23 May 2018.[280]

In August 2018, Turkey designated Tahrir al-Sham as a terrorist organization.[23]

Alleged foreign support[edit]

Iran's government has "accused Qatar and Saudi Arabia of supporting Tahrir al-Sham."[285]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ghanmi, Elyès; Punzet, Agnieszka (11 June 2013). "The involvement of Salafism/Wahhabism in the support and supply of arms to rebel groups around the world" (PDF). European Parliament.
  2. ^ http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_52977-1522-2-30.pdf?180629110003
  3. ^ "Who Will Lead Idleb's New 'Salvation Government?'". 9 November 2017.
  4. ^ "HTS-affiliated Salvation Government handed over 4 Canadian person(mother and her 2 sons and a man) who crossed from government-held areas to Idlib last month to Canadian embassy in Turkey Idlib, Idlib Governorate". Map of Syrian Civil War - Syria news and incidents today - syria.liveuamap.com.
  5. ^ Studies, Middle East, politics, GCC, Iran, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Nuclear deal, Yemen, Trump, MENA, Turkey, Gulf Crisis, Qatar, Future for Advanced Research and. "Cloning Chaos Why National Salvation Governments Fail in the Arab Region". مركز المستقبل.
  6. ^ a b c d Joscelyn, Thomas (10 February 2017). "Hay'at Tahrir al Sham leader calls for 'unity' in Syrian insurgency". Long War Journal.
  7. ^ a b c "Julani is a temporary leader of the "Liberation of the Sham" .. This is the fate of its former leader". HuffPost. 2 October 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Joscelyn, Thomas (28 January 2017). "Al Qaeda and allies announce 'new entity' in Syria". Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.
  9. ^ a b "War On Terror: Who Is Abu Khayr al-Masri? Al Qaeda Second In Command Killed In Drone Strike In Syria". IB Times. 26 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b Rida, Nazeer (30 January 2017). "Syria: Surfacing of 'Hai'at Tahrir al-Sham' Threatens Truce". Asharq Al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Why De Mistura's Needs To Step Down". On the Ground News. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  12. ^ Syria’s civil war has been raging for 7 years. What’s behind it?, NBC, 22 February 2018 "According to a recent report by U.N. experts, Syria's powerful Nusra Front is one of the "strongest and largest al-Qaeda affiliates" in the world and is a dominant force in Syria's Hay'at Tahrir al Sham coalition. The group, known as HTS, boasts between 7,000 and 11,000 fighters."
  13. ^ Reality Check team (22 June 2019). "Syria: Who's in control of Idlib?". BBC News. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  14. ^ Joe Macaron (17 October 2018). "A confrontation in Idlib remains inevitable". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Tarkhan's Jamaat (Katiba İbad ar-Rahman) Fighting In Hama Alongside Muslim Shishani". Chechens in Syria. 29 January 2018.
  16. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "The Factions of North Latakia". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi.
  17. ^ "More Detailed Information & Interview With Newly-Formed Tatar Group Junud Al-Makhdi Whose Amir Trained In North Caucasus With Khattab". 3 July 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Foreign jihadists advertise role in Latakia fighting - The Long War Journal". Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  19. ^ "Malhama Tactical, The Fanatics Tactical Guru!". The Firearm Blog. 12 December 2016.
  20. ^ Caleb Weiss (18 January 2018). "New Uighur jihadist group emerges in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  21. ^ "Turkey seeks to isolate Syria Idlib jihadists opposing truce". 3 October 2017 – via www.reuters.com.
  22. ^ "The Campaign to Weaken An Al-Qaeda-Affiliated Group in Syria". 12 September 2017.
  23. ^ a b "Turkey designates Syria's Tahrir al-Sham as terrorist group". 31 August 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
  24. ^ a b "#Syria, Homs – Div Liwa Rijal Allah joins Harakat Tahrir Homs". Yalla Souriya. 9 April 2016.
  25. ^ a b "The Moderate Rebels: A Growing List of Vetted Groups Fielding BGM-71 TOW Anti-Tank Guided Missiles". Hasan Mustafa. 8 May 2015.
  26. ^ https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/09/19/idlib-faces-a-fearsome-future-islamist-rule-or-mass-murder-syria-civil-war-hayat-tahrir-al-sham/
  27. ^ "هجوم مباغت لهيئة تحرير الشام في ريف حلب يسفر عن مقتل 10 عناصر من ميليشيا النجباء العراقية". 12 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Syria war: 'Dozens killed' as jihadists clash in Idlib". BBC News. 14 February 2017.
  29. ^ a b Tweedie, James (1 February 2017). "Syria: Factions jockey for position ahead of new peace talks". BBC News. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  30. ^ a b Mroue, Bassem (14 February 2017). "Clashes between 2 extremist groups kill scores in Syria". Associated Press. Beirut.
  31. ^ a b c d "Nour e-Din a-Zinki defects from HTS, citing unwillingness to end rebel infighting". Syria Direct. 20 July 2017.
  32. ^ BBC Monitoring (12 February 2017). "Tahrir al-Sham: Al-Qaeda's latest incarnation in Syria". BBC News.
  33. ^ "Syria Islamist factions, including former al Qaeda branch, join forces: statement". Reuters. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  34. ^ Akbar Shahid Ahmed (3 March 2017). "Syria Rebels Want Trump To Know They're The Ones Fighting ISIS". huffingtonpost. Al Reis conceded that many anti-Assad Syrians in the north had become close to the Al Qaeda group, now known as Tahrir al-Sham.
  35. ^ a b "Tahrir al-Sham: Al-Qaeda's latest incarnation in Syria". BBC. 28 February 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2018. It appeared to be an attempt to further distance the group from al-Qaeda. But it is not clear how effective that will be, as the last name change failed to convince the international community and the US kept the group on its list of foreign terrorist organisations.
  36. ^ a b Hassan Hassan (26 February 2017). "What Daabul's death says about jihadism in Syria - The National". The National.
    @Terror_Monitor (25 February 2017). "#SYRIA Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (#HTS)..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @weddady (25 February 2017). "The regime General killed in today's..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    "most of victims documented in #Caesar report were tortured to death on the order of this criminal, former head of section 215 Hassan Daboul". Twitter. 25 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  37. ^ i24NEWS. "Ex-Qaida affiliate Jabhat Fateh al-Sham claims Homs attacks which killed dozens".
  38. ^ a b "New component split from "Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham"". Syria Call. 9 February 2018.
  39. ^ a b Ali, Zulfiqar (7 May 2019). "Osama bin Laden: Eight years after his death, where is al-Qaeda?". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  40. ^ a b Reports, CATF. "Al-Qaeda's Grand Plan for Syria Passes Through Hayat Tahrir al-Sham".
  41. ^ "Tahrir al-Sham: Al-Qaeda's latest incarnation in Syria". BBC News.
  42. ^ "Why Syria's al-Qaeda affiliate is no longer on Canada's terror list".
  43. ^ "The Syrian General Conference Faces the Interim Government in Idlib". Enab Baladi. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  44. ^ Syria news Shaam network
  45. ^ a b Petkova, Mariya (25 September 2018). "After the Sochi agreement, HTS is facing internal divisions". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  46. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (20 February 2016). "Aleppo-based rebel groups reportedly unite behind Ahrar al Sham's former top leader". FDD's Long War Journal. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Charles Lister (15 February 2018). "How al-Qa`ida Lost Control of its Syrian Affiliate: The Inside Story – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  48. ^ @ajaltamimi (29 January 2017). "#Syria: One might understand the..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  49. ^ Tomson, Chris (14 March 2017). "VIDEO: Jihadist coalition forms elite unit to combat the Syrian Army". Al-Masdar News.
  50. ^ Charles Lister, Al Qaeda Is Starting to Swallow the Syrian Opposition, Foreign Policy, 15 March 2017
  51. ^ Kyle Orton (6 February 2017). "Analysis: 'Al-Qaeda Reshapes the Insurgency in Northern Syria'". Henry Jackson Society. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017.
  52. ^ Illingworth, Andrew (1 February 2017). "US-led Coalition airstrike targets Carlton Hotel in Idlib city". Al-Masdar News.
  53. ^ Syrian Arab Red Crescent center in Idlib city badly damaged in unclaimed airstrike, SyriaDirect 1 February 2017
  54. ^ Assessing the Claim that the United States Bombed an Aid Headquarters in Syria, Bellingcat February 9, 2017 By Christiaan Triebert
  55. ^ @badly_xeroxed (2 February 2017). "Urgent: Tahrir al-Sham attack #FSA Al..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  56. ^ a b c Orton, Kyle (20 January 2017). "The Coalition Strikes Down Al-Qaeda's Leaders In Syria". Kyle Orton.
  57. ^ "Air strikes kill 12 fighters in Syria's Idlib: monitor". Reuters. 3 February 2017.
  58. ^ a b "Pentagon: 11 al Qaeda terrorists killed in airstrikes near Idlib, Syria | FDD's Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. 8 February 2017.
  59. ^ "Syrians demonstrating collecting "no place for a base in Syria"". Arabi 21. 3 February 2017.
  60. ^ "سوريون ينتقدون رفع صور "هاشم الشيخ" في مظاهرات إدلب". عنب بلدي أونلاين. 3 February 2017.
  61. ^ @Charles_Lister (6 February 2017). "#JFS/#HTS also came under criticism..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  62. ^ a b c d "The Formation of Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham and Wider Tensions in the Syrian Insurgency". Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.
  63. ^ "New video mesaage from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām's Hishām al-Shaykh: "First Words"". Jihadology. 9 February 2017.
  64. ^ "At least 23 were killed today during an attack by the factions and Fateh al-Sham Front in Daraa al-Balad at the city of Daraa". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 12 February 2017.
  65. ^ "Jihadist rebel groups clash in northwest Syria - monitor". Reuters. 13 February 2017.
  66. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Excuses and Warning for the Liwā' al-Āqsā Group"". Jihadology. 13 February 2017.
  67. ^ FNA (15 February 2017). "Jund al-Aqsa executes hundred members of rival groups in Idlib". AhlulBayt News Agency (ABNA).
  68. ^ "Tens of Terrorists Killed, Wounded in Intensified Clashes amongst Rival Groups in Northern Syria". Farsnews.
  69. ^ Popular demonstrations against for Hayat Tahrir al-Sham in the city of Aleppo Atarib Brive. Qasioun News Agency. 19 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  70. ^ Assailants kidnap FSA commander near Atareb, Aleppo, zamanalwsl.net, 21 February 2017
  71. ^ @siteintelgroup (20 February 2017). "Tahrir al-Sham, Ahrar al-Sham, Faylaq..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  72. ^ "Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa". SyriaDirect.
  73. ^ SITE. "Tahrir al-Sham Declare Terminating Liwa al-Aqsa". siteintelgroup.com.
  74. ^ "Syria: Al Qaeda Deputy Killed In Apparent Drone Strike". Stratfor.
  75. ^ "2 Tahrir al-Sham fighters killed by US-led coalition drone near Idlib". Orient News.
  76. ^ Hamdi Alkhshali and Barbara Starr. "Deputy al Qaeda leader killed In Syria". CNN.
  77. ^ "Residents rally against hardline Islamists: 'We're not afraid because we've got nothing to lose'". SyriaDirect.
  78. ^ Hennigan, W. J. (17 March 2017). "U.S. military denies airstrike hit mosque in Syria, following reports of dozens killed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  79. ^ "US insists Al Jinah raid targeted al-Qaeda, not mosque". Al Jazeera. 17 March 2017.
  80. ^ Triebert, Christiaan (16 March 2017). "CONFIRMED: US Responsible for Aleppo Mosque Bombing - bellingcat". bellingcat. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  81. ^ Fadel, Leith (21 March 2017). "US Coalition kills high ranking jihadist commander in Idlib". Al-Masdar News.
  82. ^ "Former Al-Qaeda affiliate confiscates flour at checkpoint: 'We won't give it up'". Syria:direct. 27 March 2017.
  83. ^ a b c d e Petkova, Mariya (1 March 2018). "Where is al-Qaeda in Syria?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  84. ^ "Why arrested victory Front "Suhail Abu tau"". Al-Etihad Press. 4 May 2017.
  85. ^ a b Tomson, Chris (21 May 2017). "Islamist rebel group joins Al-Qaeda franchise in Syria". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  86. ^ a b "باستثناء قائدها جفالة… كتائب (أبو عمارة) تعلن انضمامها لـ (تحرير الشام)". All4Syria.
  87. ^ "Widening clashes between the front and the victory of the Lebanese organization Daesh Jarod Arsal". Al Mayadeen. 27 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017.
  88. ^ "Front victory arrest Abdul Baset Al-Sarout on charges of incitement". Al Etihad Press. 30 May 2017.
  89. ^ ""Battalion driven" and "Islam Brigades" deny Mbaiathma for "Sham edit body"". Al-Nour. 2 June 2017.
  90. ^ "Northern Brigade separates from Sham Legion". All4Syria. 30 May 2017.
  91. ^ Moussaoui, Rana. "Jihadists take control of major Syrian city". Yahoo! News. AFP.
  92. ^ "Hay'at Tahrir al Sham Commits Wide Violations in Idlib Governorate" (PDF). Syrian Network for Human Rights. 21 October 2017.
  93. ^ "Idlib: Tahrir al-Sham arrests 8 fighters fled Madaya town". Zaman al-Wasl. 20 August 2017.
  94. ^ @MousaAlomar (24 February 2017). "عاجل" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    "5 HTS fighters stormed HQs of general and military security branchs in # Homs killed dozens including head of military security". Twitter. 25 February 2017. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "لله در #هيئة_تحرير_الشام، عشرات..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "ﺧﻤﺴﺔ ﺷﺒﺎﻥ ﺷﺠﻌﺎﻥ ﻗﺘﻠﻮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺠﻤﺔ ﺧﺎﻃﻔﺔ..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  95. ^ "Bombings, air strikes in Syria rattle Geneva peace talks". Reuters. 25 February 2017.
    @JohnArterbury (25 February 2017). "Suicide attacks in Homs city kill at..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @C_Military1 (25 February 2017). "#عاجل ارتقاء 30 من رجال الأمن العسكري..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  96. ^ @Rami_Dalati (25 February 2017). "تقبلكم الله وغفر لكم ولكم خالص الدعاء..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @wkaltnbd (26 February 2017). "الذين أقضوا مضجع الأسد وقتلو50عنصر..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  97. ^ @MousaAlomar (27 February 2017). "صافي قطيني ( ابو هريرة ) من خان شيخون..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  98. ^ @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "ماذا نسمي المعارض (الوطني الشريف..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  99. ^ @AJABreaking (25 February 2017). "عاجل" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "رئيس فرع أمن الدولة يلحق برئيس فرع..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    Joscelyn, Thomas (25 February 2017). "Syrian military intelligence official killed in suicide assault in Homs". Long War Journal. Foundation for Defense of Democracies.
    @LongWarJournal (25 February 2017). "Syrian military intelligence official..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  100. ^ @MousaAlomar (25 February 2017). "النظام ينعي عشرات القتلى من جنوده..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  101. ^ @MousaAlomar (25 February 2017). "الاستشهادي تقبله الله ومن غلاوة رئيس..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  102. ^ @MousaAlomar (25 February 2017). "أول خبر كان قبل سبوتنيك وقبل تبني..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  103. ^ @MousaAlomar (24 February 2017). "عاجل" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  104. ^ @MousaAlomar (25 February 2017). "عاجل" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  105. ^ مهنا, ناجي (26 February 2017). "بالأسماء: توثيق مقتل 31 ضباط في تفجير حمص". هيومن فويس.
    المهاجر, أبو يوسف (26 February 2017). "تفاصيل ومعلومات حصرية حول تفجيرات حمص". Twitter. Retrieved 28 February 2017.[permanent dead link]
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (26 February 2017). "أبو يوسف المهاجر -الناطق العسكري باسم..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  106. ^ محمد, حسام (26 February 2017). "تفاصيل ومعلومات حصرية حول تفجيرات حمص". هيومن فويس.
  107. ^ @sameerkakeh (25 February 2017). "منقوووووووووووووووول ما حصل في حمص..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    علي, سمير (25 February 2017). "منقوووووووووووووووول". Facebook. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (26 February 2017). "تقبل تعازي فطائس #عملية_حمص في منزل..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  108. ^ @thomasjoscelyn (26 February 2017). "Syrian opposition sources in Geneva..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  109. ^ @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "في جنيف2 أطلق ثوار درعا معركة..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @mmmlmnmmlnl (25 February 2017). "كادت مفاوضات #جنيف أن تسقط النظام..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  110. ^ @mahmoud_nemah (25 February 2017). "عملية هيئة تحرير الشام أعادت للنفوس..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  111. ^ @Terror_Monitor (27 February 2017). "#YEMEN Pro-#AQAP's #AlMasra Newspaper..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    "New issue of Anṣār al-Sharī'ah in the Arabian Peninsula's newspaper: "al-Masrā #41"". Jihadology. 27 February 2017.
  112. ^ بيان عسكري حول العملية الأمنية في حمص للشيخ/ الفاتح أبو محمد الجولاني - القائد العسكري العام. تحرير الشام. 27 February 2017.
    @hxhassan (27 February 2017). "Jolani says the operation to..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    @RomainCaillet (27 February 2017). "1e apparition d'Abu Muhammad al-..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
    "New video message from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām's Abū Muḥammad al-Jawlānī: "Military Statement About the Blessed Security Operation in Ḥomṣ"". Jihadology. 27 February 2017.
  113. ^ Hassan, Hassan (26 February 2017). "What Daabul's death says about jihadism in Syria". The Nation.
    @hxhassan (27 February 2017). "Tahrir al-Sham will likely refocus on..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  114. ^ عبد الحليم, طارق (27 February 2017). "حسن الضغيم .. وأحداث حمص". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  115. ^ "Tahrir al-Sham claims bombings in Syria's Damascus".
    "Syrian Al-Qaeda affiliate claims twin bombing in Damascus". BBC. 12 March 2017.
  116. ^ At least 40 killed in Damascus bombing targeting Shi'ites Reuters 11 March 2017
  117. ^ Syrian jihadists say responsible for Damascus double bomb attack Reuters 12 March 2017
  118. ^ "Who Is Assassinating Hay'at Tahrir Al-Sham's Leaders?". Syria From Within | Chatham House. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  119. ^ Mona Alami (6 December 2017). "Syria's Largest Militant Alliance Steps Further Away From Al-Qaeda". Syria Deply. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  120. ^ Shelton, Tracey (23 December 2017). "Al Qaeda trying to rebrand as deadly feud rips through leadership". ABC News. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  121. ^ "Hashim al-Sheikh". Counter Extremism Project. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  122. ^ a b "Executive Summary for October 4th, 2017". Syria Deeply. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  123. ^ a b "Edit the Sham show the events of events in the city of Dara Azza West of Aleppo". Qasioun News Agency. 2 October 2017.
  124. ^ The New Arab (5 October 2017). "Syria al-Qaeda affiliate denies Russian strike injured leader Joulani". alaraby. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  125. ^ "The victory attacks Zanki in the countryside of Aleppo and Idleb .. And news of a military alliance to confront them". Al Mayadeen. 10 November 2017.
  126. ^ "Syrian Civil War factions". Google Docs.
  127. ^ "HTS leaves north Homs town following civilian protests". Syria Direct. 14 February 2018.
  128. ^ Joško Barić (28 February 2018). "Syrian War Daily – 28th of February 2018". Syrian War Daily.
  129. ^ "Al-Qaida-linked group in Syria strengthens hold on northwest". Washington Post. Associated Press. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019.
  130. ^ "Russia prepares 'crushing' offensive in Syria". Washington Examiner. 10 June 2019.
  131. ^ "Military Escalation Continues in Northwest Syria". Voice of America.
  132. ^ al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Hayat Tahir al-Sham and al-Qaeda: Affiliates or Foes?". Middle East Forum.
  133. ^ "Syria and Middle East Security, Michael Mulroy Remarks | C-SPAN.org". c-span.org.
  134. ^ "War monitor says 71 fighters killed in unrest in north-west Syria". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  135. ^ "Fierce fighting in Syria's north-west claims more than 100 lives". The National. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  136. ^ a b c Haytham Mouzahem (17 February 2017). "Will major opposition groups face off in Syria?". Al-Monitor.
  137. ^ "New statement from Hay'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Condolences on the Dismounting of Dr. Muḥammad Mursī"". jihadology.net.
  138. ^ "A poll of the population of Idlib .. in light of the deportation of dissidents". All4Syria. 27 August 2017.
  139. ^ Joanna Paraszczuk (22 May 2019). "Mansur Dagestani, Amir of Liwa Muhajireen Wal Ansar, Killed in N. Hama". From Chechnya to Syria.
  140. ^ Caleb Weiss (31 July 2019). "UN: Islamic Jihad Union operates in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  141. ^ "The Last Moments Of A Suicide Bomber In Syria". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  142. ^ Caleb Weiss (12 June 2019). "Foreign jihadists involved in Hama fighting". Long War Journal. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  143. ^ "ISIS deserters form new militia southern Syria - ARA News". ARA News. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  144. ^ "Syria: al Qaeda's New Home". Vice News. 24 January 2014.
  145. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Twitter / Account Suspended". twitter.com.
  146. ^ @OmerOzkizilcik (10 February 2017). "Our work with @badly_xeroxed about..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  147. ^ "Uighur jihadist fought in Afghanistan, killed in Syria - FDD's Long War Journal". FDD's Long War Journal.
  148. ^ @Terror_Monitor (29 January 2017). "#SYRIA Katibat Osoud Al-Rahman,..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  149. ^ @Terror_Monitor (28 January 2017). "#SYRIA 2 #AhrarAlSham Affiliate..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  150. ^ @Terror_Monitor (28 January 2017). "#SYRIA #AhrarAlSham Affiliate 4..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  151. ^ a b c "r/syriancivilwar - [TRANSLATION NEEDED] A long list of factions that have been defecting to #HTS today". reddit.
  152. ^ @Charles_Lister (29 January 2017). "Northern #Syria's "great sorting out"..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  153. ^ @QalaatAlMudiq (29 January 2017). "@QalaatAlMudiq Confirmed: important..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  154. ^ @sayed_ridha (29 January 2017). "More defections from Ahrar al-Sham..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  155. ^ @sayed_ridha (30 January 2017). "Da'wa office official, some random..." (Tweet). Retrieved 30 January 2017 – via Twitter.
  156. ^ @middleeastwars (30 January 2017). "Shahid Mohammed Asfoura battalion..." (Tweet). Retrieved 30 January 2017 – via Twitter.
  157. ^ "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  158. ^ a b "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  159. ^ @archicivilians (30 January 2017). "All reports about #AhrarAlSham groups..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  160. ^ "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  161. ^ @Terror_Monitor (30 January 2017). "#SYRIA #AhrarAlSham Affiliate..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  162. ^ @sayed_ridha (30 January 2017). "Hudhayfa bin al-Yaman Battalion based..." (Tweet). Retrieved 30 January 2017 – via Twitter.
  163. ^ "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  164. ^ a b "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  165. ^ a b c @sayed_ridha (1 February 2017). "Pro-HTS claims of Abo al-Yazid..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  166. ^ @QalaatAlMudiq (1 February 2017). "@QalaatAlMudiq Battalion Jihad..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  167. ^ فيزو, محمد (1 February 2017). "Account suspended". Twitter.[permanent dead link]
  168. ^ "List of Groups and Sjujooch that joined #JaishTahrirShaam is growing fast and will continue to grow InshAllah". Twitter. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.[permanent dead link]
  169. ^ @Terror_Monitor (3 February 2017). "#SYRIA Mujahidi Al-Shamal..." (Tweet). Retrieved 28 February 2017 – via Twitter.
  170. ^ "Alanka on Twitter". Archived from the original on 8 February 2017.
  171. ^ @sayed_ridha (7 February 2017). "Liwa Saraya al-Nasr defects from..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  172. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat Usūd al-Jabal Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 4 February 2017.
  173. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat Fursān al-Khilāfah Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 5 February 2017.
  174. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Jabhat Shuhadā' al-Shām Pledges Allegiance to Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 5 February 2017.
  175. ^ @sayed_ridha (6 February 2017). "Jabhat Shuhada al-Sham in West..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  176. ^ @TahrirSy (5 February 2017). "#Syria #TahrirSouri Jabhet Shuhadaal-..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  177. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat al-Tawḥīd Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 6 February 2017.
  178. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat al-Shahīd Ibrāhīm Qabbānī Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 6 February 2017.
  179. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat Bayt al-Maqdis Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 6 February 2017.
  180. ^ @sayed_ridha (7 February 2017). "Bayt al-Maqdas Battalion which..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  181. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katā'ib Anṣār al-Shām Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 7 February 2017.
  182. ^ @Terror_Monitor (8 February 2017). "#SYRIA #AnsarAlSham Battalion Joins..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  183. ^ @aronlund (10 February 2017). "When Ansar al-Sham defected from..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  184. ^ @Terror_Monitor (8 February 2017). "#SYRIA Abu Asid, Shohda'a Soran, Al-..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  185. ^ @Terror_Monitor (9 February 2017). "#SYRIA Abu Asid, Shohda'a Soran, Al-..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  186. ^ "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter". Archived from the original on 22 February 2017.
  187. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat al-Shahīd Abū Usīd Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 8 February 2017.
  188. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat Āshbāl al-Sunnah Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 9 February 2017.
  189. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katā'ib al-Sayf al 'Umrī Pledges Allegiance to Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 9 February 2017.
  190. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Jabhat al-Ṣādiqīn Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 13 February 2017.
  191. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Liwā' Ahl al-Shām Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 13 February 2017.
  192. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat al-Ṣā'iqah Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 13 February 2017.
  193. ^ @OmerOzkizilcik (20 February 2017). "@OmerOzkizilcik Jaysh al Haq (part of..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  194. ^ @Terror_Monitor (24 February 2017). "#SYRIA #AhrarAlSham Affiliated..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  195. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat al-Ṣadīq Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 23 February 2017.
  196. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "Katībat Abū Talḥah al-Anṣārī Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 21 February 2017.
  197. ^ @SaladinAlDronni (27 February 2017). "FSA "First Regiment" joins Hayat..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  198. ^ "New statement from Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām: "The Military Wing of the First Regiment Joins Hayy'at Taḥrīr al-Shām"". Jihadology. 27 February 2017.
  199. ^ "r/syriancivilwar - Aleppo: One Levant Front Battalion joined Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS)". reddit.
  200. ^ @Terror_Monitor (3 March 2017). "#SYRIA Omar Ja'alok & Mufid..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  201. ^ @Terror_Monitor (3 March 2017). "#SYRIA #AhrarAlSham Faction Defected..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  202. ^ @worldonalert (5 March 2017). "#Hama: The rebel battalion 'Banner of..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  203. ^ a b "Analysis: Insurgents launch major offensive against Assad regime in Hama province - FDD's Long War Journal". FDD's Long War Journal.
  204. ^ "Syrian military intelligence official killed in suicide assault in Homs | FDD's Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. 25 February 2017.
  205. ^ "First Pictures Of The Sunni Foreign Fighters Movement In Iran Affiliated With The HTS In Syria". Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  206. ^ @sayed_ridha (18 May 2017). "هيئة تحرير الشام يعلن تشكيل 'جيش..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  207. ^ a b @AllyOfTruth (24 May 2017). "#AhraralSham Qassem battalion under..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  208. ^ @Trffgg3 (28 May 2017). "Katiba Aswad al Tawheed (active in..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  209. ^ @AllyOfTruth (17 June 2017). "Ajnad al-Sham affiliated "Martyr..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  210. ^ a b @Terror_Monitor (9 July 2017). "#SYRIA #AhrarAlSham Affiliate Badia..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  211. ^ Nimer, Louai (20 July 2017). "The whole Ahrar AlSham Badia Division has defected to HTS. With more than 6 large groups defecting/resigning, AAS has officially lost the warpic.twitter.com/GzCyoKU1PY".[permanent dead link]
  212. ^ @hxhassan (14 July 2017). "Faylaq al-Sham (Muslim Brotherhood-..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  213. ^ @AllyOfTruth (15 July 2017). "Correction: Statement is months old..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  214. ^ @SyrianLense (19 July 2017). "Fajr al Islam group of Ahrar has now..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  215. ^ Dagül, Abdussamad (19 July 2017). "The group called Fajr Al Islam announced their leaving of Ahrar Sham and joining the ranks of Tahrir Sham.pic.twitter.com/uqwjXV58nw".[permanent dead link]
  216. ^ a b c d e f Alanka (20 July 2017). "So far Katibat Abu Mariyan, Liwa Usud al-Islam, Liwa Ahlu Sunnah, Katibat Fajr al-Islam, Saraya al-Farouq, Ghuraba al-Sham, Liwaal-Hijrah".[permanent dead link]
  217. ^ Dagül, Abdussamad (19 July 2017). "The Group called Liwa Al Hijrah announced their leaving of Ahrar Sham and joining Tahrir Sham.pic.twitter.com/I2OYS0UZEn".[permanent dead link]
  218. ^ Dagül, Abdussamad (19 July 2017). "The Group called Nusrat Al Islam announced their leaving of Ahrar Sham and joining Tahrir Sham.pic.twitter.com/HyoaYWxirt".[permanent dead link]
  219. ^ حلب, سهيل (19 July 2017). "I think whole of Nusra Al Islam joined HTS, not only commander. The statement ends with "and I, along with Nusra al Islam, make bay'a.."".[permanent dead link]
  220. ^ @save_ghouta (20 July 2017). "#Idlib #Syria The whole rebel group..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  221. ^ @save_ghouta (20 July 2017). "#Idlib #Syria The rebel group Urim al..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  222. ^ #HTS Quwa al-Markaziyah [Central Forces] refuse to fight #AhrarAlSham and defect 20 July 2017.
  223. ^ @Trffgg3 (21 July 2017). "The Al Hasakah group from Ahrar..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  224. ^ @save_ghouta (21 July 2017). "#Syria #Idlib Rebel group Katibat..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  225. ^ @save_ghouta (21 July 2017). "#Syria #Idlib Rebel group Saraya..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  226. ^ @AbuSulaymanMM3 (21 July 2017). "@AlqalaamENG It doesn't actually say..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  227. ^ Reporting, Fox (21 July 2017). "Al-Fateh Brigade working in the city of Kafr Nabl defect and announce their accession to #HTSpic.twitter.com/Cn4rB8FtDz".[permanent dead link]
  228. ^ @save_ghouta (20 July 2017). "#Idlib #Syria The complete rebel..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  229. ^ @AllyOfTruth (22 July 2017). "Three brigades Usud al-Islam, Khalid..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  230. ^ @worldonalert (22 July 2017). "#Idlib: Rebel brigades Usud al-Islam,..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  231. ^ @worldonalert (22 July 2017). "#Idlib: #Ahrar_al_Sham fighters in..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  232. ^ @Trffgg3 (22 July 2017). "Ahrar battalions in Tarmin join HTS..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  233. ^ @worldonalert (22 July 2017). "#Idlib: Abu Darda Al Islamiya Brigade..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  234. ^ oreusser [@AllyOfTruth] (31 July 2017). "Kataib al-Ukhwat (?) based in Maarat Humrah reportedly defected to #HTS pbs.twimg.com/media/DGEBFPWXkAAHO_Q.jpg" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  235. ^ a b c d "Welcome conflict-news.com - Justhost.com". conflict-news.com.
  236. ^ a b "More jihadist groups defect from Hay'at Tahrir Al-Sham in northern Syria". 18 June 2017.
  237. ^ الشام, أجناد. "#بيان_هامpic.twitter.com/TM0f2U3Yvi". Twitter.com. Retrieved 24 December 2017.[permanent dead link]
  238. ^ "Breaking: Russians kill top Chechen Al-Qaeda leader in Syria". Al Masdar News. 18 December 2017.
  239. ^ Joanna Paraszuk (9 October 2017). "Imarat Kavkaz fighter Askhat Koybaev killed in Abu Dali, Hama". From Chechnya to Syria. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  240. ^ "Syrian War Daily – 1st of January 2018". Syrian War Daily. 1 January 2018.
  241. ^ https://mobile.twitter.com/SyrianEndeavour/status/1029498006737965058
  242. ^ https://i0.wp.com/journalism-now.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/017qndpynh-flywheel.netdna-ssl.comHay%E2%80%99at-Tahrir-al-Sham-a815935ca6fffbe10d8fe45f1d988ead5b8c45b9.jpg
  243. ^ http://www.syriahr.com/en/?p=103619
  244. ^ @imanbrigade (15 August 2017). "#أحرار_الشام #جيش_الإيمان بيان توضيحي..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  245. ^ "Atarib completely surrenders to HTS. The al-Zinki loyal factions in the town, Thuwar al-Sham and Bayariq al-Islam, will be dissolved and members guaranteed no-persecution by HTS.pic.twitter.com/I2iDOUzJ2t". 5 January 2019.
  246. ^ "#Syria #Idlib Al-Tawhid Brigade in Kafarouma village has joined #HTS.pic.twitter.com/JT2KJBWdVg". 11 January 2019.
  247. ^ http://www.aymennjawad.org/2019/09/a-new-hayat-tahrir-al-sham-recruitment-campaign
  248. ^ "Syrian Nusra Front announces split from al-Qaeda". BBC News. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  249. ^ Alex MacDonald (16 February 2016). "Aleppo rebels unite under former Ahrar al-Sham commander". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  250. ^ "Al Qaeda eulogizes Egyptian leader killed in Idlib, Syria | FDD's Long War Journal". longwarjournal.org. 5 March 2017.
  251. ^ Lund, Aron (8 February 2017). "The Jihadi Spiral". Carnegie Middle East Center.
  252. ^ @sayed_ridha (30 January 2017). "Ahrar al-Sham commander of weapon..." (Tweet). Retrieved 30 January 2017 – via Twitter.
  253. ^ "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  254. ^ @sayed_ridha (4 February 2017). "Abo Ya'qub commander in Ahrar al-Sham..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  255. ^ @ajaltamimi (24 February 2017). "Also info on previous Hay'at Tahrir..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  256. ^ @ajaltamimi (24 February 2017). "News from Jabal al-Summaq:new Hay'at..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  257. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (6 October 2015). "Additional Notes on the Druze of Jabal al-Summaq". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi. Update (24 January 2017)
  258. ^ Mona Alami (22 September 2017). "Is this the beginning of the end for Idlib's jihadi groups?". Al-Monitor.
  259. ^ @Charles_Lister (28 January 2017). "#pt: Newly formed "Tahrir al-Sham"..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  260. ^ @Terror_Monitor (30 January 2017). "#SYRIA More Groups Join Hayyat Tahrir..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  261. ^ "Al Maqalaat Pubs on Twitter". Retrieved 30 January 2017.[permanent dead link]
  262. ^ @hxhassan (1 February 2017). "Known names of groups and individuals..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  263. ^ "Trouble in paradise: Jihadist faction defects from Al-Qaeda to Ahrar Al-Sham". 26 June 2017.
  264. ^ @archicivilians (27 February 2018). "#TahrirAlSham (#HTS) forces..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  265. ^ Antonopoulos, Paul (21 March 2017). "FSA-affiliated group joins Al-Qaeda coalition; making it the largest militant group in Syria". Al-Masdar News.
  266. ^ @mhamad_1143 (10 November 2017). "بيان صادر عن لواء الفاروق العامل بريف..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  267. ^ @Syria_Rebel_Obs (9 February 2018). "#SRO - The small but highly..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  268. ^ @IbnSiqilli (11 November 2017). "Syrian rebel group Katibat Usud al-..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  269. ^ "Jaish al-Ahrar leaves Tahrir al-Sham alliance: statement". Zaman al-Wasl. 14 September 2017.
  270. ^ @badly_xeroxed (18 February 2018). "Liwa al-Adiyat of the Badia Sector..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  271. ^ ""تنظيم حراس الدين" اتحاد جديد لتشكيلات القاعدة في سوريا". Step Agency.
  272. ^ @Terror_Monitor (28 January 2017). "#SYRIA 6 Jihadi Scholars Join Newly-..." (Tweet). Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via Twitter.
  273. ^ @Charles_Lister (6 March 2017). "#pt: Prominent #HTS cleric..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  274. ^ Patrick Hoover, Omar Kebbe (22 September 2017). "After Raqqa: The Next Jihadist Stronghold in Syria". Jamestown Foundation.
  275. ^ "Tahrir al-Sham Arrests of Qaeda Leaders Cranks up Zawahiri- Julani Dispute". Asharq Al-Awsat. 30 November 2017.
  276. ^ "Has al-Qaeda Replanted its Flag in Syria?". news.siteintelgroup.com.
  277. ^ TV, OGN (2 February 2017). "Is Tahreer Sham gearing up for a fight with Ahrar?".
  278. ^ Lister, Charles (11 March 2017). "US State Deparment declares that #HTS and all groups that merged into it are now considered Al-Qaeda & thus, HTS = a terrorist organization:pic.twitter.com/8Bixa9bSqq". External link in |title= (help)
  279. ^ a b United States Ambassador to Syria [@USEmbassySyria] (15 May 2017). "HTS is a merger and any group that merges into it becomes part of al-Qa'ida's Syrian network. #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  280. ^ a b Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (30 May 2018). "Canada Gazette, Part 2, Volume 152, Number 11: Regulations Amending the Regulations Establishing a List of Entities". gazette.gc.ca.
  281. ^ "Turkey designates Syria's Tahrir al-Sham as terrorist group". 31 August 2018 – via uk.reuters.com.
  282. ^ "Charities warned that sending aid to Syria's Idlib could be a 'terror offence'". Middle East Eye.
  283. ^ US denies reports Syria rebels Nusra off terror list, Al-Araby, 16 May 2017
  284. ^ United States Ambassador to Syria [@USEmbassySyria] (15 May 2017). "The core of HTS is Nusra, a designated terrorist org. This designation applies regardless of what name it uses or what groups merge into it" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  285. ^ "Confrontation between Turkey, Saudi Arabia Root Cause of Tensions among Terrorist Groups in Syria". Fars News Agency. 9 February 2017.