America First (policy)

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America First refers to a foreign policy stance in the United States that generally emphasizes isolationism.[1] It first gained prominence in the interwar period (1918–1939) and was advocated by the America First Committee, a non-interventionist pressure group against the U.S. entry into World War II.[2] Since 2016, an identically-named campaign slogan and foreign policy that emphasizes withdrawal from international treaties and organizations has been pursued by the administration of US President Donald Trump.[3][4][5][6]

Origins[edit]

"America First" has been used as a slogan by both Democratic and Republican politicians. At the outbreak of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson used the motto to define his version of neutrality as well as journalist William Randolph Hearst.[7] The motto was also chosen by Republican Senator Warren G. Harding during the 1920 presidential election, which he won.[8]

America First is best known as the slogan and foreign policy advocated by the America First Committee, a non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II, which emphasized American nationalism and unilateralism in international relations. The America First Committee's membership peaked at 800,000 paying members in 450 chapters, and it popularized the slogan "America First."[2] While the America First Committee had a variety of supporters in the United States, "the movement was marred by anti-Semitic and pro-fascist rhetoric."[9]

In later periods, the slogan was used by Pat Buchanan, who praised the non-interventionist WWII America First Committee and said "the achievements of that organization are monumental."[10] Buchanan's "call for an America First foreign policy has been compared with the America First Committee."[11]

History under President Trump[edit]

"President Trump's Six Months of America First", a video released by the White House

Donald Trump, who had run against Pat Buchanan in the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries, first revived Buchanan's slogan in a November 2015 op-ed.[12] In its early going, the Trump campaign publicized an article praising the candidate as a "nationalist who seeks to put America first"[13]; campaign manager Corey Lewandowski (who has a forthcoming book with the title[14]) promoted Trump with the phrase[15][16]; and both Sarah Palin[17] and Chris Christie[18] featured it in their endorsements of Trump. Donald Trump later incorporated the slogan into his daily repertoire following a suggestion and historical comparison by David E. Sanger during a New York Times interview in March 2016.[19][20]

In subsequent months, without referencing Pat Buchanan's prior usage or the AFC, candidate Trump promised that "'America First' will be the major and overriding theme" of his administration, and advocated nationalist, anti-interventionist positions;[21][20] following his election to the presidency, America First has become the official foreign policy doctrine of the Trump Administration.[3] It was a theme of Trump's inaugural address, and a Politico/Morning Consult poll released on January 25, 2017 stated that 65% of Americans responded positively to President Trump's "America First" inaugural message, with 39% viewing the speech as poor.[22] In 2017, the Administration proposed a federal budget for 2018 with both Make America Great Again and America First in its title, with the latter referencing its increases to military, homeland security, and veteran spending, cuts to spending that goes towards foreign countries, and 10-year objective of achieving a balanced budget.[23]

The slogan has been criticized by some for carrying comparisons to the America First Committee;[24] however, Trump denied being an isolationist, and said, "I like the expression."[25] A number of scholars (such as Deborah Dash Moore), commentators (such as Bill Kristol) and Jewish organizations (including the ADL and JCPA) criticized Trump's use of the slogan because of its historical association with nativism and antisemitism.[25][26]

Others have said that Trump is not a non-interventionist and never has been.[27][28] Columnist Daniel Larison from The American Conservative writes that "Trump was quick to denounce previous wars as disasters, but his complaint about these wars was that the U.S. wasn't 'getting' anything tangible from them. He didn't see anything wrong in attacking other countries, but lamented that the U.S. didn't 'take' their resources" and that "he never called for an end to the wars that were still ongoing, but talked only about 'winning' them."[29] Trump has made both economic and politically-based critiques and policies aimed at undermining the European Union.[30]

In popular culture[edit]

The policy and its phrasing became a subject of international satire through the Every Second Counts video contest inspired by Dutch comedian Arjen Lubach and launched by German comedian Jan Böhmermann following Trump's inauguration.[31] News satire television programs initially throughout Europe, and later from around the world, comically appealed to Trump to acknowledge their own countries in light of Trump's nationalist slogan, with a narrator employing a similar voice, speech patterns, and exaggerations to those of Trump himself.[32][33] Lubach's initial version, for example, ended by noting that "We totally understand it's going to be America first, but can we just say: The Netherlands second?".[34][35]

In Spike Lee's film BlacKkKlansman (2018), David Duke and white supremacists are portrayed as repeatedly using the "America First" slogan.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Olson, Lynne (2013). Those Angry Days: Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America's Fight Over World War II, 1939–1941. Random House Publishing Group. p. 220, 227,234,242, 243. ISBN 978-0-679-60471-6. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Sarles, Ruth (2003). Kauffman, Bill (ed.). A Story of America First: The Men and Women Who Opposed U.S. Intervention in World War II. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-97512-8.[page needed]
  3. ^ a b "America First Foreign Policy". whitehouse.gov. The White House. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  4. ^ Shapiro, Ari; Daly, Robert (January 23, 2017). "As Trump Adopts 'America First' Policy, China's Global Role Could Change". NPR. Archived from the original on January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  5. ^ "The new nationalism – Trump's world". The Economist. November 19, 2016. Archived from the original on August 24, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  6. ^ "US election 2016: Trump details 'America First' foreign plan". BBC News. April 28, 2016. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  7. ^ Rauchway, Eric (May 6, 2016). "How 'America First' Got Its Nationalistic Edge". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on July 8, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  8. ^ Mikelbank, Peter (March 24, 2018). "Sex Scandals and 'America First': Warren G. Harding Was Donald Trump 1.0". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  9. ^ Bennett, Brian (January 20, 2017). "'America First,' a phrase with a loaded anti-Semitic and isolationist history". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017. While the America First Committee attracted a wide array of support, the movement was marred by anti-Semitic and pro-fascist rhetoric.
    Dunn, Susan (April 28, 2016). "Trump's 'America First' has ugly echoes from U.S. history". CNN. Archived from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017. Seeking to brand itself as a mainstream organization, America First struggled with the problem of the anti-Semitism of some of its leaders and many of its members.
    Powers, Richard Gid (1995). Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism. Free Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-684-82427-2. The America First Committee and Norman Thomas's group tried to maintain their distance from anti-Semites and fascists, but the lunatic fringe of countersubversives was drawn irresistibly to them, wild for the possibility of become part of a powerful mainstream political movement. Gerald L. K. Smith, Elizabeth Dilling, Gerald B. Winrod, William Dudley Pelley, Charles Coughlin, Laura Ingalls, and all of the country's other notorious anti-Semitic anticommunist crackpots joyously raised the temperature of the debate by attacking defense preparations as Jewish inspired and Communist directed.
  10. ^ Buchanan, Patrick J. (October 13, 2004). "The Resurrection of 'America First!'". The American Cause. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
  11. ^ Cox, Michael; Durham, Martin (2000). "The Politics of Anger: The Extreme Right in the United States". In Hainsworth, Paul (ed.). The Politics of the Extreme Right: From the Margins to the Mainstream. London/New York: Pinter. p. 287. ISBN 1-85567-459-9.
  12. ^ Trump, Donald J. (November 10, 2015). "Ending China's Currency Manipulation". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 16, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020. The American people need an administration that will tell them the truth and a president who will put America first. That’s what I intend to do.
  13. ^ Kuhner, Jeffrey T. (July 2, 2015). "The Elites' Problem with Donald Trump: He's Not For Sale" (Press release). World Tribune.
  14. ^ Lewandowski, Corey R.; Bossie, David N. (September 29, 2020). Trump: America First: The President Succeeds Against All Odds.
  15. ^ Outfront. August 17, 2015. CNN. Erin Burnett Outfront.
  16. ^ The Situation Room. November 11, 2015. CNN. The Situation Room.
  17. ^ Blaine, Kyle (January 19, 2016). "So, Uh, Here's The Full Text Of Sarah Palin's Bizarre Trump Speech". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on June 18, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  18. ^ Wolf. February 26, 2016. CNN. Wolf.
  19. ^ Rothman, Lily (March 28, 2016). "The Long History Behind Donald Trump's 'America First' Foreign Policy". Time. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Haberman, Maggie; Sanger, David E.; Trump, Donald (March 26, 2016). "Transcript: Donald Trump Expounds on His Foreign Policy Views". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  21. ^ DelReal, Jose A. (April 27, 2016). "Trump, pivoting to the general election, hones 'America First' foreign policy vision". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  22. ^ Sherman, Jake (January 25, 2017). "Poll: Voters liked Trump's 'America first' address". Politico. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
    Savransky, Rebecca (January 25, 2017). "Majority of Americans approves of Trump's 'America First' message". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  23. ^ Andrade, Juan Pablo (May 24, 2017). "Trump's budget proposal truly puts America first". The Hill. Archived from the original on March 13, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  24. ^ Elving, Ron (January 21, 2017). "Trump Vows Policy Vision Of 'America First,' Recalling Phrase's Controversial Past". NPR. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  25. ^ a b Thomas, Louisa (July 24, 2016). "America First, for Charles Lindbergh and Donald Trump". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
  26. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (January 21, 2017). "A Short History of 'America First'". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
    Nathan-Kazis, Josh (January 20, 2017). "Trump's 'America First' Leaves Jewish Groups Hesitant". The Forward. Archived from the original on January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  27. ^ Richman, Sheldon (March 31, 2017). "Trump Never was a Noninterventionist". CounterPunch. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  28. ^ Krayewski, Ed (March 31, 2016). "Donald Trump is No Non-Interventionist". Reason. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  29. ^ Larison, Daniel (August 23, 2017). "Trump the Hawk". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  30. ^ Borger, Julian (February 10, 2017). "EU foreign policy chief tells Trump not to interfere in Europe's politics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 12, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  31. ^ Domonoske, Camila (February 6, 2017). "If America's No. 1, Who's No. 2? European Nations Compete For The, Uh, Honor". NPR. Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  32. ^ Busis, Hillary (February 7, 2017). "Meet the Men Trolling Trump in Those Viral European Videos". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  33. ^ Boyer, Lauren (January 25, 2017). "Dutch TV Show Trolls Donald Trump For 'America First' Message". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  34. ^ "Click this page. It's Huge. Like Donalds hands. It's the funniest website in the world! Believe us!". Every Second Counts. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  35. ^ Purdom, Clayton (February 6, 2017). "Trump's "America first" slogan parodied as other countries vie to be second". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on August 19, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2019.
  36. ^ "Cannes cheers Spike Lee's raging rebuke of Trump America". Agence France-Presse. May 15, 2018. Archived from the original on May 15, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2019 – via France 24.