2024 United States presidential election

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2024 United States presidential election

← 2020 November 5, 2024 2028 →

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win

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About this image
2024 electoral map, based on 2020 census

Incumbent President

Joe Biden
Democratic



The 2024 United States presidential election will be the 60th quadrennial presidential election, scheduled for Tuesday, November 5, 2024.[1] It will be the first presidential election after electoral votes were redistributed during the 2020 census reapportionment cycle. The incumbent, President Joe Biden, stated in January 2022 his intent to run for reelection with Vice President Kamala Harris as his running mate.[2] As of January 2023, Biden has not formally announced a reelection campaign.[3] In November 2022, former president Donald Trump announced his candidacy for president for a second, nonconsecutive term.[4]

In the United States, general elections follow caucuses and primary elections held by the major parties to determine their nominees. The winner of the 2024 presidential election is scheduled to be inaugurated on January 20, 2025.

Background

Procedure

Article Two of the United States Constitution states that for a person to serve as president, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, be at least 35 years old, and have been a United States resident for at least 14 years. The Twenty-second Amendment forbids any person from being elected president more than twice. Both incumbent president Biden and former president Donald Trump are eligible to seek reelection. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, which is awarded through a process such as a primary election. The primary elections are usually indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The presidential nominee typically chooses a vice presidential running mate to form that party's ticket, which is then ratified by the delegates at the party's convention.

Similarly, the general election in November is also an indirect election, in which voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors then directly elect the president and vice president.[5] If no candidate receives the minimum 270 electoral votes needed to win the election, a contingent election will be held in which the House of Representatives will select the president from the three candidates who received the most electoral votes (this last happened in 1825), and the Senate will select the vice president from the candidates who received the two highest totals (this last happened in 1837). The presidential election will occur simultaneously with House of Representatives elections, Senate elections, and various state and local-level elections.

Both Biden and Trump have indicated that they intend to run for president in 2024, suggesting a potential rematch of the 2020 election, which would be the first rematch since the 1956 United States presidential election.[6] If Trump is elected, he would become the first president since Grover Cleveland in 1892 to win a second non-consecutive term.[7]

Effects of the 2020 census

This will be the first U.S. presidential election to occur after the reapportionment of votes in the United States Electoral College following the 2020 United States census.[8][9] This apportionment of electoral college votes will remain through the 2028 election. Reapportionment will be conducted again after the 2030 United States census.[10]

Potential campaign issues

Abortion

The Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization decision in June 2022, which overturned the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision and permitted U.S. states to fully ban abortion for the first time in nearly 50 years, has made abortion a more significant issue. In the 2024 election, the topic of abortion is expected to play a role in the Republican primary. Potential candidates are divided on the matter, with former Vice President Mike Pence supporting a nationwide ban on abortion, whereas other potential candidates have struck a less aggressive tone and suggested that the matter should remain the decision of state governments.[11]

COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic left behind significant economic effects which could persist into the 2024 presidential election. The high visibility governors received during their responses to the pandemic has been viewed as having given them a boost in possible 2024 contention, in contrast to the significant advantage senators have had in recent cycles.[12][better source needed]

Crime and gun violence

To combat gun violence, President Biden has advocated for an assault weapons ban as well as federal funding to train and deploy more police.[13][14]

Democracy and insurrection threats

Donald Trump did not concede defeat to Joe Biden in the 2020 presidential election, citing unsubstantiated claims of voter fraud, and has continued denying the election results as of 2022.[15][16] Republican officials in the Trump administration and in Congress have supported attempts to overturn the election.[17][18] Concerns have been raised by election security experts that officials who deny the legitimacy of the 2020 presidential election may attempt to impede the voting process or refuse to certify the 2024 election results.

In the 2022 United States elections, the majority of Republican candidates in five battleground states falsely claimed or implied that the 2020 presidential election was illegitimate.[19] Election legitimacy was a major political issue during the 2022 elections, and it is credited for unexpectedly strong Democratic performance that year.[20][21] Nevertheless, according to the New York Times, by November 9, nearly 200 election deniers had been elected to office.[22]

In August 2022, Ali Alexander, who organized one of the many rallies preceding the January 6 United States Capitol attack, stated that he would be returning to the Capitol building in 2025 "for whatever the Congress certifies."[23]

Economy

As of October 17, 2022, a New York Times/Siena College poll indicated that Americans were most concerned about the state of the economy and the rate of inflation.[24]

Democratic Party

Incumbent president Joe Biden has consistently stated that he plans to run for re-election and keep vice president Kamala Harris as his running mate.[2] However, he has yet to officially declare his candidacy. During late 2021, as Biden was suffering from low approval ratings, there was speculation that he would not seek re-election,[25] and some prominent Democrats have publicly urged Biden not to run.[26][27][28] In addition to Biden's unpopularity, many are concerned about his age; he was the oldest person to assume the office at age 78 and would be 82 at the end of his first term. If reelected, he would be 86 at the end of his second term.[29] There has also been speculation that Biden may face a primary challenge from a member of the Democratic Party's progressive faction.[30][31] However, Biden's approval rating slowly recovered throughout 2022, climbing from the low 30s to the high 40s.[32] Additionally, after Democrats outperformed expectations in the 2022 midterm elections, many believed the chances that Biden would run for and win his party's nomination had increased.[33] If Biden is not the nominee in 2024, it will be the first election since 1968 in which an eligible[a] incumbent president was not the eventual nominee of their party after Lyndon B. Johnson, and if he chooses not to seek re-election, it will be the first election since 1928 in which an eligible incumbent president did not seek re-election after Calvin Coolidge.[b]

Republican Party

Donald Trump was defeated by Biden in 2020 and is currently eligible to run again in 2024. Currently he is seeking to become the second president to serve two non-consecutive terms, after only Grover Cleveland (who did so by winning the 1892 United States presidential election).[35][36] Trump is considered an early frontrunner for the Republican presidential nomination, following his 2024 campaign announcement on November 15, 2022.[37] However, there are multiple factors working against Trump: the hearings held by the United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack have damaged public opinion towards him,[38][39] and in 2022 the FBI searched Trump's estate at Mar-a-Lago.[40][41] Although Florida Governor Ron DeSantis has not officially announced a presidential run, he is often seen as a main contender to Trump for the presidency; DeSantis raised more campaign funds in the first half of 2022, and had more favorable polling numbers than Trump by the end of 2022.[42][43][44]

Trump announced in March 2022 that if he runs for re-election and wins the Republican presidential nomination, his former vice president Mike Pence will not be his running mate.[45] If Trump runs against President Biden again, it will be the first presidential rematch since 1956 after Dwight D. Eisenhower successfully ran for reelection against Adlai Stevenson II. Trump filed a statement of candidacy with the Federal Election Commission on November 15, 2022, and announced his candidacy in a speech at Mar-a-Lago the same day.[46][47]

Declared candidates

Name Born Experience Home state Campaign
Announcement date
Ref[48]
Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg
Donald Trump
June 14, 1946
(age 76)
Queens, New York
President of the United States
(2017–2021)

Chairman of The Trump Organization (1971–2017)
Flag of Florida.svg
Florida
Trump 2024 2022 Campaign Logo.png
Campaign
Announced November 15, 2022
FEC filing[49]
[50]

Libertarian Party

Declared

As of January 2023, the following individuals have declared their intent to run for president.

Formed exploratory committee

As of January 2023, the following individuals have announced exploratory committees to look into running for president within the previous six months.

  • Chase Oliver, chair of the Atlanta Libertarian Party and nominee for U.S. Senate in Georgia in 2022[52]

Independents, other third parties, or party unknown

Candidates

Declared intent to run

As of January 2023, the following individuals have declared their intent to run for president.

Potential candidates

Declined to be candidates

Vice presidential speculation

Rapper Kanye West has claimed on Twitter that he has talked with Trump about being his running mate for 2024. West has not said if Trump has accepted or declined his offer, and Trump has not responded to these claims from West.[59]

General election opinion polling

Hypothetical polling
Biden vs. Trump
Aggregate polls
Source of poll
aggregation
Dates
administered
Dates
updated
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/Undecided
[c]
Margin
RealClearPolitics January 14 – February 1, 2023 February 5, 2023 43.3% 45.0% 11.7% Trump +1.7
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
McLaughlin & Associates January 19–24, 2023 1,000 (LV) 43% 48% 9%
Morning Consult January 20–22, 2023 6,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 44% 41% 15%
Emerson College January 19–21, 2023 1,015 (RV) ± 2.5% 41% 44% 15%
Cygnal January 19–20, 2023 2,529 (LV) ± 2.0% 47% 44% 9%
Marquette University January 9–20, 2023 790 (RV) ± 4.0% 40% 40% 20%
Harvard/Harris January 18–19, 2023 2,050 (RV) 41% 46% 13%
YouGov/The Economist January 14–17, 2023 1,314 (RV) ± 3.0% 46% 42% 12%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies January 16, 2023 1,458 (LV) 39% 41% 20%
YouGov/YahooNews January 12–16, 2023 1,028 (RV) ± 2.7% 46% 40% 14%
Morning Consult January 10–12, 2023 6,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 43% 40% 17%
Morning Consult January 6–8, 2023 7,500 (RV) ± 1.0% 44% 41% 15%
WPA Intelligence January 2–8, 2023 1,035 (LV) ± 3.0% 49% 41% 10%
Morning Consult December 31, 2022 – January 2, 2023 8,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 44% 40% 16%
Data for Progress December 22–29, 2022 1,189 (LV) ± 3.0% 47% 45% 8%
YouGov/Yahoo News December 15–19, 2022 1,041 (RV) ± 2.7% 45% 41% 14%
Morning Consult December 16–18, 2022 7,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 43% 41% 16%
Harvard/Harris December 14–15, 2022 1,851 (RV) 40% 45% 15%
Echelon Insights December 12–14, 2022 1,021 (LV) ± 3.7% 46% 44% 10%
McLaughlin & Associates December 9–14, 2022 1,000 (LV) 45% 48% 7%
Morning Consult December 9–11, 2022 7,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 43% 41% 16%
Suffolk University December 7–11, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.1% 47% 40% 13%
Fabrizio Ward/Impact Research December 3–7, 2022 1,500 (RV) ± 2.5% 45% 43% 12%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies December 5, 2022 1,162 (LV) 41% 41% 18%
YouGov/Yahoo News December 1–5, 2022 1,204 (RV) ± 2.6% 45% 42% 13%
Marquette University November 15–22, 2022 840 (RV) ± 4.0% 44% 34% 22%
Emerson College November 18–19, 2022 1,380 (RV) ± 2.5% 45% 41% 14%
Echelon Insights November 17–19, 2022 1,036 (LV) ± 3.8% 42% 45% 13%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies November 17, 2022 1,203 (LV) 43% 42% 15%
Harvard/Harris November 16–17, 2022 2,212 (RV) 42% 44% 14%
Léger November 11–13, 2022 1,007 (A) 36% 33% 31%
Rasmussen Reports November 8–9, 2022 1,767 (LV) ± 2.0% 44% 47% 9%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Democracy Corps/GQR November 6–8, 2022 1,000 (RV) 46% 48% 6%
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 44% 43% 13%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies November 2, 2022 1,084 (LV) 39% 44% 17%
YouGov/Yahoo News October 27–31, 2022 1,172 (RV) ± 2.7% 48% 42% 10%
Benenson Strategy Group October 27–30, 2022 1,000 (V) ± 3.1% 45% 43% 12%
Echelon Insights October 24–26, 2022 1,014 (LV) ± 3.8% 45% 46% 9%
Fabrizio Ward/Impact Research October 22–26, 2022 1,500 (RV) 46% 46% 8%
Suffolk University October 19–24, 2022 1,000 (LV) ± 3.1% 46% 42% 12%
Emerson College October 18–19, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.0% 43% 40% 17%
YouGov/Yahoo News October 13–17, 2022 1,209 (RV) ± 2.7% 46% 44% 10%
McLaughlin & Associates October 12–17, 2022 1,000 (LV) 44% 50% 6%
Rasmussen Reports October 12–13, 2022 1,000 (LV) ± 3.0% 40% 44% 16%
Harvard/Harris October 12–13, 2022 2,010 (RV) 43% 45% 12%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies October 12, 2022 1,110 (LV) 40% 41% 19%
Siena College/The New York Times October 9–12, 2022 792 (LV) 44% 45% 11%
John Zogby Strategies October 5, 2022 1,006 (LV) ± 3.2% 45% 41% 14%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies October 2–3, 2022 1,128 (LV) 43% 41% 16%
YouGov/Yahoo News September 23–27, 2022 1,138 (RV) ± 2.7% 47% 45% 8%
McLaughlin & Associates September 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 45% 49% 6%
Emerson College September 20–21, 2022 1,368 (LV) ± 2.6% 45% 44% 11%
ABC News/The Washington Post September 18–21, 2022 908 (RV) ± 3.5% 46% 48% 6%
Premise September 16–19, 2022 1,703 (A) 51% 49%
Echelon Insights September 16–19, 2022 1,056 (LV) ± 3.8% 47% 44% 9%
Refield & Wilton Strategies September 14–15, 2022 1,163 (LV) 43% 40% 17%
Marquette University September 6–14, 2022 1,282 (RV) ± 3.6% 42% 36% 22%
Siena College/The New York Times September 6–14, 2022 1,399 (RV) 45% 42% 13%
Harvard/Harris September 7–8, 2022 1,854 (RV) 42% 45% 13%
Echelon Insights August 31 – September 7, 2022 1,228 (LV) ± 3.5% 46% 45% 9%
YouGov/Yahoo News September 2–6, 2022 1,247 (RV) ± 2.6% 48% 42% 10%
Premise September 2–5, 2022 1,185 (RV) 51% 49%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies August 28, 2022 1,050 (LV) 40% 42% 18%
Fabrizio Ward/Impact Research August 17–25, 2022 1,313 (RV) 50% 44% 6%
Emerson College August 23–24, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.0% 43% 42% 15%
McLaughlin & Associates August 20–24, 2022 1,000 (LV) 45% 49% 6%
Echelon Insights August 19–22, 2022 1,054 (LV) ± 3.6% 47% 42% 11%
YouGov/Yahoo News August 18–22, 2022 1,185 (RV) 46% 42% 12%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies August 17, 2022 1,156 (LV) 39% 42% 19%
YouGov/Yahoo News July 28 – August 1, 2022 1,152 (RV) 45% 42% 13%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies July 29, 2022 1,094 (LV) 35% 42% 23%
Harvard/Harris July 27–28, 2022 1,885 (RV) 41% 45% 14%
Rasmussen Reports July 26–27, 2022 1,000 (LV) ± 3.0% 40% 46% 14%
Suffolk University July 22–25, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.1% 45% 41% 14%
Emerson College July 19–20, 2022 1,078 (RV) ± 2.9% 43% 46% 11%
Echelon Insights July 15–18, 2022 1,022 (LV) 46% 44% 10%
The Trafalgar Group (R) July 11–14, 2022 1,085 (LV) ± 2.9% 43% 48% 10%
YouGov/Yahoo News July 8–11, 2022 1,261 (RV) 44% 43% 13%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies July 9, 2022 1,078 (LV) 41% 43% 16%
The New York Times/Siena College July 5–7, 2022 849 (RV) ± 4.1% 44% 41% 14%
Harvard/Harris June 28–29, 2022 1,308 (RV) 40% 43% 17%
Emerson College June 28–29, 2022 1,271 (RV) ± 2.7% 39% 44% 17%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 46% 43% 11%
McLaughlin & Associates June 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 44% 49% 7%
Echelon Insights June 17–20, 2022 1,030 (LV) 45% 43% 12%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies June 15, 2022 1,064 (LV) 38% 41% 21%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 10–13, 2022 1,243 (RV) 42% 44% 14%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 30, 2022 1,173 (LV) 38% 42% 20%
Emerson College May 24–25, 2022 1,148 (RV) ± 2.8% 42% 44% 14%
Echelon Insights May 20–23, 2022 1,020 (LV) 45% 44% 11%
YouGov/Yahoo News May 19–22, 2022 1,360 (RV) 44% 42% 14%
Harvard/Harris May 18–19, 2022 1,963 (RV) 42% 45% 13%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 17, 2022 1,120 (LV) 39% 42% 19%
Rasmussen Reports April 28 – May 2, 2022 1,004 (LV) ± 3.0% 36% 50% 14%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 1, 2022 1,096 (LV) 40% 44% 16%
Emerson College April 25–26, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.0% 42% 43% 15%
McLaughlin & Associates April 22–26, 2022 1,000 (LV) 43% 50% 7%
Morning Consult April 22–25, 2022 2,004 (RV) ± 2.0% 45% 44% 11%
InsiderAdvantage (R) April 21–23, 2022 750 (RV) ± 3.6% 43% 47% 10%
YouGov/Yahoo News April 19–22, 2022 1,187 (RV) 43% 41% 16%
Harvard/Harris April 20–21, 2022 1,966 (RV) 43% 45% 12%
Echelon Insights April 18–20, 2022 1,001 (LV) 45% 44% 11%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies April 18, 2022 1,500 (LV) 41% 43% 16%
YouGov/Yahoo News March 31 – April 4, 2022 1,233 (RV) 45% 40% 15%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies April 3, 2022 1,205 (LV) 38% 43% 19%
Marquette Law School March 14–24, 2022 1,004 (A) ± 4.0% 41% 37% 22%
Harvard/Harris March 23–24, 2022 1,990 (RV) 41% 47% 12%
McLaughlin & Associates March 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 46% 49% 5%
Echelon Insights March 18–21, 2022 1,050 (RV) 46% 44% 10%
University of Massachusetts Lowell March 15–21, 2022 873 (RV) ± 3.7% 44% 42% 14%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies March 20, 2022 1,193 (LV) 41% 41% 18%
Emerson College March 18–20, 2022 1,023 (RV) ± 3.0% 42% 45% 13%
YouGov/Yahoo News March 10–14, 2022 1,225 (RV) 47% 39% 14%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies March 8, 2022 1,194 (LV) 40% 42% 18%
Wall Street Journal March 2–7, 2022 1,500 (RV) 45% 45% 9%
Schoen Cooperman Research March 2–6, 2022 800 (LV) 44% 44% 12%
YouGov/Yahoo News February 24–27, 2022 1,532 (A) ± 2.9% 40% 39% 21%
NewsNation February 23–24, 2022 1,046 (RV) 37% 41% 22%
Harvard/Harris February 23–24, 2022 2,026 (RV) 42% 48% 10%
Echelon Insights February 19–23, 2022 1,078 (RV) 45% 43% 12%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies February 23, 2022 1,367 (LV) 42% 38% 20%
McLaughlin & Associates February 16–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 45% 48% 7%
Emerson College February 19–20, 2022 1,138 (RV) ± 2.8% 44% 48% 8%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies February 6, 2022 1,406 (LV) 41% 41% 18%
YouGov/Yahoo News January 20–24, 2022 1,568 (A) ± 2.8% 42% 40% 18%
Morning Consult January 22–23, 2022 2,005 (RV) ± 2.0% 45% 44% 11%
Echelon Insights January 21–23, 2022 1,098 (RV) 47% 43% 10%
Marquette Law School[e] January 10–21, 2022 1,000 (A) 43% 33% 24%
Harvard/Harris January 19–20, 2022 1,815 (RV) 40% 46% 14%
McLaughlin & Associates January 13–18, 2022 1,000 (LV) 44% 49% 7%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies January 8–9, 2022 1,430 (LV) 39% 38% 23%
PMC/John Bolton Super Pac January 6, 2022 1,000 (LV) ± 3.1% 45% 44% 11%
Rasmussen Reports January 5, 2022 1,015 (LV) ± 3.0% 40% 46% 14%
InsiderAdvantage (R) December 17–19, 2021 750 (RV) ± 3.6% 41% 49% 10%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies December 18, 2021 1,411 (LV) 34% 39% 27%
YouGov/Yahoo News December 9–13, 2021 1,558 (A) 47% 41% 12%
Echelon Insights December 9–13, 2021 1,098 (RV) 47% 44% 9%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies December 5, 2021 1,387 (LV) 38% 42% 20%
Harvard/Harris November 30 – December 2, 2021 1,989 (RV) 45% 48% 7%
Rasmussen Reports November 22–23, 2021 1,200 (LV) ± 3.0% 32% 45% 23%
Wall Street Journal November 16–22, 2021 1,500 (RV) 46% 45% 10%
Echelon Insights[permanent dead link] November 12–18, 2021 1,013 (RV) 45% 45% 10%
McLaughlin & Associates November 11–16, 2021 1,000 (LV) 44% 49% 7%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies November 15, 2021 1,500 (RV) 35% 41% 24%
Marquette Law School[f] November 1–10, 2021 1,004 (A) 42% 34% 24%
YouGov/Yahoo News November 4–8, 2021 1,673 (A) 43% 39% 18%
Suffolk University November 3–5, 2021 1,000 (RV) ± 3.1% 40% 44% 16%
Emerson College November 3–4, 2021 1,000 (RV) ± 3.0% 43% 45% 12%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies October 31, 2021 1,387 (LV) 42% 42% 16%
Harvard/Harris October 26–28, 2021 1,578 (LV) 45% 46% 9%
YouGov/Yahoo News October 19–21, 2021 1,704 (A) 43% 40% 17%
Echelon Insights October 15–19, 2021 1,098 (RV) 48% 42% 10%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies October 17, 2021 1,366 (LV) 42% 40% 18%
Selzer and Company/Grinnell College October 13–17, 2021 745 (LV) ± 3.6% 40% 40% 19%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies October 4–6, 2021 1,345 (LV) 43% 41% 16%
Echelon Insights September 17–23, 2021 1,005 (RV) 50% 39% 11%
Rasmussen Reports September 21–22, 2021 1,000 (LV) ± 3.0% 41% 51% 8%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies September 19–20, 2021 1,330 (LV) 42% 40% 18%
McLaughlin & Associates September 9–14, 2021 1,000 (LV) 47% 50% 3%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies September 4–5, 2021 1,357 (LV) 45% 42% 13%
Emerson College August 30 – September 1, 2021 1,200 (RV) ± 2.7% 46% 47% 7%
Rasmussen Reports August 16–17, 2021 1,000 (LV) ± 3.0% 37% 43% 20%
YouGov/Yahoo News July 30 – August 2, 2021 1,552 (A) 47% 37% 16%
PMC/John Bolton Super Pac July 8, 2021 1,000 (LV) 46% 43% 11%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 22–24, 2021 1,592 (A) 47% 35% 18%
YouGov/Yahoo News May 24–26, 2021 1,588 (A) 46% 36% 18%
YouGov/Yahoo News May 11–13, 2021 1,561 (A) 48% 36% 16%
Ipsos/Reuters April 12–16, 2021 1,106 (A) 45% 28% 27%
PMC/John Bolton Super Pac April 3–7, 2021 1,000 (LV) 46% 42% 12%
Biden vs. Trump vs. Andrew Yang
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Andrew
Yang
Forward
Other/
Undecided
Echelon Insights August 19–22, 2022 1,054 (LV) ± 3.6% 43% 39% 8% 10%
Echelon Insights October 15–19, 2021 1,098 (RV) 44% 40% 5% 11%
Biden vs. Trump vs. Matthew McConaughey
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Matthew
McConaughey
Other/
Undecided
The Bullfinch Group August 5–8, 2022 1,008 (RV) ± 3.1% 37% 39% 14% 10%
Echelon Insights June 17–20, 2022 1,030 (RV) 39% 40% 11% 9%
Biden vs. Trump with Liz Cheney as an independent
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Liz
Cheney
Independent
Other/
Undecided
Premise September 2–5, 2022 1,185 (RV) 37% 42% 21%
Echelon Insights August 19–22, 2022 1,054 (LV) ± 3.6% 38% 41% 12% 9%
YouGov/Yahoo News August 18–22, 2022 1,185 (RV) 32% 40% 11% 17%
Biden vs. Ron DeSantis
Aggregate polls
Source of poll
aggregation
Dates
administered
Dates
updated
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Ron
DeSantis
Republican
Other/Undecided
[c]
Margin
RealClearPolitics December 7, 2022 – January 21, 2023 January 22, 2023 41.3% 42.8% 15.9% DeSantis +1.5
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Ron
DeSantis
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult January 20–22, 2023 6,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 41% 43% 16%
Emerson College January 19–21, 2023 1,015 (RV) ± 2.5% 40% 39% 21%
Cygnal January 19–20, 2023 2,529 (LV) ± 2.0% 46% 45% 9%
Marquette University January 9–20, 2023 790 (RV) ± 4.0% 38% 45% 17%
Harvard/Harris January 18–19, 2023 2,050 (RV) 39% 42% 19%
YouGov/The Economist January 14–17, 2023 1,314 (RV) ± 3.0% 43% 43% 14%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies January 16, 2023 1,458 (RV) 40% 38% 22%
YouGov/YahooNews January 12–16, 2023 1,028 (RV) ± 2.7% 44% 42% 14%
Morning Consult January 10–12, 2023 6,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 41% 44% 15%
Morning Consult January 6–8, 2023 7,500 (RV) ± 1.0% 43% 43% 14%
WPA Intelligence January 2–8, 2023 1,035 (LV) ± 3.0% 42% 45% 13%
Morning Consult December 31, 2022 – January 2, 2023 8,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 42% 42% 16%
YouGov/Yahoo News December 15–19, 2022 1,041 (RV) ± 2.7% 43% 43% 14%
Morning Consult December 16–18, 2022 7,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 43% 42% 15%
Harvard/Harris December 14–15, 2022 1,851 (RV) 39% 43% 18%
Echelon Insights December 12–14, 2022 1,021 (LV) ± 3.7% 44% 44% 12%
Morning Consult December 9–11, 2022 7,000 (RV) ± 1.0% 42% 42% 16%
Suffolk University December 7–11, 2022 1,000 (RV) ± 3.1% 43% 47% 10%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies December 5, 2022 1,162 (LV) 42% 40% 18%
YouGov/Yahoo News December 1–5, 2022 1,204 (RV) ± 2.6% 44% 44% 12%
Marquette University November 15–22, 2022 840 (RV) ± 4.0% 42% 42% 16%
Emerson College November 18–19, 2022 1,380 (RV) ± 2.5% 43% 39% 18%
Echelon Insights November 17–19, 2022 1,036 (LV) ± 3.8% 42% 45% 13%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies November 17, 2022 1,203 (LV) 43% 39% 18%
Harvard/Harris November 16–17, 2022 2,212 (RV) 43% 43% 14%
Léger November 11–13, 2022 1,007 (A) 33% 35% 32%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Democracy Corps/GQR November 6–8, 2022 1,000 (RV) 45% 49% 6%
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 40% 40% 20%
Marquette University September 6–14, 2022 1,282 (RV) ± 3.6% 43% 38% 19%
Echelon Insights August 31 – September 7, 2022 1,228 (LV) ± 3.5% 46% 41% 13%
YouGov/Yahoo News July 28 – August 1, 2022 1,152 (RV) 45% 42% 13%
Echelon Insights July 15–18, 2022 1,022 (LV) 45% 41% 14%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 45% 42% 13%
Rasmussen Reports April 28 – May 2, 2022 1,004 (LV) ± 3.0% 35% 46% 19%
Marquette Law School March 14–24, 2022 1,004 (A) ± 4.0% 38% 33% 29%
Morning Consult January 22–23, 2022 2,005 (RV) ± 2.0% 44% 39% 17%
Marquette Law School[g] January 10–21, 2022 1,000 (A) 41% 33% 26%
Harvard/Harris November 30 – December 2, 2021 1,989 (RV) 43% 36% 21%
Emerson College August 30 – September 1, 2021 1,200 (RV) ± 2.7% 48% 36% 16%
Echelon Insights April 16–23, 2021 1,043 (RV) 45% 28% 27%
Ipsos/Reuters April 12–16, 2021 1,105 (A) 41% 25% 34%
Biden vs. DeSantis with Trump as an independent
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Ron
DeSantis
Republican
Donald
Trump
Independent
Other/
Undecided
Echelon Insights August 19–22, 2022 1,054 (LV) ± 3.6% 46% 23% 21% 10%
Biden vs. Ted Cruz
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Ted
Cruz
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 43% 37% 20%
Morning Consult January 22–23, 2022 2,005 (RV) ± 2.0% 45% 39% 16%
Ipsos/Reuters April 12–16, 2021 1,105 (A) 46% 24% 30%
Biden vs. Nikki Haley
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Nikki
Haley
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 39% 33% 28%
Ipsos/Reuters April 12–16, 2021 1,107 (A) 44% 19% 37%
Biden vs. Mitt Romney
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Mitt
Romney
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 36% 33% 31%
Echelon Insights March 18–21, 2022 1,050 (RV) 41% 35% 24%
Emerson College August 30 – September 1, 2021 1,200 (RV) ± 2.7% 42% 23% 35%
Biden vs. Mike Pence
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Mike
Pence
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Cygnal January 19–20, 2023 2,529 (LV) ± 2.0% 45% 41% 14%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 40% 39% 21%
Marquette Law School March 14–24, 2022 1,004 (A) ± 4.0% 37% 33% 29%
Morning Consult January 22–23, 2022 2,005 (RV) ± 2.0% 44% 42% 14%
Biden vs. Liz Cheney
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Liz
Cheney
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Emerson College November 18–19, 2022 1,380 (RV) ± 2.5% 37% 19% 44%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 32% 25% 43%
Premise September 2–5, 2022 1,185 (RV) 42% 58%
Biden vs. Chris Christie
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Chris
Christie
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 39% 30% 31%
Biden vs. Tom Cotton
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Tom
Cotton
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 37% 31% 32%
Biden vs. Josh Hawley
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Josh
Hawley
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 38% 31% 31%
Biden vs. Larry Hogan
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Larry
Hogan
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 35% 28% 37%
Biden vs. Kristi Noem
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Kristi
Noem
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 37% 31% 32%
Biden vs. Mike Pompeo
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Mike
Pompeo
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 39% 32% 29%
Biden vs. Marco Rubio
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Marco
Rubio
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 39% 37% 24%
Biden vs. Rick Scott
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Rick
Scott
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 38% 33% 29%
Biden vs. Tim Scott
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Tim
Scott
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult November 2–7, 2022 3,980 (RV) ± 3.0% 37% 32% 31%
Biden vs. generic Republican
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Democratic
Generic
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Morning Consult April 22–25, 2022 2,004 (RV) ± 2.0% 39% 46% 15%
Morning Consult January 22–23, 2022 2,005 (RV) ± 2.0% 37% 46% 17%
Kamala Harris vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Kamala
Harris
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
McLaughlin & Associates January 19–24, 2023 1,000 (LV) 40% 50% 10%
Harvard/Harris January 18–19, 2023 2,050 (RV) 40% 48% 12%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies January 16, 2023 1,458 (RV) 39% 42% 19%
Harvard/Harris December 14–15, 2022 1,851 (RV) 40% 46% 14%
McLaughlin & Associates December 9–14, 2022 1,000 (LV) 42% 49% 9%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies December 5, 2022 1,162 (LV) 41% 43% 16%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies November 17, 2022 1,203 (LV) 43% 43% 14%
Harvard/Harris November 16–17, 2022 2,212 (RV) 40% 47% 13%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Redfield & Wilton Strategies November 2, 2022 1,084 (LV) 38% 45% 17%
McLaughlin & Associates October 12–17, 2022 1,000 (LV) 42% 51% 7%
Harvard/Harris October 12–13, 2022 2,010 (RV) 38% 49% 13%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies October 12, 2022 1,110 (LV) 40% 42% 18%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies October 2–3, 2022 1,128 (LV) 41% 41% 18%
McLaughlin & Associates September 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 42% 51% 7%
Refield & Wilton Strategies September 14–15, 2022 1,163 (LV) 40% 42% 18%
Harvard/Harris September 7–8, 2022 1,854 (RV) 40% 47% 13%
Redfield & Wilton Strategies August 28, 2022 1,050 (LV) 40% 43% 17%
McLaughlin & Associates August 20–24, 2022 1,000 (LV) 43% 51% 6%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies August 17, 2022 1,156 (LV) 37% 43% 20%
YouGov/Yahoo News July 28 – August 1, 2022 1,152 (RV) 45% 44% 11%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies July 29, 2022 1,094 (LV) 36% 42% 22%
Harvard/Harris July 27–28, 2022 1,885 (RV) 40% 47% 13%
Echelon Insights July 15–18, 2022 1,022 (LV) 46% 44% 10%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies July 9, 2022 1,078 (LV) 39% 43% 18%
Harvard/Harris June 28–29, 2022 1,308 (RV) 39% 45% 16%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 44% 45% 11%
McLaughlin & Associates June 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 42% 50% 8%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies June 15, 2022 1,064 (LV) 37% 43% 20%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 30, 2022 1,173 (LV) 40% 46% 14%
Harvard/Harris May 18–19, 2022 1,963 (RV) 40% 47% 14%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 17, 2022 1,120 (LV) 37% 44% 19%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies May 1, 2022 1,096 (LV) 39% 43% 18%
McLaughlin & Associates April 22–26, 2022 1,000 (LV) 41% 51% 8%
Harvard/Harris April 20–21, 2022 1,966 (RV) 41% 47% 12%
Echelon Insights April 18–20, 2022 1,001 (LV) 43% 47% 10%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies April 18, 2022 1,500 (LV) 39% 45% 16%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies April 3, 2022 1,205 (LV) 35% 44% 21%
Harvard/Harris March 23–24, 2022 1,990 (RV) 38% 49% 13%
McLaughlin & Associates March 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 42% 50% 8%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies March 20, 2022 1,193 (LV) 39% 42% 19%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies March 8, 2022 1,194 (LV) 37% 42% 21%
Schoen Cooperman Research March 2–6, 2022 800 (LV) 43% 47% 10%
Harvard/Harris February 23–24, 2022 2,026 (RV) 39% 51% 10%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies February 23, 2022 1,367 (LV) 41% 37% 22%
McLaughlin & Associates February 16–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 43% 50% 7%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies February 6, 2022 1,406 (RV) 40% 43% 17%
Harvard/Harris January 19–20, 2022 1,815 (RV) 39% 49% 12%
McLaughlin & Associates January 13–18, 2022 1,000 (LV) 40% 51% 9%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies January 8–9, 2022 1,430 (LV) 41% 41% 18%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies December 5, 2021 1,387 (LV) 38% 42% 20%
Harvard/Harris November 30 – December 2, 2021 1,989 (RV) 41% 50% 9%
McLaughlin & Associates November 11–16, 2021 1,000 (LV) 42% 50% 8%
Redfield and Wilton Strategies November 15, 2021 1,500 (RV) 33% 42% 25%
McLaughlin & Associates October 14–18, 2021 1,000 (LV) 46% 49% 4%
Rasmussen Reports September 21–22, 2021 1,000 (LV) ± 3.0% 39% 52% 9%
McLaughlin & Associates September 9–14, 2021 1,000 (LV) 47% 49% 4%
McLaughlin & Associates July 29 – August 3, 2021 1,000 (LV) 46% 49% 5%
Echelon Insights June 18–22, 2021 1,001 (RV) 47% 40% 13%
McLaughlin & Associates June 16–20, 2021 1,000 (LV) 45% 49% 6%
McLaughlin & Associates May 12–18, 2021 1,000 (LV) 45% 49% 6%
Kamala Harris vs. Ron DeSantis
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Kamala
Harris
Democratic
Ron
DeSantis
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Harvard/Harris January 18–19, 2023 2,050 (RV) 40% 43% 17%
Harvard/Harris December 14–15, 2022 1,851 (RV) 40% 45% 15%
Harvard/Harris November 16–17, 2022 2,212 (RV) 39% 42% 19%
November 8, 2022 2022 midterm elections
Harvard/Harris September 7–8, 2022 1,854 (RV) 41% 38% 21%
Harvard/Harris July 27–28, 2022 1,885 (RV) 41% 40% 19%
Echelon Insights July 15–18, 2022 1,022 (LV) 43% 42% 15%
Harvard/Harris June 28–29, 2022 1,308 (RV) 39% 37% 23%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 45% 43% 12%
Harvard/Harris May 18–19, 2022 1,963 (RV) 41% 38% 20%
Harvard/Harris April 20–21, 2022 1,966 (RV) 42% 38% 20%
Harvard/Harris March 23–24, 2022 1,990 (RV) 40% 38% 22%
Harvard/Harris February 23–24, 2022 2,026 (RV) 41% 39% 20%
Harvard/Harris January 19–20, 2022 1,815 (RV) 39% 40% 21%
Harvard/Harris November 30 – December 2, 2021 1,989 (RV) 42% 37% 21%
Harvard/Harris October 26–28, 2021 1,578 (RV) 40% 42% 18%
Echelon Insights April 16–23, 2021 1,043 (RV) 43% 31% 26%
Kamala Harris vs. Mike Pence
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Kamala
Harris
Democratic
Mike
Pence
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Echelon Insights June 18–22, 2021 1,001 (RV) 45% 36% 19%
Kamala Harris vs. Mike Pompeo
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Kamala
Harris
Democratic
Mike
Pompeo
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Harvard/Harris October 26–28, 2021 1,578 (RV) 41% 41% 18%
Kamala Harris vs. Tim Scott
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Kamala
Harris
Democratic
Tim
Scott
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Harvard/Harris October 26–28, 2021 1,578 (RV) 39% 42% 19%
Pete Buttigieg vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Pete
Buttigieg
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
McLaughlin & Associates April 22–26, 2022 1,000 (LV) 39% 49% 12%
Harvard/Harris November 30 – December 2, 2021 1,989 (RV) 37% 48% 15%
Hillary Clinton vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Hillary
Clinton
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
McLaughlin & Associates March 17–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 41% 51% 8%
Schoen Cooperman Research March 2–6, 2022 800 (LV) 43% 46% 11%
McLaughlin & Associates February 16–22, 2022 1,000 (LV) 43% 50% 7%
Echelon Insights January 21–23, 2022 1,098 (RV) 43% 44% 13%
McLaughlin & Associates January 13–18, 2022 1,000 (LV) 41% 51% 8%
Bernie Sanders vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Bernie
Sanders
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
Emerson College July 19–20, 2022 1,078 (RV) ± 2.9% 40% 45% 15%
Morning Consult April 22–25, 2022 2,004 (RV) ± 2.0% 42% 43% 15%
Phil Murphy vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Phil
Murphy
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
McLaughlin & Associates April 22–26, 2022 1,000 (LV) 33% 49% 18%
Gavin Newsom vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Gavin
Newsom
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 45% 43% 12%
Gavin Newsom vs. Ron DeSantis
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Gavin
Newsom
Democratic
Ron
DeSantis
Republican
Other/
Undecided
YouGov/Rose Institute October 11–26, 2022 5,050 (RV) ± 3.0% 49% 51%
YouGov/Yahoo News June 24–27, 2022 1,239 (RV) 43% 42% 15%
Jerome Segal vs. Donald Trump
Poll source Date Sample
size[d]
Margin
of error
Jerome
Segal
Democratic
Donald
Trump
Republican
Other/
Undecided
John Zogby Strategies October 5, 2022 1,006 (LV) ± 3.2% 40% 39% 21%

Timeline

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Under the 22nd Amendment, incumbent (and former) presidents since 1951 have been ineligible for re-election after two elected terms (or one elected term and more than half of another term).
  2. ^ Some erroneously claim that the 1968 election is the most recent in which the incumbent president did not seek re-election. In fact, then-president Lyndon B. Johnson did briefly run for re-election, although he dropped out after only narrowly winning the first primary in New Hampshire.[34] A similar situation unfolded in 1952, when Harry Truman also contested the New Hampshire primary, losing it to Estes Kefauver and suspending his campaign as a result. In comparison, then-president Calvin Coolidge did not mount any kind of re-election campaign in 1928, thus making the 1928 race the most recent in which the incumbent president chose to retire.
  3. ^ a b Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Key:
    A – all adults
    RV – registered voters
    LV – likely voters
    V – unclear
  5. ^ Archived January 28, 2022, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Archived November 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Archived January 28, 2022, at the Wayback Machine

References

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  3. ^ Alex Gangitano (November 9, 2022). "Biden teases 2024 announcement early next year". The Hill. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  4. ^ Singman, Brooke (November 7, 2022). "Donald Trump announces 2024 re-election run for president". Fox News. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  5. ^ "US Election guide: how does the election work?". The Daily Telegraph. November 6, 2012. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  6. ^ Megerian, Chris (October 17, 2022). "For Biden and Trump, 2022 is 2020 sequel — and 2024 preview?". AP News. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  7. ^ Baker, Peter (December 2, 2020). "Trump Hints at Another Act in Four Years, Just Like Grover Cleveland". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 9, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  8. ^ McArdle, Megan (May 21, 2015). "2016 Might Look Safe to Democrats. But 2024?". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  9. ^ Janda, Kenneth (2013). The Challenge of Democracy: American Government in Global Politics. Wadsworth. p. 218. ISBN 978-1133602309.
  10. ^ Neale, Thomas (2012). The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
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  19. ^ Getahun, Hannah (October 30, 2022). "Election deniers could win vital races in the midterms. Experts worry that some could refuse to certify the 2024 election if the GOP candidate loses". Business Insider. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  20. ^ Corasaniti, Nick; Epstein, Reid J.; Weisman, Jonathan (November 9, 2022). "Election Denial Didn't Play as Well as Republicans Hoped". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
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