Argentina–Mexico relations

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Argentine–Mexican relations
Map indicating locations of Argentina and Mexico

Argentina

Mexico

Argentina–Mexico relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Argentine Republic and the United Mexican States. Both nations are members of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, G-20 major economies, Latin American Integration Association, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the United Nations.

History[edit]

Mexican President Adolfo López Mateos on a state visit to Argentina meeting with Argentine President Arturo Frondizi in Buenos Aires; 1960.

Both Argentina and Mexico share a common history in the fact that both nations were once part of the Spanish Empire. During the Spanish colonial period, Mexico was then known as Viceroyalty of New Spain and the capital being Mexico City while Argentina was at first governed from the Viceroyalty of Peru in Lima and in 1776, Spain created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata where the capital was established in Buenos Aires. In 1810, both Argentina and Mexico declared their independence from Spain with each nation obtaining independence in 1816 and 1821, respectively.

The first official diplomatic contract between the newly independent nations was in 1824 when Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria sent a letter to the government of Argentina stating "America [continent] has one cause: its unity and independence."[1] In 1880, Argentina sent its first resident consul to Mexico and in 1891, Mexico reciprocated the gesture and sent its first resident consul to Argentina.[1]

In May 1914, Mexico and the United States were on the verge of declaring war on each other over the Tampico Affair. At the time Argentina, along with Brazil and Chile belonged to the ABC nations group. In order to prevent war between Mexico and the United States; diplomats from the three South American nations met with officials from Mexico and the United States in Niagara Falls, Canada, to prevent a war between them. The peace conference ended in success and war was adverted.

In 1927, Argentina and Mexico elevated their diplomatic missions to that of embassies. Since then, diplomatic relations between the two nations have continued unabated. In 1960, Mexican President Adolfo López Mateos became the first Mexican head-of-state to pay a state visit to Argentina. In 1985, President Raúl Alfonsín was the first Argentine head-of-state to pay an official visit to Mexico. Since then, there have been several presidential visits between both nations respectfully. During the 1970s, Argentina was ruled by military generals which targeted anybody who did not support them. During the Dirty War, several thousand Argentine citizens fled the country and sought asylum in Mexico.[2] In 1982, Argentina and the United Kingdom declared war on each other for the Falkland Islands (known also as the Malvinas). Mexico remained neutral on Argentina's claims to the islands during the war, however, today it supports Argentina's eventual possession of the islands.[3]

Recently both nations have advocated for increased bilateral trade and closer interaction between Mercosur (which Argentina is a part of) and the Pacific Alliance (which Mexico is a part of). In February 2017, Presidents Enrique Peña Nieto and Mauricio Macri held a telephone conversation, in which President Macri highlighted the closeness and friendship between both nations, and expressed Argentina's support for Mexico against the position adopted by the Government of the United States under President Donald Trump towards Mexico.[4]

State visits[edit]

Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto along with Argentine President Mauricio Macri during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires; December 2018.

Presidential visits from Argentina to Mexico[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Presidential visits from Mexico to Argentina[12][13][14][15][16][17]

Bilateral agreements[edit]

Both nations have signed numerous bilateral agreements such as an Agreement of Cooperation for the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy; Agreement on the Mutual Recognition for Degrees, Diplomas and Academic Degrees of Higher Education; Agreement on Air Transport; Agreement of Economic Cooperation; Agreement on Economic and Social Planning; Agreement on the Transfer of Convicted Nationals and Compliance with Criminal Sentences; Agreement of Cooperation for the Fight against the Abuse and Illicit Trafficking of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances; Agreement for Touristic Cooperation; Agreement for Technical and Scientific Cooperation; Agreement of Cooperation in Cinematographic Co-production; Agreement for the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments; Agreement to Avoid Double Taxation and Prevent Tax Evasion in Income Tax Matter coming from the operation of Ships and Aircraft in International Transport; Agreement for Cultural and Educational Cooperation; Agreement Concerning Reciprocity in the use of Satellites and the Transmission and reception of signals from satellites for the provision of Satellite Services; Cooperation Treaty on Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters; Extradition Treaty; Agreement of Cooperation, Mutual Administrative Assistance and Exchange of Information in Customs Matters and an Agreement to Avoid Double Taxation and to Prevent Tax Evasion Regarding Taxes on Income and Equity.[4]

Transportation[edit]

There are direct flights between Argentina and Mexico with Aerolíneas Argentinas and Aeroméxico.

Trade relations[edit]

Over the years, two-way trade between Argentina and Mexico has increased substantially. In 2018, trade between the two nations totaled US$1.9 billion.[18][19] Argentina's exports to Mexico include: aluminum, cowhide (leather), medicine and raw minerals. Mexico's exports to Argentina include: automobiles and parts, electronics (mobile phones) and chemical based products. Between 1999–2017, Argentine companies invested over US$6 billion in Mexico, making Argentina the 14th largest foreign direct investor in Mexico.[4] Over 34 Argentine companies operate in Mexico with several multinational Argentinian companies operating in Mexico such as Bridas Corporation, Gupo Arcor and Techint. Between 2005–2013, Mexico invested over US$3.8 billion in Argentina. Several multinational Mexican companies operate in Argentina such as América Móvil, Cemex and Grupo Bimbo; among others.[4]

Resident diplomatic missions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b History of diplomatic relations between Mexico and Argentina (in Spanish)
  2. ^ Inmigracion Argentina en Mexico (in Spanish)
  3. ^ US-Latin bond survives Falklands war
  4. ^ a b c d Bilateral agreements between Mexico and Argentina (in Spanish)
  5. ^ President of Argentina visits Mexico; 1985 (in Spanish)
  6. ^ "Visitas de mandatarios sudamericanos a México (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  7. ^ Mandatarios de países que asistieron a la primera reunión cumbre Iberoamericana, Guadalajara, México, 18 y 19 de Julio, 1991. (in Spanish)
  8. ^ Visita de Estado del Presidente de la República Argentina (in Spanish)
  9. ^ Visita Oficial de Trabajo a México del Presidente Fernando de la Rúa (in Spanish)
  10. ^ Esperan en Argentina que Kirchner anime ingreso de México al Mercosur (in Spanish)
  11. ^ Cancela Cristina Fernández visita a México (in Spanish)
  12. ^ "Viaje del presidente De la Madrid por América Latina (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  13. ^ Las relaciones con los países latinoamericanos-Echeverría en Argentina (in Spanish)
  14. ^ V Informe de Gobierno del Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Carlos Salinas de Gortari (in Spanish) Archived 2015-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Gira Internacional a Sudamérica del Presidente Ernesto Zedillo (in Spanish)
  16. ^ Permisos concedidos al Presidente de la República Vicente Fox Quesada para ausentarse del territorio nacional (in Spanish)
  17. ^ Viajes realizados al extranjero por el C. Felipe Calderón (in Spanish)
  18. ^ Mexican Ministry of the Economy: Argentina (in Spanish)
  19. ^ "Bilateral trade between Mexico and Argentina (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  20. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Mexico (in Spanish)
  21. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Argentina (in Spanish)