1802 Birthplace of Western New York
The Right Place. The Right Time.
|Named for||Batavia, Netherlands|
|• City Council|
|• Total||5.28 sq mi (13.67 km2)|
|• Land||5.20 sq mi (13.46 km2)|
|• Water||0.08 sq mi (0.21 km2) 1.14%|
|Elevation||892 ft (272 m)|
|• Density||3,002.89/sq mi (1,159.33/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0943150|
Batavia is a city in and the county seat of Genesee County, New York, United States. It is near the center of the county, surrounded by the Town of Batavia, which is a separate municipality. Batavia's population as of the 2020 census was 15,600. The name Batavia is Latin for the Betuwe region of the Netherlands, and honors early Dutch land developers. In 2006, a national magazine, Site Selection, ranked Batavia third among the nation's micropolitans based on economic development. The New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) passes north of the city. Genesee County Airport (GVQ) is also north of the city.
The city hosts the Batavia Muckdogs baseball team of the Perfect Game Collegiate Baseball League, at Dwyer Stadium (299 Bank Street). The Muckdogs formerly were an affiliate of the Miami Marlins. They won the 2008 New York Penn League Championship.
The city's UN/LOCODE is USBIA.
Holland Land Company
The current City of Batavia was an early settlement in what is today called Genesee Country, the farthest western region of New York State, comprising the Genesee Valley and westward to the Niagara River, Lake Erie, and the Pennsylvania line. The tract purchased in western New York (the Holland Purchase) was a 3,250,000 acre (13,150 km2) portion of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase that lay west of the Genesee River. It was purchased in December 1792, February 1793, and July 1793 from Robert Morris, a prominent Revolutionary banker, by the Holland Land Company, a consortium of Dutch bankers.
The village of Batavia was founded in 1802 by resident Land Agent Joseph Ellicott, under the authorization of Paul Busti of the Holland Land Company. Batavia, New York, was named by Paul Busti in honor of the Batavian Republic (1795–1806), a republican government of the Netherlands and home of the investors of the Holland Land Company.
One of the provisions of the sale was that Morris needed to settle the Indian title to the land, so he arranged for his son Thomas Morris to negotiate with the Iroquois at Geneseo, New York in 1797. About 3,000 Iroquois, mostly Senecas, arrived for the negotiation. Seneca chief and orator Red Jacket was adamantly against the sale, but his influence was thwarted by freely distributed liquor and trinkets given to the women. He acquiesced and signed the Treaty of Big Tree, in which the tribe sold their rights to the land except for a small portion for $100,000. Mary Jemison, known as The White Woman of the Genesee, who was captured in a raid and married her Seneca captor, was an able negotiator for the tribe and helped win more favorable terms. In the negotiations Horatio Jones was the translator and William Wadsworth provided his unfinished home. The land was then surveyed under the supervision of Joseph Ellicott, a monumental task and the biggest land survey ever attempted to that time.
Ellicott, as agent for the company, established a land office in Batavia in 1802. The entire purchase was named Genesee County in 1802, with Batavia as the county seat. The company sold off the purchase until 1846, when the company was dissolved. The phrase "doing a land office business", which denotes prosperity, dates from this era. The office is a museum today, designated a National Historic Landmark. Ellicott lived in Batavia for many years although he thought Buffalo would grow to be larger. Batavia has a major street named after him (Ellicott Street), as well as a minor street (Ellicott Avenue), and a large monument in the heart of the city. Batavia was incorporated as a village in 1823.
The present counties of western New York were all laid out from the original Genesee County, and the modern Genesee County is but one of many. But the entire area as a region is still referred to as Genesee Country. Thus, Batavia was the core from which the rest of western New York was opened for settlement and development.
Masonic Lodge scandal
A scandal erupted in Batavia in 1826, when William Morgan was offended by the local Masonic Lodge (Western Star Chapter R. A. M. No. 33 of Le Roy, New York), and threatened to expose the lodge's secrets. He was arrested on a minor charge, then released when his charge was paid, into the company of several men, with whom he went, apparently unwillingly. It was developed later that the men were Masons, and they carried him to Fort Niagara, where he was held captive and then disappeared. Although the Masons claimed he was only bribed to cease publication and leave the area forever, public sentiment was that he was murdered. No conviction was ever obtained. His captors were only charged and convicted with his abduction.
The event roused tremendous public furor and anti-Mason sentiment. Anti-Masonry was a factor in politics for many years afterward, leading to the creation of the Anti-Masonic Party, as well as religion. Many Methodist Episcopal clergy had joined the Masons, and this was one of the reasons the Free Methodist Church separated.
The Erie Canal in 1825 bypassed Batavia, going well to the north at Albion and Medina, enabling Buffalo and Rochester to grow much faster. With the sale of the western part of the state completed, Batavia became a small industrial city in the heart of an agricultural area. It became known for the manufacture of tractors, agricultural implements, sprayers and shoes. It also was a tool and die making center for industries in other areas.
The largest manufacturer, Johnston Harvester Company came into being in 1868. In 1910, the business was acquired by Massey-Harris Co. Ltd, and became a subsidiary of that Canadian company, founded by Daniel Massey in 1847.
Batavia grew rapidly in the early 20th century, receiving an influx of Polish and Italian immigrants. The City of Batavia was incorporated in 1915.
Batavia is part of what has become known as The Rust Belt. In recent years much of the heavier industry left for other areas of the US, or abroad, and according to U.S. Census data there has been a gradual but consistent decline in the city's population from 1960 forward.
The construction of the Buffalo Federal Detention Facility, a federal immigration detention center next to the airport has provided more jobs in the area, as well as expansion of the airport, including lengthening the runway to accommodate larger aircraft in 2005. Inmates at the detention center have included terrorism suspects, such as Nabil Ahmed Farag Soliman, who embarked on a hunger strike in 1999 after two and a half years in federal detention.
In August 2012, Muller Quaker Dairy broke ground on what was to be one of the largest yogurt manufacturing plants in the United States, and employed 170 people in December 2015. Muller Quaker Dairy is a joint venture between PepsiCo and the Theo Muller Group. On December 10, 2015, the closure of the yogurt plant was announced with the additional news that the facility would be sold to the Dairy Farmers of America cooperative.
Geography and climate
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 5.2 square miles (13.6 km2), of which 5.2 square miles (13.4 km2) is land and 0.1 square mile (0.2 km2) (1.14%) is water. The city also sits directly along the 43rd parallel north.
This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Batavia has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfa" or "Dfb" on climate maps.
|Climate data for Batavia, New York (1991–2020)|
|Average high °F (°C)||31.0
|Daily mean °F (°C)||23.4
|Average low °F (°C)||15.8
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.47
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||23.0
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 16,256 people, 6,457 households, and 3,867 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,133.9 people per square mile (1,209.3/km2). There were 6,924 housing units at an average density of 1,334.8 per square mile (515.1/km2). The city's racial makeup was 90.23% White, 5.43% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.06% from other races, and 1.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.45% of the population.
There were 6,457 households, of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.1% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.2% had someone living alone who was at least 65 years old. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.01.
23.4% of the city's population were under the age of 18, 8.7% were from age 18 to 24, 29.0% were from age 25 to 44, 20.2% were from age 45 to 64, and 18.6% were age 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
The city's median household income was $33,484, and the median family income was $42,460. Males had a median income of $32,091 versus $23,289 for females. The city's per capita income was $17,737. About 10.2% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.
- The first business incubator in the United States, the Batavia Industrial Center, was started in Batavia.
- John Elway, quarterback of the Super Bowl champion Denver Broncos, hit his first professional home run at Dwyer Stadium while playing minor league baseball.
- In March 1926, over 1,000 people turned out to hear Helen Keller speak at the high school at the time.
- On September 3, 1993, a tornado tore through Batavia, killing two people.
- On the night of August 3, 1994, Amtrak's westbound Lake Shore Limited derailed near Batavia, and fourteen of the train's eighteen cars went off the tracks. There were no fatalities.
- Governor George Pataki made Batavia the New York State "Capital for A Day" on Wednesday, July 25, 2001.
- Batavia was used as a filming location for the 1987 comedy road film, Planes, Trains and Automobiles.
- Terry A. Anderson, journalist From 1985 to 1991, Anderson was held captive in Lebanon by Hezbollah partisans, and his sister, Peggy Say, became an ardent campaigner for his release.
- Thom Beers, TV producer
- David Bellavia, Iraq War veteran
- Albert Brisbane (1809–1890), socialist writer and newspaper publisher
- Charles H. Burke, former US Congressman from South Dakota
- Daniel Burling, former New York State Assemblyman
- Albert G. Burr, United States Representative
- Paolo Busti, principal agent of the Holland Land Company
- William L. Carpenter, naturalist and geologist
- Trumbull Cary, former New York State Senator
- Ralph Chandler, former Rear Admiral of the United States Navy
- Ralph Chapin, contributor to Rochester Zen Center
- William Henry Comstock, businessman and politician
- Barber Conable, political leader and World Bank president, was a former resident.
- James Crossen Jr. (1826-1890), founder of James Crossen-Cobourg Car Works, Irish-born Canadian railway car and street car builder
- Albert G. Dow, former New York State Senator
- Benjamin Ellicott, former US Congressman
- David Ellicott Evans, former US Congressman
- Marc Ferrari, guitar player for the band Keel
- John Fisher, former industrialist and US congressman from New York
- Teal Fowler, ice hockey player
- John Gardner, novelist, literary critic, and university professor
- Augustus Hall, former US Congressman from Iowa, Chief Justice of Nebraska Territory
- Robert Haney, Wisconsin politician and businessman
- Stephen Hawley, New York State Assemblyman
- Ronald E. Hermance Jr., former financial executive
- David C. Johnson, composer
- Bill Kauffman, political journalist and author
- George W. Lay, former US Congressman
- Samuel D. Lockwood, former Illinois Attorney General, Secretary of State, Supreme Court Justice
- Thomas C. Love, former US Congressman
- Vincent Maney, former MLB player
- Krista Marie, Member of the country band, The Farm
- Paula Miller, former member of Virginia House of Delegates
- William Morgan, his book on Freemasonry and his disappearance in 1826 sparked an anti-Masonic movement in America
- Thomas David Morrison, Canadian doctor and exiled Mayor of Toronto 1838–1843
- James C. Owens Jr., naval aviator
- Dean Richmond, from 1864 to 1866, president of the New York Central
- Julian Sidney Rumsey, former Mayor of Chicago
- Albert Smith, former US Congressman
- Phineas L. Tracy, former US Congressman
- J. C. Tretter, NFL Player
- Emory Upton, United States Army General during the Civil War
- Seth Wakeman, former US Congressman
- Isaac Wilson, former US Congressman
- Mary Elizabeth Wood, Librarian and missionary
In popular culture
- Author John Gardner, a Batavia native, set his novels The Resurrection (1966) and The Sunlight Dialogues (1972) in 1960s Batavia.
- Native Batavian Bill Kauffman, a political writer and columnist, has a book, Dispatches from the Muckdog Gazette (2002), about the city. Author F. Scott Fitzgerald references Batavia in his novel, Tender Is the Night (1934)
- Popular authors Stephen King and Peter Straub mention or set parts of their novel, The Talisman (1983), in the city.
- Batavia was also referenced in The Simpsons Season 8 episode "The Twisted World of Marge Simpson", when the first order to Marge's pretzel business after securing the protection of the local mafia comes from the Meat Packers Union Hall in Batavia.
- Batavia’s minor league baseball team is referenced in the 2001 major motion picture “Summer Catch,” which stars Jessica Biel.
Environmental Risk Assessment
Toxics Release Inventory
In Batavia, there are multiple companies ranging from food products to manufacturing that release toxic chemicals on a regular basis. The following data comes from the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 2020, these facilities were responsible for 1,522,366 pounds of waste. Of this number, a total of 53,610 pounds was released on land, or into the air and water of the surrounding areas without being managed properly. These oversights in waste management can cause toxic chemicals to leech into the surrounding environment and become toxic to the individuals living there. Of these facilities, 4 are indicated by the EPA to release chemicals that could pose a threat to people in the surrounding communities. The risk indication comes from an RSEI score higher than zero, which signifies a possibility of harm and contamination. These companies include the following:
- Graham Corporation
- HP Hood LLC
- Chapin International
- US Chrome Corporation of New York
In total, these companies accounted for 29,724 pounds of the 53,610 pounds of contaminants released in Batavia in 2020, totaling 55.44% of the year's chemical releases. The top 5 contaminants by weight that caused an elevated RSEI score in 2020 are as follows:
If consumed in toxic amounts, either rapidly or slowly over time, these chemicals can cause a multitude of negative health effects in residents surrounding these facilities. Among this list, nickel compounds have been found to be associated with cancer, hematological, immunological, and respiratory complications, manganese has been linked to neurological complications, and lead has been linked to cancer, cardiovascular, developmental, hematological, neurological, renal, and reproductive complications. This is just a short list of all of the possible risks of exposure so independent research is recommended. It is important to note, however, that the very presence of these compounds in released materials does not directly correlate with human ingestion, and that there are many safety measures in place to ensure that this is the case.
Each facility listed above is located inside or on the outer boundary of residential areas. In these areas, the population density of lower-income residents, as well as residents of color, is higher than in the areas that do not contain any facilities that potentially toxic chemicals. This trend seemingly holds true in most urban areas. As stated before, the placement of these facilities can have a large impact on the individuals who surround them. Throughout the United States, people of color and people living in impoverished conditions are more likely to live in areas hosting facilities that release toxic chemicals. This disparity accounts for a large difference in the health outcomes of the people in these neighborhoods, including increased asthma rates in children of color compared to their white counterparts, and many other adverse effects.
- "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 19, 2022. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
- "Census - Geography Profile: Batavia city, New York". Archived from the original on December 2, 2021. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
- "Genesee County webpage". Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
- Deckert, Andrea (March 3, 2006). "Batavia development efforts spotlighted". Rochester Business Journal. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
- "Batavia Muckdogs". Archived from the original on January 28, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- History of Batavia, New York "Village of Batavia" in Our County and Its People: A Descriptive and Biographical Record of Genesee County, New York (1899)
- "SOLIMAN v US". US 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. July 11, 2002. Archived from the original on March 6, 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- Siegal, Nina (January 31, 2000). "After two years in deportation fight, a hunger strike". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- PepsiCo Break Ground on Major New US Yogurt Production Facility Archived August 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. FoodIngredientsFirst. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- "Batavia savoring yogurt plant". Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- "Dairy Farmers of America to buy Batavia's Muller Quaker plant". Archived from the original on August 6, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Climate Summary for Batavia, New York". Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- "NOAA NCEI U.S. Climate Normals Quick Access". NOAA. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2023.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- About Batavia
- "National Weather Service Buffalo, New York – Western New York Weather History (September 3)". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- Mahoney, Joe. "Gov't Going Out to People - of Batavia". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Thanksgiving classic 'Planes, Trains and Automobiles' filmed in Batavia: Behind the scenes".
- "Bust of Anderson Finds New Home at Batavia High". The Buffalo News. April 9, 1993. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
A bust of former hostage Terry Anderson, consigned to a cluttered storeroom a few months ago after standing in the Genesee Country Mall during much of his captivity, is headed for a place of honor in Batavia High School. Anderson's classmate Stephen M. Hawley, to whom he had entrusted the bust, chose to donate it to the school from which they both graduated in 1965.
- Kiesewetter, John (February 19, 2002). "Terry Anderson talks tough". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- "Thom Beers". Original Productions. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "David Bellavia". militarytimes.com. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- Morris Hillquit, History of Socialism in the United States. Revised Fifth Edition. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1910; pg. 79.
- "Charles H. Burke". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "Albert G. Burr". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "Paolo Busti". New York Heritage. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "Trumbull Cary". history.rays-place.com/. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Ralph Chandler". The Generations Network. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Ralph Chapin". thebatavian.com/. October 19, 2009. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "William Henry Comstock". The Canadian album. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (December 2, 2003). "Barber B. Conable, 81, Congressman and Bank Chief, dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- "James Crossen-Cobourg Car Works". cobourghistory.ca. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Benjamin Ellicott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "David Ellicott Evans". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "FISHER, John, (1806–1882)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Teal Fowler". hockeyDB.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "John Gardner". pabook.libraries.psu.edu/. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Augustus Hall". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Stephen Hawley". assembly.state.ny.us/. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Bill Kauffman". Front Porch Republic. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "George W. Lay". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Samuel D. Lockwood". lawpracticeofabrahamlincoln.org. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Thomas C. Love". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Vincent Maney". .baseball – Reference . Com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "The Farm's Krista Marie". Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Paula Miller". dela.state.va.us/. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "William Morgan". masonicinfo.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Thomas David Morrison". University of Toronto/Université Laval. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "James C. Owens, Jr". history.navy.mil. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Dean Richmond". onlinebiographies.info. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "Albert Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Phineas L. Tracy". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Green Bay Packers: JC Tretter". Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
- "Emory Upton". battlefields.org. Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
- "Seth Wakeman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 2, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Isaac Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- "Mary Elizabeth Wood". britannica.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
- Kauffman, Bill (March 4, 2003). Dispatches from the Muckdog Gazette. Macmillan. ISBN 9780805068542. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- Mascarenhas, Michael; Grattet, Ryken; Mege, Kathleen (September 1, 2021). "Toxic Waste and Race in Twenty-First Century America". Environment and Society. 12 (1): 108–126. doi:10.3167/ares.2021.120107. S2CID 239669473. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
- L, Mott (September 1, 1995). "The disproportionate impact of environmental health threats on children of color". Environmental Health Perspectives. 103 (6): 33–35. doi:10.1289/ehp.95103s633. PMC 1518919. PMID 8549485.
- "Batavia Daily Herald (Newspaper)". Internet Archive. 1859. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- City of Batavia official website
- Batavia Business Improvement District
- AM-1490 WBTA – Batavia radio station, only licensed radio station between Rochester and Buffalo
- The Daily News, Batavia's only daily newspaper
- The Batavian, online-only news site
- Early history of Batavia region
- Holland Land Office Museum
- Historic Batavia: A City Revealed (images and audio)
- "Tocqueville in Batavia", segment from C-SPAN's Alexis de Tocqueville Tour