List of massacres in Nigeria

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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in over the past number of years in Nigeria (numbers may be approximate):

List[edit]

Political violence[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Tiv Riots 1960-1964 Benue valley, Northern region, now Benue State Unknown number of victims Occurred during protests for the creation of Benue state from the Northern region]][citation needed]
Anti-Igbo pogroms July and August 1966 Northern Nigeria 8000-30,000[1] Targeted killings of Igbo people in Northern Nigeria in revenge for the coup of January 15, 1966.[2]
Asaba massacre 1967-10-07 Asaba, Delta State Up to 500 men[3] Occurred during Biafran Civil War[4][5]
Ugep Massacre 1975-12-24 Ugep, Cross River State 65> Occurred after soldiers accused towns people of murdering a drunk soldier[6]
Bakolori Massacre 1980-4-28 Bakolori, Zamfara State 380 The government of the defunct Sokoto state wanted to build a dam in Bakolori, and offered to resettle the people. They refused and the police moved in to forcefully resettle them.[7]
Umuechem Massacre 1990-11-1 Umuechem, Rivers State ~85 After a protest at Shell's office by youths of the town demanding for electricity, water, roads and compensation following environmental degradation, the police moved in an massacred the town.[8]
Odi massacre 1999-11-20 Odi, Bayelsa State 43[9]-2,500[10] Nigerian military attacked the village of Odi, as part of the Conflict in the Niger Delta.
2000 Kaduna riots 2000-02-21 to 2000-05-23 Kaduna 2,000[11][12]–5,000[13] Religious riots between Christians and Muslims over the introduction of sharia law in Kaduna State, start of the religious riots phase of the Sharia conflict in Nigeria.
2001 Jos riots 2001-09-07 to 2001-09-17 Jos 500–5000[14] Religious riots between Christians and Muslims.
Zaki Biam Massacre 2001-10-20 to 2001-10-24 Benue State Over 200[15] Attack by the Nigerian Army avenging the kidnapping and killing of 19 soldiers by suspected Tiv militia[16]
Miss World riots 2002-11-22 Kaduna 200+[17] Inter-religious riots that started on 22 November in Kaduna, along with many houses of worship being burned by religious zealots. Cause: article in Thisday about the 2002 Miss World beauty contest (to be held in Abuja), in which Muslims took offence.
Yelwa massacre 2004-02 to 2004-05 Yelwa, Shendam and Kano c. 975[18] Religiously motivated killings between Christians and Muslims.
Muhammad cartoons crisis 2006-02-18 Maiduguri 50+[19] The international crisis reached the Nigerian city of Maiduguri, in which over 50 people were killed and many buildings destroyed or damaged by rioting Muslims, outraged because of cartoons about Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.
2008 Ogaminana massacre 2008-02-26 Ogaminana, Kogi State over 50 ...police descended on Ogaminana at 8.30 pm on February 26, killing and brutalizing mostly elderly men, women and children in a reprisal attack that has sent shock and outrage throughout the country.[20]
2008 Jos riots 2008-11-28,29 Jos 381[21] Religious riots between Christians and Muslims over the result of a local election.
2009 Boko Haram uprising 2009-07 Maiduguri, Bauchi, Potiskum, Wudil 1,000+[22] Islamic militants killed over a thousand people between 26 and 29 July; during the violence, Christians were killed for refusing to convert to Islam[23]
2010 Jos riots 2010 Jos 992 Religious rioting; victims were mostly Christians killed by Muslims[24]
2011 Abuja United Nations bombing 2011-08-26 Abuja 116[25] 312 injured; Boko Haram attacked a United Nations compound[25]
2011 Damaturu attacks 2011-11-04 Damaturu 100-150[26] Islamic militants associated with Boko Haram attacked police stations, churches, and banks
December 2011 Nigeria clashes 2011-12 Maiduguri and Damaturu 68+[27] Islamic militants associated with Boko Haram clashed with security forces between 22 and 23 December
December 2011 Northern Nigeria attacks 2011-12-25 Madalla 41+[28] 73 injured; Muslim militants bombed a Catholic church during Christmas mass
January 5–6, 2012 Nigeria attacks 2012-01-05,06 Mubi, Yola, Gombi, and Maiduguri 37+[29] Islamic terrorists attacked churches and Christian businesses; Boko Haram claimed responsibility
January 20, 2012 Nigeria attacks 2012-01-20 Kano 185[30] Islamic terrorists attacked government installations including police stations and barracks, Immigration offices etc.; Boko Haram claimed responsibility
April 2012 Kaduna bombings 2012-04-08 Kaduna 38[31] Islamic terrorists bombed a church on Easter[31]
June 2012 Kaduna church bombings 2012-06-07 Kaduna, Wusasa, and Sabon Gari 12[32]-19[33] 80 injured; Islamic terrorists bombed three churches
Deeper Life Church shooting 2012-08-07 Okene 19[34] Islamic militants attacked a church; the pastor was among the dead
December 2012 shootings in Northern Nigeria 2012-12-25 Abuja 27[35][36] Islamic militants attacked a church on Christmas Day; afterwards the church was set on fire
2013 Baga massacre 2013-04-19,20 Baga, Borno 228+[37] Identity of the perpetrators remains unclear; some blame the Nigerian military while others blame the Islamic terrorist group Boko Haram[38]
Yobe State school shooting 2013-07-06 Mamudo government secondary school 30[39] Suspected Boko Haram terrorists killed at least 41 children and one teacher[40]
Gujba college massacre 2013-09-29 Gujba Yobe school 50[41] At 1:00 a.m. suspected gunmen from Boko Haram entered the male dormitory in the College of Agriculture in Gujba, Yobe State, Nigeria, killing at least forty-four students and teachers.[39]
Kawuri massacre 2014-01-11 Konduga Local Government, Borno State 85[42] Attack by Boko Haram
February 2014 Konduga massacre 2014-02-11 Konduga, Borno 39 About 39 people are believed to have been killed in an attack by Islamist militants on a Nigerian town.

Local residents said the attack on Konduga, Borno, lasted several hours, beginning shortly before sundown with the arrival of gunmen in 4x4 trucks. A mosque and more than 1,000 homes were razed to the ground, residents said.[43]

Federal Government College Buni Yadi attack 2014-02-25 Federal Government College Buni Yadi, Yobe State 59 Islamist gunmen killed 59 students at a boarding school in Yobe State.[44]
April 2014 Abuja attacks 2014-04-14 Bus Stand, Abuja, Nigeria 71 Two bombs exploded in a crowded bus station in the outskirts of Abuja, Nigeria.[45]
2014 Gamboru Ngala massacre 2014-05-06 Gamboru, Borno, Nigeria 300+[46] Militants attacked at night and set houses ablaze. When people tried to escape, they were shot dead.[47]
Gwoza massacre 2014-06-02 Gwoza, Borno, Nigeria 200-300[48] Boko Haram attack on Christian villagers
2014 Kano bombing 2014-06-23 Kano, Nigeria 200+ Dozens of people were killed in a bomb blast at Kano State School of Hygiene. The blast was attributed to militant group Boko Haram by the locals.[49]
Zaria Quds Day massacres 2014-07-25/26 Zaria, Kaduna State 34 [50]
2015 Baga massacre 2015-01-03,04,05,06,07 Baga, Borno At least 100, over 2,000 "unaccounted for"
2015-2016 Killing of Biafran Protesters 2015-08-30 to 2016-02-09 Several including Onitsha and Aba, Igboland 80+ Over 80 protesters agitating for the secession of the Biafran region from Nigeria have been killed en masse by Nigerian security operatives, while more than 400 others have been arrested, detained or imprisoned[51]
2015 Zaria massacre 2015-12-12,13 Zaria, Kaduna State 700-1000 Nigerian army open fire on the Shiite minority when they were conducting a religious procession.[52]
Lekki massacre 2020-10-20

6:50pm

Lekki Toll Gate, Lagos State More than 12 dead, hundreds severely injured according to Amnesty International, disputed by government.[53][54] Also, few people were still missing days after the massacre. A development which backed up the claim by eyewitnesses that the army took some corpses after the shooting. Nigerian army opened fire on peaceful protesters at the Lekki Toll Gate while they were peacefully seated, singing the National anthem and proudly waving their flags.
Koshebe massacre 2020-11-28 Jere, Maiduguri, Borno State 76 Boko Haram fighters massacred 76 farmers. The attacks were carried out in retribution for farmers cooperating with the Nigerian military.[55]

Bandit attacks[edit]

Date Location Deaths Notes
2019-05-21 Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State 23 23 people were killed in a retaliatory attack by bandits on Tunga and Kabaje villages in Kaura Namoda LGA, after the death of their suspected ally.[56][57]
2019-06-09 Maru, Zamfara State 16 16 people celebrating Eid al-Fitr were killed by unidentified bandits in Kanoma community of Maru LGA.[58][59]
2019-06-08,09 Rabah, Sokoto State 25 Kalhu, Tsage and Geeri villages in Rabah LGA were attacked by bandits during the night. The attack went on till morning, killing 25 people.[60][61]
2019-06-09 Satiru, Sokoto State 18 Satiru village of Sokoto state was attacked by bandits, killing 18 people.[62][63]
2019-06-09 Shiroro, Niger State 47 confirmed dead Eight farming and herding villages in Shiroro LGA were attacked on 9 June by bandits, who also stole 525 cattle. Niger State Emergency Management Agency confirmed finding 47 corpses. Permanent Secretary of Niger State for cabinet and Security, Aliyu Isah Ekan, claimed only 12 have been killed.[64][62] Senator David Uamru had claimed 70 were killed.[65]
2019-06-14 Shinkafi, Zamfara State 34 Police confirmed deaths of 34 people in a bandit attack on Tungar Kafau and Gidan Wawa in Shinkafi LGA.[66]
2020-04-18 Katsina State 47 Mass murders and robberies in three locations.
2020-05-03,05 Plateau State 4 Messiah College High School was closed due to COVID-19, but the attackers stormed the on-campus home of the school's leader, Rev. Bayo James Famonure. He was shot in the head, while his wife was shot in the back and his two children were shot in the feet. They survived the wounds. Four Christians were ambushed on their motorcycles and killed in Adu village.[67]
2021-06-03 Kebbi state 88 Cattle thieves attacked seven villages killing 88 people.[68]

Herder-farmer conflicts and communal conflicts[edit]

Date Location Deaths Perpetrator Notes
2018-06-25 Plateau State 86 Christian farmers and Muslim herders Riots in Nigeria between Muslim herders and Christian farmers. Total 86 dead.[69]
2018-10-19 Kaduna State 55 Christian Adara and Hausa Muslim youths A market dispute led to the deaths of two people. In return a communal conflict erupted, Adaras attacked Hausa, killing dozens. The riots left a total of 55 people dead.[70]
2019-01-16 Guma, Benue State Unknown Jukun and Tiv attackers Many people were killed amidst a communal conflict between Jukun and Tiv people in Guma LGA of Benue State.[71][72]
2019-01-28 Zamfara State 7 herders Vigilantes Seven herders were burnt by a team of vigilantes alongside their cows.[73]
2019-02-04 Zamfara State 26 Herders (suspected) 7 villages in Zamfara State were attacked and 26 killed in suspected revenge for killing of seven herders a week before.[73]
2019-02-10,11 Kajuru, Kaduna State 141 (130 Fulani and 11 Adara) Fulani herdsmen and Adara militia 2019 Kaduna State massacre: Part of the communal violence leading up to the 2019 election. The government said 130 Fulani were killed,. 11 Adara were also killed. Miyetti Allah said 66 Fulani were buried and 65 remain missing.[74][75][76][77]
2019-02-20 Ebete, Agatu, Kaduna State 17 Fulani herdsmen 17 people were killed in an attack by Fulani herdsmen on Ebete in Agatu LGA of Benue State.[78][79]
2019-02-26 Karamai, Kajuru, Kaduna State 40 Adara Fulani herdsmen At least 29 people were reported to be killed in an attack in Karamai community of Kajuru. The attack was suspected to be from Fulani in retaliation to the earlier violence where Fulani settlements were attacked. The governor confirmed a few days later that the death toll had risen to 40.[80][81]
2019-03-02 Gwer West, Benue State 16 farmers Fulani herdsmen Herdsmen killed 16 in an attack on Gwer West LGA. The government blamed the attack on allegations of theft of cows by livestock guards made by the military. Residents said the herdsmen brought along many cattle and took over their lands for grazing after killing people.[82][83][84][85]
2019-03-07 Bassa, Kogi State 20 Bassa Kwomu Egburra Mozum militia 20 Bassa Kwomu were killed in an attack by an Egburra Mozum militia in Bassa LGA, Kogi State.[86][87]
2019-03-10 Aungwan Barde, Kajuru, Kaduna State 16-35 Adara Fulani herdsmen The police have put the death toll at 16 in attack by suspected Fulani herdsmen. However, the Adara Development Association has claimed an upwards of 35 killed.[88]
2019-03-10 Birnin Gwari, Kaduna State 17 Unknown 17 vigilantes were ambushed and killed by unidentified gunmen in the mainly Muslim area of Birnin Gwari as they stole cattle.[89][90][91]
2019-03-11 Maro, Kajuru, Kaduna State 16-52 Adara Fulani herdsmen The police have put the death toll at 16 in an attack by suspected Fulani herdsmen in Kajuru. However, the Adara Development Association has claimed an upwards of 52 killed in Inkirimi and Dogonnoma villages in Maro. Another version of the attack by a source claimed 46 people were killed in Aungwan Gamu. The police have however not confirmed the claims.[92][88]
2019-03-16 Nandu-Gbok, Sanga LGA, Kaduna State 10 Adara Fulani herdsmen 10 people were confirmed killed in Nandu-Gbok village of Sanga LGA after an attack by suspected Fulani herdsmen. Residents suspect it is in revenge for an earlier attack where they say at least 11 cows and 28 sheep belonging to Fulani were slaughtered in the same area before the election.[93][94]
2019-03-17 Biase, Cross Rivers State 4 Ikwo militias Four people were killed in an attack on communities of Biase LGA of Cross River State by Ikwo warlords in revenge for burning down of their communities.[95][96]
2019-03-18 Agatu, Benue State Several Agbaduma people Militia hired by Egba, Abogbe and Ologba Several persons were killed during a communal conflict that erupted over ownership of lands. The police has stated that militiamen hired by Egba, Abogbe and Ologba people attacked the Okokolo area inhabited by Agbaduma people.[97][98]
2019-03-19 Guma, Benue State 5-10 Fulani herdsmen The Nigerian police have said five people were recorded as having died in a suspected herdsman attack in Tse Ioreleegeb village, part of Guma LGA of Benue State. The Guma LGA chairman has claimed 10 were killed[99][100]
2019-03-19 Khana, Rivers State 5 Iceland group (suspected) Five people were confirmed to have been killed by suspected Iceland group members in a cult attack on Kono Boue in Khana LGA. The cause is suspected to be retaliation for killing of their member.[101][102]
2019-03-26 Jos North, Plateau State 5 Christian and Muslim youth Intercommunal violence occurred between Christian and Muslim youth. According to a resident, after the discovery of two dead boys from Angwan Miango over the past week at the border between it and Rikkos, a Hausa community, the people went on reprisal killings against Hausas.[103][104] Five people were killed as a result in the ensuing clashes.[105] Arewa Christians and Indigenous Pastors Association, however, claimed deaths of 30 Christians.[106] Federal Government of Nigeria has introduce RUGA settlement to cub conflicts between the Herdsmen and Farmer in Plateau State.[107]
2020-4-12 Tegina Kabata, Shiroro County 12 Fulani herdsman 12 Christians killed during the wedding with five people captured including the bride and groom.[108]

Literature[edit]

References[edit]

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