Camp Fire (2018)

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Camp Fire (2018)
Camp Fire oli 2018312 Landsat.jpg
The Camp Fire as seen from the Landsat 8 satellite on November 8, 2018
LocationButte County, California
Coordinates39°50′51″N 121°23′42″W / 39.84750°N 121.39500°W / 39.84750; -121.39500Coordinates: 39°50′51″N 121°23′42″W / 39.84750°N 121.39500°W / 39.84750; -121.39500
Statistics
Cost$7.5–$10 billion (insured losses)[1][2]
Date(s)November 8, 2018 – contained November 25, 2018
Burned area153,336 acres (62,053 ha)[3]
CauseUnder investigation
Buildings
destroyed
18,804[4]
Fatalities86 civilians[3][5]
Non-fatal injuries12 civilians and 5 firefighters[6]
Missing people3[7]
Map
Camp Fire (2018) is located in California
Camp Fire (2018)
The fire's location in northern California

The Camp Fire was the deadliest and most destructive wildfire in California history to date.[8] It was also the deadliest wildfire in the United States since the Cloquet fire in 1918, and among the deadliest wildfires, it was the sixth-deadliest U.S. wildfire overall.[9] Named after Camp Creek Road, its place of origin,[10] the fire started on November 8, 2018, in Butte County, in Northern California. An urban firestorm formed in Paradise. [11][12][13][14] The fire caused at least 86 civilian fatalities,[3][5] injured 12 civilians and 5 firefighters, covered an area of 153,336 acres (62,053 ha), and destroyed 18,804 structures, with most of the damage occurring within the first four hours.[15] As of November 19, insured damage was estimated to be $7.5–10 billion.[1][2] The fire reached 100 percent containment after seventeen days on November 25, 2018.[16]

Background[edit]

Residential developments in the wildland-urban interface (often state responsibility areas[17]), and a need for increased state resources to safeguard those communities, resulted in a special fee imposed each year since 2011 to provide for fire prevention.[18] However, after collecting and spending 470 million dollars, the fee was unpopular, as pointed out by assemblyman Mathis, "not one cent has gone to putting more boots on the ground."[18] Initially, much of the revenue was used to continue existing fire programs as building out new prevention programs was slow, however, it funded important new projects such as secondary evacuation routes and fuel reduction zones.[18][19] In August 2018, three months before the fire, fire safe councils in the Paradise region had just been awarded five million dollars in grants from this program for fuel reduction and education projects.[20]

Wildfire conditions and behavior[edit]

There were conditions immediately leading up to and during the fire that combined to create a highly combustible fuel load. These conditions included: drought conditions for several years, late spring rainfall that sprouted a heavy grass cover, dry weather for seven months, low humidity due to several wind events (23% dropping to 10%), unusually dry fuel (5% 1000-hr moisture level), and a high wind event the day of the fire with gusts of 25-35 mph (similar in concept though different from the Diablo wind in the Coastal Range Mountains).[21] The day of the fire, the fuel Energy Release Component was above the historic record for Nov. 8.[22] In Paradise, across from Rattle Snake Creek, the fuel had never burned in recorded history.[23] These conditions are on top of the constant hazard for the region caused by steep canyons that make access difficult.[24] A Cal Fire report noted, "When the fire reached the town of paradise, an urban firestorm began to spread from building to building, independent of vegetation, similar to the firestorm that consumed Hamburg, Germany, in 1943."[25][26][27][28]

Timeline[edit]

The fire started at sunrise on Thursday, November 8, 2018. It was first reported by a Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) worker at 6:33 a.m. PST as burning under power lines near Pulga, California in Butte County after he and others were informed of the fire by an employee. The location is accessed by Camp Creek Road above Poe Dam and the Feather River railroad tracks. Soon after this report, a size-up fire officer was dispatched. Several other workers also called in to report a brush fire in the same location while the firefighter was en route.[29] The National Weather Service had issued a red flag warning for most of Northern California's interior, as well as Southern California, through the morning of November 9. PG&E later reported that power lines were down.[30]

Arriving ten minutes later, Captain Matt MacKenzie, the first unit on scene, observed rapid fire growth and extreme fire behavior due to low humidity and high winds.[31] Possibly saving many, he radioed in a request for resources and evacuations with a note, "this has got potential for a major incident,” and that he was “still working on [finding a way to] access [the fire].” Air resources would have to wait until 30 minutes after sunrise with a 6:44 a.m. sunrise on Nov 8, however, due to winds, aircraft would not be on the fire until that afternoon. At 7:23 a.m. the Butte County Sheriff's Office then began a sequence of ordered evacuations of Paradise and other communities beginning with Pulga.[32][33][34] The community of Concow did not receive an evacuation warning before the fire arrived less than twenty minutes later. By 8 a.m. the fire entered the town of Paradise. At some point that day, emergency shelters were established.[35][36] Wind speeds approached 50 miles per hour (22 m/s), allowing the fire to grow rapidly.[37] Most residents of Concow and many residents of Paradise were unable to evacuate before the fire arrived. Due to the speed of the fire, firefighters for the most part never attempted to prevent the flames from entering Concow or Paradise, and instead sought to help people get out alive.[38] According to Captain Scott McLean of the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire), "Pretty much the community of Paradise is destroyed, it's that kind of devastation. The wind that was predicted came and just wiped it out."[39]

By 8:00 p.m. PST on November 9, the fire had burned 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) and threatened 15,000 structures.[40]

By the morning of November 10, the fire was reported by Cal Fire to have grown to 100,000 acres (40,000 ha) and was 20 percent contained. By then, an estimated 6,713 structures had been destroyed by the fire, surpassing the Tubbs Fire as the most destructive wildfire in California history.[41][42] Fourteen bodies were discovered, bringing casualties to 23.

The following day, November 11, the death toll increased to 29 after six bodies were discovered.[43]

By the morning of November 13, Cal Fire reported the fire was 125,000 acres (51,000 ha) and was 30 percent contained.[44] The fire had destroyed over 8,700 residences in addition to commercial buildings and other structures in Paradise, Magaylia and Concow, with most of the damage occurring within the first morning of the fire.[45][46] The death toll increased to 42, making it the single-deadliest wildfire in California history, surpassing the 1933 Griffith Park Fire, which killed 29 people.[44] By that evening, the death toll had increased to 48.[47]

On November 15, 5,596 firefighters, 622 engines, 75 water tenders, 101 fire crews, 103 bulldozers, and 24 helicopters from all over the state and the Western United States were deployed.[48] As of 7:00 a.m. PST, the fire was 40 percent contained with 140,000 acres burned, and still threatened 15,500 structures.[45]

As of November 16 at 6:01 p.m. PST, the fire was at 146,000 acres with 50 percent containment; Cal Fire announced that the death toll increased from 63 to 71.[49]

As of November 17 at 6:01 p.m. PST, the fire was at 149,000 acres with 55 percent containment. An additional five deaths brought the total to 76. President Donald Trump, Governor Jerry Brown, Governor-elect Gavin Newsom, and FEMA director Brock Long toured the Paradise area, and they held a short conference in the afternoon.[50]

On November 18, the death toll was raised to 77;[51] on November 19, the death toll was raised to 79.[52]

Heavy rain fell starting on Wednesday, November 21 which helped contain the fire.[53] Fire crews pulled back and let the rain put out the remaining fires while teams searched for victims.[54] The death toll was raised to 83.[3] The fire was reported 80 percent contained.[55] By 7 p.m., the fire was 85 percent contained.[56] The Cal Fire Butte unit released a video outlining their containment efforts.[57]

As of November 22 at 7 a.m. PST, the fire was 90 percent contained.[58] At 10 a.m. Cal Fire released a fire suppression operations update video which described fire activity as minimal.[59][60]

On November 25, 2018, Cal Fire announced that the fire had reached 100 percent containment.[16]

Impact[edit]

Hot spots and a large plume of smoke from the Camp Fire in Northern California were seen from space on Thursday, November 8.

Loss of life and structural damage[edit]

The community of Concow and the town of Paradise were destroyed within the first six hours of the fire,[61][62] losing an estimated 95 percent of their buildings. The town of Magalia also suffered substantial damage and the community of Pulga suffered some. At least 19,000 buildings were destroyed, most of them homes, but also included five public schools in Paradise, a rest home, churches, a hospital, a Christmas tree farm, a large shopping center anchored by a Safeway, several fast food chains, such as Black Bear Diner and McDonald's, and numerous small businesses.[62][45][63][64] The Honey Run Covered Bridge over nearby Butte Creek, the last three-span Pratt-style truss bridge in the United States, was incinerated on November 10.[65][66]

As of December 13, Butte County Sheriff's Department reported a partial death count for each community: 38 in Paradise, 6 in Concow, 7 in Magalia.[67]

In two separate incidents a pair of fire captains, a firefighter, and a pair of prison inmate firefighters were burned.[68] The first incident was a burnover, and the second incident was an exploding propane tank.

The San Francisco skyline as seen from Coit Tower during the Camp Fire
The Bay Bridge in San Francisco, California. The photo on the left was taken November 16, 2018, and the one on the right October 14, 2018.
Bay Area air quality suffered during the Camp Fire which for an unprecedented two days exceeded an Air Quality Index of 200.[69]

Summary of impact on population and first responders reported by Cal Fire.

Missing, Injured, Fatalities, and Evacuated
Occupation Missing Injured Fatalities Evacuated
Civilian 3[7] 12[6] 86[5][3] 52,000[70]
Firefighter 0 5[6] 0 n/a
Total 3 17 86 52,000

Summary of structural damage reported by Cal Fire.

Estimates of Damaged and Destroyed Structures;[4]
Structure Type Damaged Destroyed Total by Type
Single Family Residential ~465 ~9,879 ~10,344
Multiple Family Residential* ~22 ~276 ~297
Mobile home Residential* ~6 ~3,695 ~3,671
Mixed Commercial/Residential* ~0 ~11 ~11
Commercial ~105 ~514 ~619
Other ~77 ~4,286 ~4,363
Total ~675 ~18,660 ~19,335

Note: Cal Fire damage updates do not contain categories tagged with *, however, a count was given November 17; also, '~' denotes an estimate.

Environmental[edit]

The smoke from the fire resulted in widespread air pollution throughout the San Francisco Bay Area[71] and Central Valley,[72] prompting the closure of public schools in five Bay Area counties and dozens of districts in the Sacramento metropolitan area on November 16.[73][74] Smoke was reportedly visible as far away as New York City after smoke plumes traveled a distance of over 3,000 miles.[75] John Balmes, a physician at the University of California, Berkeley who sits on the California Air Resources Board, noted that the fire "[resulted in] the worst air pollution [ever] for the Bay Area and northern California."[76]

Recovery efforts were slowed as crews tested burned debris for environmental contaminants such as asbestos, volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and other hazardous materials that may have burned or spread in the fire.[77]

The Butte County Health Officer declared the burned region uninhabitable. A strong warning was issued against rehabitation, noting, "[you] will be exposed to hazardous materials." [78]

Displacement and devastation[edit]

The fire forced the evacuation of Paradise, Magalia, Centerville, Concow, Pulga, Butte Creek Canyon, Berry Creek and Yankee Hill and threatened the communities of Butte Valley, Chico, Forest Ranch, Helltown, Inskip, Oroville, and Stirling City.[79][38]

The Camp Fire smoke plume, November 10, 2018. Bucks Lake is on the far left.
Growth of the Camp Fire from November 7 through November 12, 2018.

Traffic jams on the few evacuation routes led to cars being abandoned while people evacuated on foot, causing at least four deaths when the fire overtook people who were trapped in their vehicles, as well as one person outside a vehicle.[80] Many seniors were evacuated by passersby and neighbors, with at least one account of dozens of evacuees jumping into a reservoir to escape the flames.[81]

Economic[edit]

The volume of insurance claims overwhelmed Merced Property and Casualty Company, a small insurer founded in 1906, to the point of insolvency (policyholders' surplus $25M). In response to a notice given by the company, the California Department of Insurance reviewed and then placed it into liquidation. This allows the California Insurance Guarantee Association, a state guaranty association, to cover claims. The Department of Insurance will continue with a review of all insurers with a domicile in California so to determine the exposure of each to Camp Fire losses.[82] An estimate by the Los Angeles Times of Merced Property and Casualty Company's assets and reinsurance shows that they would only be able to cover 150 homes out of the 14,000 homes destroyed in a region where they were one of the only companies that still provided fire insurance policies despite the region being categorized as a high fire-hazard severity zone by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. This is the only known instance of an insurance company becoming insolvent from a single event.[83]

Prior to the fire, Chico had a housing vacancy rate of less than 3 percent. The loss of several thousand residences placed additional strain on Butte County's housing market. Average list prices for homes were reported to have increased by more than 10 percent.[84][85]

On November 16, the Chico city council passed an emergency ordinance to prohibit price gouging in Chico, by preventing the cost of rent, goods or services from being increased by more than 10 percent for 6 months.[86]

Investigation[edit]

The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and state utility regulators are investigating Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) to determine if they complied with state laws in the areas burned in the fire. The Associated Press noted the fire started near a property where PG&E detected sparks on the day before its outbreak.[87][88] PG&E is a convicted felon due to a gas pipeline explosion in 2010 and is on probation, which forbids them from committing new crimes.[89][90] PG&E reported damage to the Caribou-Palermo transmission line 15 minutes before the fire was first reported; the same line was previously damaged in a windstorm in December 2012.[91]

According to NBC Bay Area, investigators believe that the failure of a badly maintained steel hook holding up a high voltage line was a key cause of the fire.[92]

A distribution line in Concow malfunctioned a half hour later, which is being eyed as a possible second ignition source.[91]

Following the fire, PG&E and its parent company were sued in the San Francisco County Superior Court by multiple victims of the Camp Fire, who accuse PG&E of failure to properly maintain its infrastructure and equipment.[93]

Response[edit]

First responders[edit]

First responders were limited by an insufficient number of cellular towers, which resulted in communication difficulties and reduced WiFi speed: "Paradise quickly lost its equipment, the California Public Utilities Commission confirmed."[94] Randall L. Stephenson, AT&T CEO, committed to fixing this problem as AT&T added mobile sites to improve coverage.[95]

There was initial widespread confusion about reports of missing people; this limited the search for victims. The Butte County Sheriff's Office opened a call center, staffed daily from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., to provide and receive information and inquiries on missing persons.[96][97]

The North Valley Animal Disaster Group worked with law enforcement and other shelters, rescue groups and independent operations to rescue and reunite pets and families, and established an animal shelter at the Chico Airport.[98]

Fire resources were stretched as the fire began on the same day as the Woolsey Fire and the Hill Fire in Southern California; requiring on just the Camp Fire alone the equivalent of the entire 6,000 Cal Fire full-time fire professionals and both fires pulled resources from 17 states to respond.[99][100]

By the second day of the fire, only half the fire resources had assembled.[101] The initial response within Paradise was shouldered by Paradise's three fire engines in stations 81, 82, and 83, and the two engines at Butte County Cal Fire Station 35.[102]

At the height of deployment, there were applied resources of 5,596 firefighters (200 of these were prisoners[103]), 622 engines, 75 water tenders, 101 fire crews, 103 bulldozers, 24 helicopters, and 12 fixed wing aircraft on the fireline.[48]

Initially an offer of air support with a pair of Air Tractor AT-802 fixed wing aircraft was declined.[104][105] Cal Fire Chico Air Attack Base Battalion Chief Shem Hawkins noted, "We try to shy away from single-engine air tankers" and that "Fire Bosses [AT-802] are [only] good in places with large water sources."[104] By the first afternoon, there were 9 fixed-wing aircraft on the fire, including 5 S-2 Trackers, 3 BAE 146s, and 1 DC-10 Air Tanker.[104] Eventually, three additional aircraft were deployed from out of state, including 2 CL-415 Super Scoopers that arrived from their home in Washington on November 9[106] and a 747 Supertanker that arrived from its home in Colorado on November 11 after gaining a contract to work on federal land.[107][108][109]

The California National Guard activated 700 soldiers to assist,[110] including 100 military police officers from the 49th Brigade to provide security and search for remains with the assistance of 22 cadaver dogs.[111][112] The 2632nd Transportation company provided haul trucks.[113] The 140th Regiment provided air support. The 224th Sustainment Brigade constructed Alaska tents for temporary facilities.[114]

A Black Hawk helicopter from California's 140th Aviation Regiment drops buckets of water on the Camp Fire, November 14, 2018.
A Black Hawk helicopter from California's 140th Aviation Regiment drops buckets of water in the Feather River Canyon located on the northeast corner of the Camp Fire; Friday, November 16, 2018.

Evacuation centers[edit]

From November 8 to December 1, an encampment formed in a vacant lot next to the Walmart store in nearby Chico.[115] The camp was in addition to motel room vouchers from FEMA and ten shelters established by the Red Cross and churches to house evacuees.[116] Volunteers from across the region came to the camp and provided services for food, shelter, and sanitation; fire refugees referred to their camp as 'Wallywood.'[117] The camp population swelled to a small community of over a thousand people.[118] Butte County has a persistent homeless population of 7,500 people, many of which reside in Chico,[119] and some campers were revealed as resident homeless people who did not live in the fire zone.[120] On December 1, the firefighter camp facilities at the Butte County Fairgrounds became available, whereupon the Walmart camp was closed and the field fenced off, with the remaining fifty refugees relocated to the firefighters’ camp.[115]

Mental health support[edit]

Recovery efforts included supporting the mental health of Camp Fire victims, particularly among the youth.[121][122] Some former residents reported survivor guilt, troubling dreams, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress.[123][124] To ease the stress on fire victims, several people brought therapy dogs from the Butte Humane Society’s Animal Assisted Wellness program.[125] Lise Van Susteren summarized the burden these children bear in experiencing climate change, "These kids are at the tip of the spear.”[126][127]

Situation of wildland and climate[edit]

The Los Angeles Times reported that the Camp Fire burned across an area that had been burned to bare dirt by a hot burning wildfire ten years earlier and then salvage-logged; fire ecologist Chad Hanson suggested that brush piles and young trees left over after the salvage logging may have provided fast-burning fuels that aided the fire's rapid spread.[128] The Camp Fire was initially fueled by dry grass amid sparse pine and oak woodlands.[129] This has driven most of the post-event discussion away from timber management as a future fire prevention solution.

What is undisputed is that the fire was largely driven by extreme weather conditions — high winds and low humidity — and spread through fuels parched by more than 200 days without precipitation, part of a statewide drought related to climate change.[130][128]

The SacBee looked at if residential development is still appropriate in the Sierra Nevada wildland–urban zones, quoting a former Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District chief, "There’s just some places a subdivison shouldn’t be built.” Issues include if development can be safe, and if safe, what building codes and emergency response infrastructure would be needed.[131] That discussion pointed to other Sierra Foothill communities similar to Paradise. CalFire stated, "Those kinds of geographic features are present in many foothill towns."[131] Those features include a proximity and alignment to river canyons which is what channeled wind-fed flames over Concow and into Paradise. Visiting Professor Moritz (UC Santa Barbara) noted, “if we were to go back and do the wind mapping, we would find that at some intervals, these areas are prone to these north and northeasterly [strong hot autumn wind] events.”[132]

Political[edit]

On November 10, President Donald Trump falsely[133][134][135][136] blamed poor forest management as the cause of recent wildfires in the state, including the Camp Fire and the concurrent Woolsey Fire in Southern California. In a tweet, he threatened to end federal assistance unless "gross mismanagement of the forests" is remedied.[137]

Trump elaborated on his claims in an interview with Chris Wallace and during his trip to Paradise, stating that "you've got to take care of the floors. You know the floors of the forest — very important" and that "[Finland] spent a lot of time on raking and cleaning and doing things and they don't have any problem."[138] Finland's president Sauli Niinistö was baffled by Trump's assertions and denied they had ever talked about raking, leading to an internet phenomenon of Finnish people sharing photos of themselves raking forests.[139]

Fire experts rejected Trump's claims, noting that California is experiencing unusually dry conditions and abnormally high fire danger.[140] Brian Rice, president of the California Professional Firefighters, described Trump's assertion about forest management practices as "demeaning" and "dangerously wrong," noting that 60 percent of California forests are directly managed by the federal government, which has reduced spending on forestry in recent years.[141]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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[1] 17. http://www.ktvu.com/news/911-camp-fire-calls-reveal-confusing-and-chaotic-moments

External links[edit]

External 3D models
Camp Fire Map - Esri
(revised when new data are released)
Butte : US Wildfires
Google crisis map
  1. ^ Trinidad, Anna (12/11/18). "911 Camp Fire calls reveal confusing and chaotic moments" (Wildfires). KTVU. Fox 2 KTVU. Retrieved 15 December 2018. Check date values in: |date= (help)