Canadian peers and baronets

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Flag of New France from 1663 to 1763
Flag of Canada from 1868 to 1921

Canadian peers and baronets exist in both the peerage of France recognized by the monarch of Canada (the same as the monarch of the United Kingdom) and the peerage of the United Kingdom.

In 1627, French Cardinal Richelieu introduced the Seigneurial system of New France. Almost all of the early French Canadians who came as officers in the military or filled important official positions within the colony in New France came from the ranks of the French nobility. Under the Ancien Régime, several of these men were either promoted to more senior ranks within the Peerage of France. From the early 1700s, it became customary for the Governors of New France to be given the title 'marquis'. Except for the Marquis de Vaudreuil and the Marquis de Beauharnois, most were in Canada only for a few years before returning to France and are therefore not counted as Canadians.

The Baronetage of Nova Scotia (a British hereditary title, but not a peerage) had been devised by King James VI of Scotland in 1624 as a means of settling Nova Scotia. Except for Sir Thomas Temple, almost none of them came to Nova Scotia, therefore they are counted as British, not Canadian.

Following the British Conquest of New France in 1763, the likes of Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (Lord Amherst) and Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester (Lord Dorchester) were raised to the Peerage of Great Britain for their part in the taking of Canada and as Governors General of Canada, but they were not Canadians. As the colony grew under British rule both in terms of geography and economy, baronetcies began to be conferred upon various Canadian politicians, military commanders and businessmen.

In 1891, Lord Mount Stephen became the first Canadian to be elevated to the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Immigration has been Canada's chief means of population growth and among the many who arrived were distant descendants of titled nobles from a variety of countries. The significant losses of the First World War included many direct heirs to titles and some replacements were found in Canada resulting in the acquisition of titles by Canadians who, as British subjects, were eligible to inherit.

After the controversial elevation of Lords Atholstan and Beaverbrook to the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the Nickle Resolution was presented to the Canadian House of Commons in 1917 requesting the Sovereign not to grant knighthoods, baronetcies or peerages to Canadians. This triggered the Canadian titles debate and led to a separate system of orders, decorations, and medals for Canada. Canadians who were granted peerages after this date had already to hold or acquire British Citizenship, such as Roy Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet. However, the then Canadian Citizenship Act stated that Canadians who acquired foreign citizenship by any means other than marriage would renounce their Canadian citizenship.

Canadian nobility in the aristocracy of France[edit]

Extant[edit]

Arms of the Barons de Longueuil, holders of the only current French colonial title recognized by Queen Elizabeth II

Extinct[edit]

The Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal was the first Canadian-born Governor General of New France. He was a first cousin of the father of the Marquis de Lotbinière
The Marquis de Lotbinière was the first native Canadian to be elevated to a Marquisate in the Peerage of France. He was the uncle of the Vicomte de Léry; a first cousin of the Marquis de Fresnoy; and his father was a first cousin of the Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal
The Vicomte de Léry was the Canadian Engineer-in-Chief of Napoleon's Armies. He married a daughter of the Duc de Valmy and was a nephew of the Marquis de Lotbinière
  • Baron de Poboncoup. Created in 1651 or 1653 for Philippe Mius d’Entremont, the first of the d'Entremonts of Nova Scotia.[3]
  • Comte de Saint-Laurent. Created in 1676, for Michel-François Berthelot, King's Secretary in Paris and Commissary General of the French Artillery. In 1702, he sold the Île d'Orléans to Charlotte-Françoise Juchereau de Saint-Denys (1660–1732), sister of Louis Juchereau de Saint-Denys. Another of their brothers was the grandfather of Louis Barbe Juchereau de Saint-Denys (1740–1833), created the Marquis de Saint-Denys in 1774; a first cousin of The Hon. Antoine Juchereau Duchesnay who was also a first cousin of the Marquis de Lotbinière mentioned below.[4] From 1702, Charlotte-Françoise took the title Comtesse de Saint-Laurent and arranged for her eldest son to also bear the title, but she was unable to meet her obligations to Berthelot. A lengthy court case ensued between Quebec and Paris, and in 1713 the King ruled in Berthelot's favour.[5] The title remained in the Berthelot family until 1931.
  • Baron de Portneuf. Created in 1681, for René Robineau de Bécancourt. His son, Pierre Robineau de Portneuf, sold the land to his brother but retained the title. The brother died in 1715 and the barony passed back to Pierre's daughters. The title became extinct in 1729 after the death of the 2nd Baron de Portneuf, due to a lack of male heirs.
  • Comte d'Orsainville. Created in 1685, for Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France. He died unmarried in 1694, and the title passed to his nephew, Jean-François, son of his brother, Robert (aka François), and Anne Dubois, daughter of Antoine DuBois and Louise d'Eu, who was wed to Renée Turin, widow of a Michel Séguin. [6][7]

Canadian nobility in the aristocracy of the United Kingdom[edit]

Peerages awarded before The Nickle Resolution[edit]

Lord Strathcona, referred to as "Uncle Donald" by King Edward VII in reference to his philanthropy. He was a first cousin of Lord Mount Stephen.
Lord Mount Stephen, the financial genius behind the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway and a first cousin of Lord Strathcona. In 1891, he became the first Canadian to be elevated to the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Agnes Macdonald, 1st Baroness Macdonald of Earnscliffe, was the only Canadian lady to be granted a peerage, in lieu of her deceased husband, Sir John A. Macdonald, the 1st Prime Minister of Canada after Confederation in 1867.
Lord Atholstan was the only Canadian Peer of the United Kingdom to have been born and lived his whole life in Canada, but his was also the most controversial of all the Canadian Peerages.

Extant[edit]

Extinct[edit]

Peerages awarded after The Nickle Resolution[edit]

Extant[edit]

Extinct[edit]

Life peerages[edit]

A life peerage is not an hereditary title. The title lasts as long as the recipient of the honour is alive. The recipient's children can style themselves with the prefix 'honourable' but they cannot inherit the baronial title.

Extant[edit]

Extinct[edit]

Canadian baronetcies[edit]

Chief Justice Sir John Beverley Robinson, a native of Quebec, dominated the politics of Upper Canada and was the undisputed leader of the Family Compact.
General Sir William Fenwick Williams was a native of Nova Scotia who won his fame during the Crimean War and later served as Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia.
Dundurn Castle was the home built in his native Ontario by Sir Allan Napier MacNab, Premier of Canada before Confederation.
Sir William Osler was a native Canadian dubbed "the father of modern medicine". He is arguably Canada's most famous physician
Sir Vincent Meredith, a member of a notable Canadian family, was the first Canadian-born President of the Bank of Montreal, then Canada's national bank.

Although a baronet is not a peer, it is a British hereditary title and an honour that was conferred upon several Canadians.

Extant[edit]

Dormant[edit]

Extinct[edit]

Canadians with hereditary titles[edit]

Canadian peers by marriage[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rachel Grant biography at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2012-12-16. 
  2. ^ Cokayne, George Edward (1982). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. VIII. Gloucester: A. Sutton. pp. 126–7.  originally published by the St Catherine Press Ltd, London, England from 1910–1959 in 13 volumes; reprinted in microprint, 13 volumes into 6
  3. ^ Cormier, Clément (1979) [1966]. "Mius d’Entremont, Philippe". In Brown, George Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 
  4. ^ Famille de Juchereau de Sany-Denys, Juchereau du Chesnay/Duchesnay
  5. ^ Drolet, Antonio (1979) [1969]. "Juchereau de Saint-Denys, Charlotte-Françoise, Comtesse de Saint-Laurent". In Hayne, David. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. II (1701–1740) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 
  6. ^ Les familles pionnières de la Nouvelle-France dans les archives du Minutier central des notaires de Paris, par Marcel Fournier; Quebec; 2016, p. 188.
  7. ^ Wikisource: "Chapais - Jean Talon, Intendant of New France (1665-1672), 1904.djvu / 506"
  8. ^ Eccles, W. J. (1979). "Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, Pierre de, Marquis de Vaudreuil". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. IV (1771–1800) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 
  9. ^ a b Famille de Vaudreuil
  10. ^ Les Seigneuries de Vaudreuil et de Soulanges Archived 2012-02-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Hamelin, Marcel (1987). "Chartier de Lotbinière. Michel-Eustache-Gaspard-Alain". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VI (1821–1835) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 
  12. ^ a b Notables of Annet-sur-Marne Archived 2012-07-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Napoleon's Generals
  14. ^ a b The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History, And Development By Christopher McCreery
  15. ^ "No. 26192". The London Gazette. 14 August 1891. p. 4378. 
  16. ^ "No. 30120". The London Gazette. 8 June 1917. p. 5639. 
  17. ^ "No. 35225". The London Gazette. 22 July 1941. p. 4213. 
  18. ^ "No. 56379". The London Gazette. 5 November 2001. p. 12995. 
  19. ^ Robertson, Dylan C. (May 21, 2012). "Conrad Black mulls over applying for citizenship". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  20. ^ Frum, David (July 24, 2012). "David Frum: Lord Conrad Black ... of Canada". National Post. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  21. ^ Conrad Black released from prison – Daily Telegraph, May 4, 2012
  22. ^ House of Lords
  23. ^ Cacrofts Peerage
  24. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine. 167. p. 206. 
  25. ^ Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet
  26. ^ Tuteur, Amy (2008-11-19). "Listen to your patient". The Skeptical OB. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  27. ^ Starling, P H (March 2003). "The case of Edward Revere Osler" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 149 (1): 27–29. PMID 12743923. doi:10.1136/jramc-149-01-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-22. 
  28. ^ Canadian Encyclopedia entry for Sir Gilbert Parker
  29. ^ Points of Interest Along Lost Streams: Toronto Pork Packing Plant. Lostrivers.ca. The Toronto Green Community and the Toronto Field Naturalists. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
  30. ^ From Sussex schoolboy to Scottish lord
  31. ^ "Michael Stonhouse". St. John's Minster Anglican Church. St. John's Minster Anglican Church. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  32. ^ a b Bartlett, Steve (8 January 2011), "From Placentia to the Palace", The Telegram, retrieved 9 January 2011