Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7
|Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam|
|Chorale cantata by J. S. Bach|
|Translation||Christ our Lord came to the Jordan|
|Occasion||Feast of St John the Baptist|
|Performed||24 June 1724Leipzig:|
|Chorale||"Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam"
by Martin Luther
Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam (Christ our Lord came to the Jordan), BWV 7, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for the Feast of St. John the Baptist and led its first performance on 24 June 1724.
It is the third cantata Bach composed for his chorale cantata cycle, the second cycle he started after being appointed Thomaskantor in 1723. The cantata is based on the seven stanzas of Martin Luther's hymn "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam", about baptism. The first and last stanza of the chorale were used for the outer movements of the cantata, while an unknown librettist paraphrased the inner stanzas of the hymn into the text for the five other movements. The first movement, a chorale fantasia, is followed by a succession of arias alternating with recitatives, leading to a four-part closing chorale.
History and words
Bach composed this cantata for St John's Day 24 June 1724 in Leipzig, as the third cantata of his second annual cycle (the chorale cantata cycle), which had begun about two weeks earlier on the first Sunday after Trinity. The cycle was devoted to Lutheran hymns, typically rendered by keeping their text of the first and last stanza, while a contemporary poet reworded the inner stanzas.
The prescribed readings for the feast of the birth of John the Baptist were from the Book of Isaiah, "the voice of a preacher in the desert" (Isaiah 40:1–5), and from the Gospel of Luke, the birth of John the Baptist and the Benedictus of Zechariah (Luke 1:57–80). Martin Luther's hymn "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (To Jordan came our Lord the Christ) is associated with the feast. Its topic, differing from that of the readings, is baptism, which is treated based on biblical accounts, starting from Christ's baptism by John the Baptist in the river Jordan. The hymn tune is "Es woll[t] uns Gott genädig sein", Zahn No. 7246.
Bach used the text of the first stanza of Luther's hymn for the first movement of his cantata, with its chorale melody sung as cantus firmus. The final movement of the cantata is a four-part chorale setting of the seventh stanza, on the hymn tune. The five arias and recitatives between these choral movements are settings of text paraphrased from the hymn's other stanzas.
Scoring and structure
The cantata in seven movements is scored for three vocal soloists (alto (A), tenor (T) and bass (B)), a four-part choir (SATB), two oboes d'amore (Oa), two solo violins (Vs, the second one only introduced in a later performance), two violins (Vl), viola (Va) and basso continuo (Bc).
|In the following table of the movements, the scoring and keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr, using the symbol for common time (4/4). The instruments are shown separately for winds and strings, while the continuo, playing throughout, is not shown.|
|1||Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam||Luther||Chorus||SATB||2Oa||Vs 2Vl Va||E minor|
|2||Merkt und hört, ihr Menschenkinder||anon.||Aria||B||G major|
|3||Dies hat Gott klar mit Worten||anon.||Recitative||T|
|4||Des Vaters Stimme ließ sich hören||anon.||Aria||T||2Vs||A minor||9/8|
|5||Als Jesus dort nach seinen Leiden||anon.||Recitative||B||2Vl Va|
|6||Menschen, glaubt doch dieser Gnade||anon.||Aria||A||2Oa (unis.)||2Vl Va||G major|
|7||Das Aug allein das Wasser sieht||Luther||Chorale||SATB||2Oa||2Vl Va||
The seven-movement cantata begins with a chorale fantasia and ends, after a sequence of alternating arias and recitatives, with a closing chorale as a four-part setting. Bach increased the number of accompanying instruments for the arias, from only continuo in the second movement, over two solo violins in the central movement of the cantata, to two oboes d'amore and strings in the sixth movement.
In the opening chorus, "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam" (Christ our Lord came to the Jordan), the tenor has the melody as a cantus firmus, while the other voices sing free counterpoint. In the first cantata of the chorale cantata cycle, O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 20, Bach had given the cantus firmus of the chorale tune to the soprano, and in the second, Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein, BWV 2, to the alto.
The opening chorus resembles an Italian violin concerto. The musicologist Julian Mincham likens the "solo violin's persistent, rocking, wave-like idea" to the waves of the Jordan River. Alfred Dürr compares the vocal sections, all with the solo violin, to the solo sections of a violin concerto, as opposed to the tutti sections with the orchestra. John Eliot Gardiner interprets the movement as a French overture, "replete with grandiloquent baroque gestures to suggest both the processional entrance of Jesus and the powerful flooding of the River Jordan". Klaus Hofmann notes that the movement combines the old style of motet writing with the new type of solo concerto, and observes that "the main violin solo episodes ... are at first linked to the choral entries, but gradually assume larger proportions and greater independence as the movement progresses".
The first aria, "Merkt und hört, ihr Menschenkinder" (Mark and hear, you humans), is accompanied by the continuo alone. Mincham observes that a characteristic fast motif of five notes, repeated abundantly in the cello, always flows downward, while Bach usually also inverses motifs, such as in his Inventions. Mincham concludes that it represents the "pouring of the baptismal waters".
The central aria is sung by the tenor, accompanied by two violins, marked "solo" in a later performance, "Des Vaters Stimme ließ sich hören" (The Father's voice can be heard). Gardiner notes that the music "describes, through its pair of soaring violins, the circling flight of the Holy Spirit as a dove". Hofmann notes the character of the movement as a gigue, and several appearances of the number 3 as a symbol of the Trinity: it is a trio for voice and two violins, "in triple time – and markedly so: not only is the time signature 3/4, but also the crotchets are each divided into triplets", and in a form of three solo sections as "all variants of a single model that is presented in the opening and concluding ritornellos". Hofmann concludes: "The sequence that this creates – three different forms of the same musical substance – is evidently to be understood as a symbol of the Holy Trinity."
A recitative for bass, the vox Christi (voice of Christ), "Als Jesus dort nach seinen Leiden" (As Jesus there, after His passion), speaks of Jesus after his passion and resurrection. It is accompanied by the strings, similar to the words of Jesus in Bach's St Matthew Passion.
The last aria is sung by the alto with rich accompaniment: "Menschen, glaubt doch dieser Gnade" (People, believe this grace now,). The two oboes d'amore double the first violin when human beings are requested to accept the grace of God to not "perish in the pit of hell".
The closing chorale is the final stanza of the hymn, with the instruments playing colla parte: "Das Aug allein das Wasser sieht" (The eye sees only water,), a summary of Luther's teaching about baptism.
In 1851, about a century before the cantata got its BWV number, it was published as No. 7 in the first volume of the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe. In the New Bach Edition the cantata was included in Series I, Volume 29, Kantaten zum Johannisfest (Cantatas for St. John's Day). Calmus and Breitkopf & Härtel published performance scores. The Breitkopf score translates the cantata's title as Lord Christ of old to Jordan came.
A list of recordings is provided by Aryeh Oron on the Bach-Cantatas website. The type of choir and orchestra is roughly shown as a large group by red background, and as an ensemble with period instruments in historically informed performance by green background.
|Title||Conductor / Choir / Orchestra||Soloists||Label||Year||Choir type||Orch. type|
|Les Grandes Cantates de J. S. Bach Vol. 22||Werner, FritzFritz Werner Heinrich-Schütz-Chor Heilbronn Pforzheim Chamber Orchestra||Erato||1966||Chamber|
|J. S. Bach: Das Kantatenwerk • Complete Cantatas • Les Cantates, Folge / Vol. 2||Leonhardt, GustavGustav Leonhardt Choir of King's College, Cambridge Leonhardt-Consort||Teldec||1971||Period|
|Die Bach Kantate Vol. 40||Rilling, HelmuthHelmuth Rilling Gächinger Kantorei Bach-Collegium Stuttgart||Hänssler||1976||Chamber|
|Bach Edition Vol. 9 – Cantatas Vol. 4||Leusink, Pieter JanPieter Jan Leusink Holland Boys Choir Netherlands Bach Collegium||Brilliant Classics||1999||Boys||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 11||Koopman, TonTon Koopman Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra & Choir||Antoine Marchand||1999||Period|
|Bach Cantatas Vol. 1: Long Melford For Whit Sunday For Whit Monday||Gardiner, John EliotJohn Eliot Gardiner Monteverdi Choir English Baroque Soloists||Soli Deo Gloria||2000||Period|
|J. S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 22 (Cantatas from Leipzig 1724)||Suzuki, MasaakiMasaaki Suzuki Bach Collegium Japan||BIS||2002||Period|
- Dürr, Alfred (1981). Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach (in German). 1 (4 ed.). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag. pp. 561–563. ISBN 3-423-04080-7.
- Martin Luther. "XXXIV.: Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam. To Jordan came our Lord the Christ." translated by R. Massie (amended) in The Hymns of Martin Luther: Set to their Original Melodies edited by Leonard Woolsey Bacon assisted by Nathan H. Allen. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1884.
- "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam / Text and Translation of Chorale". bach-cantatas.com. 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Alfred Dürr, Yoshitake Kobayashi (eds.), Kirsten Beißwenger. Bach Werke Verzeichnis: Kleine Ausgabe, nach der von Wolfgang Schmieder vorgelegten 2. Ausgabe. Preface in English and German. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1998. ISBN 3765102490 - ISBN 978-3765102493, p. 473
- Hofmann, Klaus (2002). "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7 / Christ our Lord came to the Jordan" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. p. 8. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Clemens Romijn. Liner notes for BWV7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. Brilliant Classics, 2000. (2014 reissue: J.S. BACH COMPLETE EDITION. "Liner notes" p. 23)
- Dellal, Pamela. "BWV 7 – "Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam"". Emmanuel Music. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Oron, Aryeh. "Cantata BWV 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam". bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works / Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam". bach-cantatas.com. 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- Gardiner, John Eliot (2004). "Cantatas for the Feast of St John the Baptist / St Giles Cripplegate, London" (PDF). bach-cantatas.com. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Julian Mincham (2010). "Chapter 4 BWV 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam". jsbachcantatas.com. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
- Forkel, Johann Nikolaus, translated by Charles Sanford Terry (1920). Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art, and Work. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe; London: Constable, p. 226
- New Bach Edition, Series I: Cantatas, Vol. 29: Kantaten zum Johannisfest edited by Frieder Rempp. Bärenreiter, 1983
- Michael Rosewall. Directory of Choral-orchestral Music. Taylor & Francis, 2007. ISBN 9780415980043, p. 17
- "Cantata BWV 7 Lord Christ of old to Jordan came". Breitkopf & Härtel. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 7: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam BWV 7; BC A 177 / Chorale cantata (Birth of John the Baptist (24 June)) Leipzig University
- BWV 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam: English translation, University of Vermont
- BWV 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam: text, scoring, University of Alberta
- Tim Smith: Bach fan thrills to discovery of lost 1724 pages Baltimore Sun, 31 August 2008
- John Eliot Gardiner: Music in the Castle of Heaven: A Portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach
- Cantata BWV 7 Christ unser Herr zum Jordan Kam Oregon Bach Festival 2006
- Richard D. P. Jones: The Creative Development of Johann Sebastian Bach, Volume II: 1717–1750