Dar es Salaam
||This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (November 2011)|
|Dar es Salaam|
|City of Dar es Salaam|
Dar es Salaam city skyline
|• Mayor||Dr Didas Massaburi|
|• CITY||1,590.5 km2 (614.1 sq mi)|
|• Water||0 km2 (0 sq mi)|
|Time zone||GMT +3|
Dar es Salaam (from Arabic: دار السلام Dār as-Salām, literally "the residence of peace"; or simply Dar, formerly Mzizima) is Tanzania's largest and richest city, the largest city in eastern Africa by population, and is a regionally important economic centre. It is Tanzania's most prominent city in arts, fashion, media, music, film and television. It is Tanzania's leading financial centre with the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE) being the country's first and most important stock exchange market. Dar es Salaam is the largest and most populous Swahili speaking city in the world. It is the capital of the Dar es Salaam Region administrative province and consists of three boroughs or administrative districts: northern Kinondoni, central Ilala, and southern Temeke. The city is the leading arriving and leaving point for most tourists who visit tourism areas in Tanzania like the national parks for safaris and the islands of Zanzibar. The region had a population of 4,364,541 as of the official 2012 census.:page: 2 Although Dar es Salaam lost its status as the nation's capital to Dodoma in 1974 (not completed until 1996), it remains the focus of the permanent central government bureaucracy. Most decisions made by people in power within the city of Dar es Salaam affect the entire nation of Tanzania.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Population
- 4 Economy and infrastructure
- 5 Climate
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Culture
- 8 Art
- 9 Sports
- 10 Globalization
- 11 Education
- 12 Suburbs
- 13 Sports
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Twin towns—Sister cities
- 16 References
- 17 External links
In the 19th century, Mzizima (Kiswahili for "healthy town") was a coastal fishing village on the periphery of Indian Ocean trade routes. In 1865 or 1866, Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar began building a new city very close to Mzizima and named it Dar es Salaam. The name is commonly translated as "abode/home of peace", based on the Arabic dar ("house"), and the Arabic es salaam ("of peace"). Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there. The town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s.
German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika, with Dar es Salaam the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European (e.g., Oyster Bay) and African (e.g., Kariakoo and Ilala) areas developed at a distance from the city centre. The city's population also included a large number of south Asians. After World War II, Dar es Salaam experienced a period of rapid growth.
Political developments, including the formation and growth of the Tanganyika African National Union, led to Tanganyika attaining independence from colonial rule in December 1961. Dar es Salaam continued to serve as its capital, even when in 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania. In 1973, however, provisions were made to relocate the capital to Dodoma, a more centrally located city in the interior. The relocation process has not yet been completed, and Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's primary city.
In 1967, the Tanzanian government declared the infamous Ujamaa policy,that set Tanzania into a socialist path. The move slowed down the potential growth of the city as the government encouraged people not to move in cities but stay in Ujamaa socialist villages. But by 1980's the Ujamaa policy proved to be a failure into combating increasing poverty, hunger, and delayed development that Tanzania faced. This led to the 1980s liberalization policy that virtually ended socialism and its spirit within the Tanzania's government. The move led to increasing migration of rural dwellers from rural areas into cities with Dar es Salaam becoming the leading city in receiving migrants from rural areas.
Until late 1990's Dar es Salaam was not put into same place with the likes of Africa's leading cities like Nairobi, Johannesburg, Lagos or Addis Ababa. But the 2000s decade became the turning point as the city experienced one of Africa's fastest urbanization rates, new local businesses were opened and prospered, Tanzanian banks headquartered in the city started to run more proper, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange expanded, the Dar es Salaam harbour proved to be the most important in Tanzania and prominent for entreport trade with landlocked countries like Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi and Zambia. Currently, Dar es Salaam's construction boom is obviously noticed with its CBD's skyline hosting many tall buildings among them, one of Africa's buildings with noticeable heights like the 35 floors PSPF Tower, finished in 2015 and current under construction the Tanzania Port Authority (TPA) Tower.
Dar es Salaam is located at 6°48' South, 39°17' East (−6.8000, 39.2833), on a natural harbour on the eastern coast of Africa, with sandy beaches in some areas.
Dar es Salaam is the largest city in Tanzania. With a population increase of 5.6 percent per year from 2002 to 2012, the city is the third fastest growing in Africa (ninth fastest in the world), after Bamako and Lagos. The metro population is expected to reach 5.12 million by 2020.
Economy and infrastructure
Dar es Salaam is Tanzania's most important city for both business and government. The city contains high concentrations of trade and other services and manufacturing compared to other parts of Tanzania, which has about 80 percent of its population in rural areas. Downtown includes many small businesses, many of which are run by traders and proprietors whose families originated from the Middle East and Indian sub-continent—areas of the world with which the settlements of the Tanzanian coast have had long-standing trading relations.
The Dar es Salaam CBD made up of Kisutu, Kivukoni, Upanga and Kariakoo areas is Tanzania's largest city CBD. All three areas making up the downtown are found in the Ilala district. Kivukoni has the city's important fish market, the Magogoni fish market. Kivukoni also is the place where the Tanzania's central bank, The Bank of Tanzania (the B.O.T) is located, so is the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange. Kisutu has many businesses and offices noticebly it is the location of Dar es Salaam central railway station, the PSPF Towers and the TPA tower. Upanga is less dense of any activities for all areas in the CBD but it has a booming construction of apartment buildings. Kariakoo is the prominent shopping area with prominent streets like Congo Street which is famous for its clothing shops, there are many specific parts of Kariakoo known only for supplying a particular products like the Uhuru street is for computer and electronics, Msimbazi for mobile phones.
Dar es Salaam has a problem with slums. According to a United Nations estimate, 70 percent of the city's population lives in informal settlements. The poorer residents crowd into downtown areas or large slums, many without running water or basic services. The more wealthy live in beachside mansions in the city's northern districts.
Dar es Salaam has had, in the past few years,[when?] a major construction boom. The PSPF Twin Towers with more than 35 storeys is the tallest building in the city and the country. Dar es Salaam has major infrastructural problems, including an outdated transport system and occasional power rationing.
Due to close proximity to the equator and the warm Indian Ocean, the city experiences tropical climatic conditions, typified by hot and humid weather throughout much of the year. It has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). Annual rainfall is approximately 1,100 mm (43 in), and in a normal year there are two rainy seasons: "the long rains" in April and May and "the short rains" in November and December.
|Climate data for Dar es Salaam|
|Average high °C (°F)||31
|Average low °C (°F)||25
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66
|Average rainy days||8||6||12||19||15||6||6||7||7||7||9||11||113|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||248||196||217||150||217||210||217||279||270||279||240||248||2,771|
|Source: BBC Weather |
The Julius Nyerere International Airport is the principal airport serving the country. Tanzania Railways operates the Central Line from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma. The TAZARA Railway connects Dar es Salaam to Zambia.
The bus rapid transit system under construction will be operated by the Dar Rapid Transit Agency (DART), a government entity, and is expected to open at the end of 2014. DART is being sponsored by the World Bank.
Dala dala minibuses are involved in many road accidents, accounting for a large percentage of the 4000+ yearly road deaths.
Dala dalas are cheap and often overcrowded. They are operated by a driver and a conductor: the conductor collects the fare and signals the driver to leave. They tend to be overcrowded, with passengers sometimes hanging outside the door.
||This section is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (November 2011)|
Dar es Salaam has heavy traffic during the daytime, but after sunset the area is relatively quiet as much of the city's nightlife is located in more residential districts away from the city's mainly commercial centre.
The sprawling suburbs furthest from the city centre are generally populated by Tanzanians of African descent, with the exception of Oyster Bay, where there is a large population of foreign expatriates. The edges of Dar es Salaam are spreading rapidly, severely taxing the transportation network (which aside from ferries, lacks any kind of mass transit facilities) and raising the prospect of future urban overcrowding.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
Due in part to the growth of the expatriate community and the increasing importance of tourism, the number of international restaurants has risen very rapidly over recent years. The city now offers a rich and internationalized diversity of cuisine, ranging from traditional Tanzanian Barbecue style options such as Nyama Choma (Roasted meat—served with rice or ugali) and Mishkaki (Shish kebab—usually barbecued and served with salt, hot peppers, chapati, fries, and rice on the side), and the long-established traditional Indian and Zanzibari cuisine, to options from all corners of the globe including Chinese, Thai, Turkish, Italian, and Japanese food. People who prefer neither fast food nor traditional restaurants buy their food from street vendors, who usually sell food at low prices. Samosas are common street food items within the city.
There is also a lively music scene in Dar es Salaam which is divided between several styles. The longest standing segment is live dance music (muziki wa dansi) bands such as DDC Mlimani Park Orchestra. Taarab which was traditionally strong in Zanzibar has also found a niche but remains small compared both to dance music and "Bongo Flava", a broad category that represents the Tanzanian take on Hip Hop and R&B, which has quickly become the most popular locally produced music. Traditional music, which locally is used to refer to tribal music is still performed but typically only on family oriented occasions such as weddings.
In the 1970s, the Ministry of National Youth Culture aimed to create a national culture, which stressed the importance of music. Dar es Salaam became the new music center in Tanzania, with the local radio exposing new bands and dominating the music and cultural scene. With this ujamaa, or family, mentality governing culture and music a unified people’s culture was created. Dar es Salaam became a center of city crime, gangs, and violence, which led to the rise of hip hop music. Throughout the years, the radio in Dar es Salaam has played a major role in the dissemination of music because many people don’t have televisions and cassettes are used over CDs.
Dar es Salaam has two of the five museums comprising the National Museum of Tanzania consortium, namely the National Museum proper and the Village Museum. The National Museum is dedicated to the history of Tanzania; most notably, it exhibits some of the bones of Paranthropus boisei that were among the findings of Louis Leakey at Olduvai. The Village Museum, located in the outskirts of the city on the road to Bagamoyo, showcases traditional huts from 16 different Tanzanian ethnic groups. There are also examples of traditional cultivations, and traditional music and dance shows are held daily.
Close to the National Museum are also the botanical gardens, with some specimens of tropical plants and trees.
There are beaches on the Msasani peninsula north of Dar es Salaam and in Kigamboni to the south where residents and tourists alike frequently visit. Trips to the nearby islands of the Dar es Salaam Marine Reserve are a popular daytrip from the city and a favourite spot for snorkeling, swimming and sunbathing. In addition to that, Bongoyo Island can be reached by boat from the Msasani Slipway.
Dar es Salaam (and specifically the area of Oyster Bay) is home to the popular Tingatinga painting style. The Nyumba ya sanaa ("House of Art") is a well-known cultural centre, workshop and shop dedicated to Tanzanian art, showcasing and promoting Tanzanian craftmanship. Prominent Tanzanian sculptor George Lilanga has donated some of his works to the centre, including decorations of the building's main entrance.
Dar has a considerable number of newspapers available, particularly from sellers prowling through stationary traffic at road intersections. English-language ones, with online presences, include The Citizen and The Guardian and the leading Kiswahili daily, Mwananchi.
Installation of a trans-Indian Ocean backbone cable in 2009 has, in theory, made Internet access much more readily available in Dar in particular and in East Africa in general. However, roll-out to end-users is slow, partly because of spotty telephone line coverage, partly due to the substantial prices and long contracts demanded for purchase of bandwidth for small ISPs. Mobile-telephone access to the Internet via 3G and 3.75G is still relatively expensive.
Internet cafes are fairly well distributed in the city centre.
The expressed aim of the SEACOM cable is to enable East Africa to develop economically through increased online trading.
Globalization has affected many of the cultural expressions in Dar es Salaam, in particular, hip hop music and culture. The hip hop scene in Dar es Salaam articulates a blending of local cultural struggles and the indigenization of global influences. Hip hop music and culture arrived in Tanzania, taking its cues from various African American styling.
Dar es Salaam, a city projected to have over 5 million inhabitants within the next decade, continues to be the one city in Tanzania to which villagers flock for better opportunities. Westerners and Asians are also settling in Dar es Salaam, and the surge of foreigners has put pressure on Dar es Salaam officials to implement laws better accommodating the growing diverse population of Dar es Salaam and its suburbs.
Dar es Salaam is also the educational centre of Tanzania. The city is home to many Educational Institutions.
- The University of Dar es Salaam is the oldest and 2nd largest public university in Tanzania after University of Dodoma. It is located in the western part of the city, occupying 1,625 acres (6.58 km2) on the observation hill, 13 km (8 mi) from the city centre. The university has approximately 16,400 undergraduate and 2,700 postgraduate students.
- Ardhi University had 2,457 undergraduate and 156 postgraduate students in 2010/2011. The university offers two-year diploma programmes in the fields of land surveying and land management and valuation. A three-year diploma program in urban and rural planning has been introduced.
- Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences has two campuses; Muhimbili Campus and Mloganzila Campus. Muhimbili Campus is situated in Ilala Municipality, in Upanga along United Nations Road. Mloganzila Campus is still new and in the process of development and it occupies 3,800 acres (15 km2) and is located 3 km (2 mi) off Dar es Salaam-Morogoro highway, 25 km (16 mi) from Dar es Salaam.
- The Open University of Tanzania is a fully fledged and accredited public institution of higher learning, mandated to conduct academic programmes leading to certificates, diplomas, undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications. Since it was founded, the university has enrolled students from Malawi, Uganda, Kenya, Namibia, Hungary, Burundi, Libya, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Lesotho, Botswana and most of Tanzania. As of 2008, the total enrollment at the university was 44,099, the majority of whom were Tanzanian.
- The Hubert Kairuki Memorial University is a private institution located on plot No. 322 Regent Estate in the Mikocheni area, some 7-km from the Dar es Salaam City centre, off Ali Hassan Mwinyi and Old Bagamoyo roads.
- The International Medical and Technological University is a privately owned institute of higher education institution operating in Dar es Salaam.
- The Kampala International University—began operations in 2009 operating from Quality Plaza along Pugu road.Currently, the University Centre is situated on a 60 acres (240,000 m2) of land, at Gongo la Mboto area in Ilala District, 7 km (4 mi) from Mwalimu Julius Nyerere International Airport along Pugu road.
Dar es Salaam is divided into three districts: Ilala, Kinondoni, and Temeke. All three are governed as municipal councils, and so all of the city's suburbs or wards are affiliated with them.
Kinondoni is the most populated amongst the districts, with half of the city's population residing within it. It is also home to many of the high-income suburbs. These include:
- Masaki, Oysterbay and Ada Estate are the posh suburbs located along the central beach. During the Colonial Era, they were the major European suburbs of the city. Now, similarly, many diplomats and expatriates reside in these areas. Oysterbay Beach, also known as Coco Beach, is the only white sandy beach in Kinondoni and is the most famous in the area. Many newly built luxury apartments line the waterfront, accommodating the rapid growth of foreigners, mostly Europeans and Asians.
- Mikocheni and Regent Estate are also suburbs within the district. According to the 2012 census, the Mikocheni ward had a population of 32,947.:page: 75 Mikocheni is the home of some major political figures, including the first president of Tanzania, Julius K. Nyerere and opposition party leader, Freeman Mbowe.
- Msasani is a peninsula to the northeast of the city center. It is home to many of the expatriates from the United Kingdom and other western countries that live in Dar es Salaam. Msasani contains a mixture of traditional shops and western-oriented resorts and stores.
- Mbezi Beach is the beachfront suburb located along the northern Dar es Salaam Beach. It is noted for its beautiful beaches with several tourist hotels, and also as the place of residence of many people of high social status and some politicians.
- Sinza, Kijitonyama, Magomeni, Kinondoni and Mwenge are more ethnically mixed than the areas mentioned above. These were perhaps the earliest African suburbs to be occupied. The wards also have the most prosperous business climate outside of the central business district, with many shops, bars, restaurants and inexpensive hotels located here.
- Kimara and Mbezi Louis are hilly, mostly upper class, suburbs far from the city. Due to the distance from the city center, it is quieter, with cooler weather.
- Manzese, Tandale, Mwananyamala-Kisiwani and Kigogo are considered low-income neighborhoods characterized by poor settlement planning, low quality housing and social services.
Ilala is the administrative district of Dar es Salaam where almost all government offices and ministries are housed. The Central Business District (locally called "Posta") is also located in this district. Furthermore, it is the transportation hub of the city, as the Julius Nyerere International Airport, Central Railway Station and Tazara Railway Station are all within the district boundaries. The residential areas are mainly middle to high-income, and some of these are:
- Upanga & Kisutu had the highest concentration of Asian communities within Dar es Salaam, with many residents of Indian and Arabian descent. These areas are also famous for the many colonial houses and mansions built in Indian, Arabic and European styles.
- Kariakoo is the shopping district of the city, perhaps the busiest and largest in East Africa. Many shops, bazaars and merchants dot the streets, selling a variety of products, from foodstuffs to hardware materials. The Kariakoo Market, which is the largest, contains the only underground section of the city. It is the major supply point of the food consumed by all the residents of Dar es Salaam.
- Tabata, Segerea and Ukonga are located a bit farther from the city center. These suburbs are growing to become among the busiest in terms of business and entertainment. This has caused serious traffic congestion, which is said to be the worst in all of Dar es Salaam.
- Ilala is also among the middle income suburbs very near to the city center, and is marked by the Askari Monument. It contains some rival gang groups, whose activities include drug trafficking, money laundering, extortion and racketeering. Most famous gang groups are recognized by the color of their scarf (bandanna). These are the black gang, red gang and blue gang, fighting for control and to maintain their territories and interests.
Temeke is the industrial district of the city, where the main manufacturing centers (with both heavy and light industries) are located. The Port of Dar es Salaam, which is the largest in the country, is also found here. Temeke is believed to have the largest concentration of low-income residents due to industry. Also, many port officials, military and police officers live here.
- Kurasini located right on the Dar es Salaam Harbour, is the home of the Dar es Salaam Port, The Police College, Mgulani Police Barracks and the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair Grounds. Thus, the main residents are police officers and port officials.
- Chang'ombe is one of the only higher income areas in Temeke. It has maintained this status due to occupation by African high colonial officers and some industry owners from the colonial era. Chang'ombe is also the home of the Dar es Salaam University College of Education, The National Stadium and Uhuru Stadium.
- Temeke, Mtoni and Tandika are middle to low-income suburbs.
- Mbagala and Kijichi also are middle to low-income suburbs. Mbagala is the largest suburb in the whole district, and is also considered a slum.
- Kigamboni (South Beach) is a beach front suburb on a peninsula with very beautiful, sandy beaches. It is home to a mixed population of lower and higher incomes. There is demand from higher-income people to live in Kigamboni due to its low population density and proximity to the sea, but this demand is constrained by the area being mainly accessible by ferry involving long waiting times for those wishing to cross in a private vehicle, although crossing the ferry on foot or bicycle is quite quick. There are several popular beach resorts in Kigamboni.
Dar es Salaam is the sports center of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam hosts the second largest stadium in East and Central Africa (National Stadium), which can accommodate up to 60,000 people. The city is home of the most famous and rival soccer clubs,the Azam FC, Simba Sports Club (Simba) and Young Africans Sports Club (Yanga) and many other teams. Apart from the National Stadium, Dar es salaam is home to the Uhuru Stadium (used mainly for local tournaments and political gatherings), Karume Memorial Stadium (the home of Tanzania Football Federation (TFF)), the Gymkhana Golf Courses (between the city center and the shores of the Indian Ocean), and also has tennis courts, squash courts, and a Fitness club. Outside the metropolitan districts, there is the Lugalo Military Golf Course (located in the Lugalo Military Barracks).
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2014)|
- David Adjaye, London-based architect, born in Dar es Salaam in 1966.
- Joaquim Chissano, former president of Mozambique, headed the FRELIMO headquarters in Dar es Salaam where he lived for many years before returning to Mozambique after the country won independence.
- Kanyama Chiume, one of the main leaders in the independence struggle in Nyasaland (renamed Malawi after the country won independence) where he served as minister of education and then as minister of foreign affairs before going into exile in Tanzania, lived in Dar es Salaam for decades. He grew up in Tanganyika. He spent his childhood in Morogoro and in Dar es Salaam and attended primary school and secondary school in Tanganyika (later renamed Tanzania). When he was in boarding school in Dar es Salaam, he lived in the same dormitory with Rashidi Kawawa who later became vice president of Tanganyika, later Tanzania, after the country won independence. Kawawa was also his classmate at Tabora Secondary School (then known as Upper School). Chiume graduated from Makerere University College in Uganda and went to teach at Alliance Secondary School in Dodoma, Tanganyika. After he left Malawi in 1964 to go into exile in Tanzania (1964 - 1994), he went to live in Dar es Salaam again. He also worked in Dar es Salaam for many years as a journalist at The Nationalist, a newspaper of the ruling party TANU, together with Benjamin Mkapa who was then the editor and who later became president of Tanzania.
- Roald Dahl, famous writer, lived in Dar es Salaam 1934–1939.
- Jane Goodall, scientist, and internationally renowned primatologist.
- Marin Hinkle, actress, Two and a Half Men TV Show.
- Rachel Luttrell, actress, Stargate Atlantis, born in Dar es Salaam in 1971.
- Nairn McEwan, Scotland rugby union player and second national coach was born in Dar es Salaam.
- Yoweri Museveni, president of Uganda, lived in Dar es Salaam for many years, first as a student and later as a political refugee. He attended the University of Dar es Salaam where he studied economics and political science. One of his professors was Walter Rodney, a distinguished scholar from Guyana who wrote his highly influential book, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, in the early seventies when he was teaching at the University of Dar es Salaam.
- Respicius Rwehumbiza,a prominent Tanzanian activist and creative author of several academic books and development materials. He has served as the executive director of the True Vision Tanzania (TVTA), a vibrant development Organization in Tanzania for several years. He also taught a number of schools and universities including Feza boys’ high school and the University of Dar es salaam.
- Godfrey Mwakikagile, a prominent Tanzanian author and Africanist. He attended school in Dar es Salaam and worked in the same city as a journalist before going to the United States for further studies. He later became a renowned author of non-fiction books about Africa and the African diaspora and one of the most prominent Africanist scholars.
- Juma Mwapachu, a leading Tanzanian diplomat, lawyer and author of a number of books about African politics and economics who once served as secretary-general of the East African Community (EAC).
- Herieth Paul—Fashion Model.
- Walter Rodney—A Guyanese historian, political activist and preeminent scholar. He was the author of How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. He taught at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania from 1966 to 1967 and later at his alma mater, the University of the West Indies, Mona campus, Kingston, Jamaica. In 1969, Rodney returned to the University of Dar es Salaam where he served as a professor of history until 1974 before going back to Guyana where he was assassinated in June 1980.
- Justinian Rweyemamu, prominent Tanzanian economist, author and professor of economics at the University of Dar es Salaam. One of the leading African economists who also worked at the United Nations and served as an economic adviser to Tanzania's first president, Julius Nyerere.
- Issa G. Shivji, a prominent Tanzanian academic and prolific author and one of Africa's leading experts on constitutional law and development issues. He served as professor of law at the University of Dar es Salaam for many years and was the first to hold the Mwalimu Julius Nyerere Research Chair in Pan-African Studies at the university; also taught at a number of universities around the world.
- Hasheem Thabeet—Oklahoma City Thunder basketball centre.
- Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck—commander of the German East Africa Army, composed of European German officers and senior non-commissioned officers and native black African askaris, undefeated by the British and South Africans between the Great War's outbreak in August, 1914 and the Armistice in November, 1918.
Twin towns—Sister cities
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- Holtermann, Hannes (2011-03-30). "Looking at the sister city agreement between Hamburg and Dar es Salaam from a Tanzanian perspective". Werkstatt.imch.eu. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
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