Eight-thousander

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Eight-thousanders)
Jump to: navigation, search
Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders (three identified) are visible
Graph of the 30 highest peaks with more than 500 m prominence

The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent[1] mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia.

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Kashmir's Nanga Parbat (present-day Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan) in 1895. Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche, and the attempt failed.

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who reached the summit of Annapurna on June 3, 1950.

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Reinhold Messner, who completed this task on October 16, 1986. A year later, in 1987, Jerzy Kukuczka became the second climber to accomplish this feat. Messner had summitted each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by Erhard Loretan in 1995. As of 2011, a total of 26 people have summitted all 14 peaks undisputed. This is an extremely hazardous feat; at least four people have died while in pursuit of this goal. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011.[2] Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 times between 1985 and 2011.[3]

The countries with the highest number of climbers that have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders are Italy and South Korea, with five climbers each, followed by Spain, with four climbers. Kazakhstan, Poland have three climbers each that completed the "Crown of the Himalaya". The first woman who claimed to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders was Oh Eun-Sun of South Korea, stating she completed the set by summiting Annapurna on April 27, 2010.[4] Doubts about this claim have been raised by several parties and an inquiry by the Korean Alpine Federation (KAF) declared her summit claim for Kangchenjunga 2009 "unlikely". Their doubts add to those previously brought forward by rival Edurne Pasaban, which moved Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley in the spring of 2010 to tag the summit as "disputed".[5] Later in 2010, Edurne Pasaban was declared the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders.[6]

In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.[7][8]

List of eight-thousanders[edit]

Peak[9][10] Height Location First ascent First ascensionist(s) First ascent in winter First ascensionist(s) in winter Ascents
graph
Deaths Death rate
graph
Death rate
before 1990*
graph
Death rate
1990–2003*
graph change
Everest 8848 m (29,035 ft) China China/
Nepal Nepal
29 May 1953 New Zealand Edmund Hillary
Nepal Tenzing Norgay
17 Feb 1980
Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Leszek Cichy
3684 210 5.70% 37% 4.4%
K2 8611 m (28,251 ft) China China[11]/
Pakistan Pakistan
31 Jul 1954 Italy Achille Compagnoni
Italy Lino Lacedelli
284 81 23.24% 41% 19.7%
Kangchenjunga 8586 m (28,169 ft) Nepal Nepal/
India India
25 May 1955 United Kingdom George Band
United Kingdom Joe Brown
11 Jan 1986 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
209 40 19.14% 21% 22%
Lhotse 8516 m (27,940 ft) China China/
Nepal Nepal
18 May 1956 Switzerland Fritz Luchsinger
Switzerland Ernst Reiss
31 Dec 1988 Poland Krzysztof Wielicki 221 11 3.43% 14% 2%
Makalu 8485 m (27,838 ft) China China/
Nepal Nepal
15 May 1955 France Jean Couzy
France Lionel Terray
09 Feb 2009 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
234 26 11.11% 16% 8.5%
Cho Oyu 8201 m (26,906 ft) China China/
Nepal Nepal
19 Oct 1954 Austria Joseph Joechler
Nepal Pasang Dawa Lama
Austria Herbert Tichy
12 Feb 1985 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Maciej Pawlikowski
2668 39 1.46%
Dhaulagiri I 8167 m (26,795 ft) Nepal Nepal 13 May 1960 Austria Kurt Diemberger
Germany Peter Diener
Nepal Nawang Dorje
Nepal Nima Dorje
Switzerland Ernst Forrer
Austria Albin Schelbert
21 Jan 1985 Poland Andrzej Czok
Poland Jerzy Kukuczka[12]
358 58 16.20% 31% 11%
Manaslu 8163 m (26,781 ft) Nepal Nepal 9 May 1956 Japan Toshio Imanishi
Nepal Gyalzen Norbu
12 Jan 1984 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Ryszard Gajewski
297 53 17.85% 35.16% 13.42%
Nanga Parbat 8126 m (26,660 ft) Pakistan Pakistan 3 Jul 1953 Austria Hermann Buhl 287 64 22.30% 77% 5.5%
Annapurna I 8091 m (26,545 ft) Nepal Nepal 3 Jun 1950 France Maurice Herzog
France Louis Lachenal
3 Feb 1987 Poland Jerzy Kukuczka
Poland Artur Hajzer
153 59 38% 66% 19.7%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8080 m (26,444 ft) China China/
Pakistan Pakistan[11]
5 Jul 1958 United States Andrew Kauffman
United States Pete Schoening
9 Mar 2012 Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Janusz Gołąb
265 25 9.43% 15.5% 8.75%
Broad Peak 8051 m (26,414 ft) China China/
Pakistan Pakistan[11]
09 Jun 1957 Austria Fritz Wintersteller
Austria Marcus Schmuck
Austria Kurt Diemberger
Austria Hermann Buhl
5 Mar 2013 Poland Maciej Berbeka
Poland Adam Bielecki
Poland Tomasz Kowalski
Poland Artur Małek
359 19 5.29% 5% 8.6%
Gasherbrum II 8034 m (26,358 ft) China China/
Pakistan Pakistan[11]
7 Jul 1956 Austria Fritz Moravec
Austria Josef Larch
Austria Hans Willenpart
2 Feb 2011 Italy Simone Moro
Kazakhstan Denis Urubko
United States Cory Richards
836 19 2.27% 7.8% 0.44%
Shishapangma 8027 m (26,335 ft) China China 2 May 1964 China Hsu Ching
China Chang Chun-yen
China Wang Fuzhou
China Chen San
China Cheng Tien-liang
China Wu Tsung-yue
China Sodnam Doji
China Migmar Trashi
China Doji
China Yonten
14 Jan 2005 Poland Piotr Morawski
Italy Simone Moro
274 23 8.39% 2% 16.8%

* As of September 2003, data from Chinese National Geography, August 2006, page 77 (the column "first ascensionist(s) in winter" has different sources).

Verified climbers who have reached the summit of all 14 eight-thousanders[edit]

Field O2 lists people who have climbed all 14 without bottled oxygen.

Order
accomplished

[13]

All without
O2 (order)
Name Period Born Age Nationality
1 1 Reinhold Messner 1970–1986 1944 42 Italy Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987 1948 39 Poland Polish
3 2 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995 1959 36 Switzerland Swiss
4 [14] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996 1962 33 Mexico Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996 1950 46 Poland Polish
6 3 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999 1956 43 Spain Spanish
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000 1949 51 Italy Italian
8 Young-Seok Park 1993–2001 1963 38 South Korea Korean
9 Hong-Gil Um 1988–2001 1960[15] 40 South Korea Korean
10 4 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991-2002[16] 1968 33 Spain Spanish
11 Wang-Yong Han 1994–2003 1966 37 South Korea Korean
12 5[17] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005 1959 46 United States American
13 6[18][19][20] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007 1958 49 Italy Italian
14 7[21] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008 1959 49 Ecuador Ecuador
15 8[22] Denis Urubko 2000–2009 1973 35 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–2009 1961[23] 47 Germany German
17 9 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009 1968 41 Finland Finnish
18[24] Andrew Lock 1993–2009 1961[25] 48 Australia Australian
19 10 João Garcia 1993–2010 1967 43 Portugal Portuguese
20[26] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010 1951 58 Poland Polish
21[27] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010 1973 36 Spain Spanish
22[28] Abele Blanc 1992–2011[29][30] 1954 56 Italy Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011[29] 1978 33 Nepal Nepal
24 11 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011[29] 1970 40 Austria Austria
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011[29] 1975 36 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
26 12 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011[29] 1977 34 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
27 Jae-Soo Kim 2000–2011[29] 1961 50 South Korea Korean
28[31] 13 Mario Panzeri 1988–2012 1964 48 Italy Italian
29[32] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012[32] 1971 41 Japan Japanese
30 [*] Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013[29] 1982 30 Nepal Nepal
31 14 Kim Chang-Ho 2005–2013[29] 1970 43 South Korea Korean

[*] regarding Chhang Dawa Sherpa; Doubts have been raised about his Annapurna ascent. Awaiting further and final confirmation on this.

Disputed[edit]

Claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of the 14 peaks.

Name Period Born Age Nationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)[33] 1983–1998 1952 46 Italy Italy
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)[34][35] 1987–2005 1954 53 United Kingdom British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma 2000)[36][37] 1993–2002 (deceased) 1953 49 Ukraine Ukrainian
Eun-Sun Oh (Kangchenjunga 2009)[38][39][40][41] 1997–2010 1966 44 South Korea Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)[42] 2001–2013 1963 50 Spain Spanish

Gallery[edit]

Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.

Top down[edit]

Everest[edit]

Everest

Annapurna[edit]

Annapurna

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ In making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains. There is no universally agreed-upon such criterion. However the (generally accepted) list of 14 eight-thousanders is obtained if one uses a topographic prominence cutoff of between 200 and 500 metres (610 and 1524 feet). Some eight-thousand metre subpeaks have been climbed as goals in themselves, for example Lhotse Middle, but this is quite rare.
  2. ^ "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review". ExplorersWeb. June 8, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  4. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun summits Annapurna - becomes the first woman 14x8000er summiteer!". ExplorersWeb. April 27, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ "Korean Alpine Federation questions Miss Oh's Kangchenjunga 2009 summit". ExplorersWeb. August 30, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne". ExplorersWeb. December 10, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  7. ^ "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  8. ^ "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. August 30, 2011. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  9. ^ "General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  10. ^ "ALL 8000ers - ASCENTS vs FATALITIES". 8000ers.com. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  11. ^ a b c d The summits of K2, Gasherbrum I, Gasherbrum II and Broad Peak are on the de facto border between Pakistan and China along the "Karakoram" range. They are claimed by India. The most common ascent routes to the summits are largely via Pakistan, with some climbing from the China side.
  12. ^ "Xexplorers web:The meaning of winter in 8000+ climbing". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  13. ^ "Climbers - First 14". 8000ers.com. 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  14. ^ Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
  15. ^ EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  16. ^ Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. "Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters"". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  17. ^ "Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  18. ^ Mounteverest.net, News, Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers - becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  19. ^ "The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  20. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  21. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  22. ^ PlanetMountain.com. "Denis Urubko, Cho Oyu and all 14 8000m peaks". Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  23. ^ "Ralf Dujmovits". Ralf-dujmovits.de. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  24. ^ "Summit 8000 - Andrew Lock's quest to climb all fourteen of the highest mountains in the world". Andrew-lock.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  25. ^ "Australia's Most Accomplished Mountaineer". Andrew Lock. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  26. ^ "Piotr Pustelnik summits Annapurna - bags the 14x8000ers!". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  27. ^ "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits - completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  28. ^ "Abele Blanc summits Annapurna and all 8000ers". Planetmountain.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "Climbers - First 14, updated table on 8000ers.com". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  30. ^ "Everest - Mount Everest by climbers, news". Mounteverest.net. 2005-05-18. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  31. ^ "Mario Panzeri: sono in cima! E finalmente sono 14 ottomila". Montagna.tv. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  32. ^ a b "日本人初の快挙、8000m峰14座登頂 竹内洋岳". Nikkei.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  33. ^ "Fausto de Stefani back for Lhotse – changes ahead on the 14x8,000ers summiteers’ list?". MountEverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  34. ^ AdventureStats.net, Official records. "Climbers that have summited 10 to 13 of the 14 Main-8000ers". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  35. ^ MountEverest.net, News, under heading No Proof: Alan himself said later that he continued alone for one hour into the fog to find the true summit. He said that he "has no proof to have not been to the summit" and so he counts it a done deal. The statistician's didn't buy it, and Alan was deleted on all of the Cho Oyu lists.. "Alan Hinkes Kangchenjunga - 13 or 14?". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  36. ^ Russianclimb.com, Mountaineering World of Russia & CIS. "Vladislav Terzyul, List of ascents". Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  37. ^ "Sad results on Makalu and Unanswered Questions: 1 missing climber and 1 passed away on Makalu". Everestnews2004.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  38. ^ "AFP: Winds delay S. Korean climber's record attempt". Google.com. 2010-04-24. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  39. ^ "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb - More dark clouds mounting on Anna summit push; Miss Oh's Kanchen summit "disputed" after renewed accusations". Explorersweb.com. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  40. ^ "New doubts over Korean Oh Eun-Sun's climbing record". BBC News. 2010-08-27. 
  41. ^ "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 2010". Himalayandatabase.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  42. ^ "Desnivel; Carlos Pauner consigue la cima del Everest". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 

External links[edit]