The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia. Their summits are in the death zone.
History of climbing
The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt was unsuccessful when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.
The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who on the 1950 French Annapurna expedition reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950. The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980.
The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was the Italian Reinhold Messner, who completed this feat on 16 October 1986. In 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Kukuczka is also the man who established the most (9) new routes on the main eight-thousanders. Messner summitted each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011. Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011. The Italian Simone Moro is the only mountaineer to have made the first winter ascent of four of the eight-thousanders, Jerzy Kukuczka made four winter ascents as well, but one of them was a repetition (K2 has never been summited in the winter).
The first woman who summited all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing was the Spanish Edurne Pasaban, in 2010. In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.
The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet in 2017. They climbed in alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen.
The country with the highest number of climbers that have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders is Italy with seven climbers, followed by Spain with six climbers and South Korea with five climbers. Kazakhstan and Poland have three climbers each that completed the "Crown of the Himalaya".
To relieve capacity pressure, and further develop climbing tourism, the Nepalese authorities lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, (or UIAA), in 2012-2013 to expand the list of 14 eight-thousanders to 19 by re-classifying 5 summits (2 on Lhotse and 3 on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders. The UIAA set up a project group to investigate (called the AGURA Project), however, these proposed 5 new peaks would not meet the UIAA criteria for at least 135 metres of elevation between standalone peaks. There has been no conclusion as of 2018.
List of all 14 eight-thousanders
|Peak||Height||Location||First documented ascent||First summiter(s)||First documented ascent in winter||First summiter(s) in winter||Successful ascents (As of March 2012)||Deaths (As of March 2012)||Death rate (As of March 2012)||Death rate before 1990 (graph)||Death rate 1990–2003 (graph, change)|
|29 May 1953||Edmund Hillary||17 February 1980
|| Krzysztof Wielicki
|31 July 1954|| Achille Compagnoni
|25 May 1955|| George Band
|11 January 1986|| Krzysztof Wielicki
|18 May 1956|| Fritz Luchsinger
|31 December 1988||Krzysztof Wielicki||461||13||2.8%||14%||2.0%|
|15 May 1955|| Jean Couzy
|9 February 2009|| Simone Moro
|Cho Oyu||8201 m
|19 October 1954|| Joseph Joechler
Pasang Dawa Lama
|12 February 1985|| Maciej Berbeka
|Dhaulagiri I||8167 m
|Nepal||13 May 1960|| Kurt Diemberger
|21 January 1985|| Andrzej Czok
|Nepal||9 May 1956|| Toshio Imanishi
|12 January 1984|| Maciej Berbeka
|Nanga Parbat||8126 m
|Pakistan||3 July 1953||Hermann Buhl||26 February 2016|| Muhammad Ali Sadpara
|Annapurna I||8091 m
|Nepal||3 June 1950|| Maurice Herzog
|3 February 1987|| Jerzy Kukuczka
|5 July 1958|| Andrew Kauffman
|9 March 2012|| Adam Bielecki
|Broad Peak||8051 m
|9 June 1957|| Fritz Wintersteller
|5 March 2013|| Maciej Berbeka
|Gasherbrum II||8035 m
|7 July 1956|| Fritz Moravec
|2 February 2011|| Simone Moro
|China||2 May 1964|| Xu Jing
|14 January 2005|| Piotr Morawski
Climbers of all 14 eight-thousanders
There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents, however Elizabeth Hawley's "Himalayan Database" comes close.
Online ascent databases pay close regard to the "Himalayan Database", including AdventureStats.com, and the Eberhard Jurgalski list.
Various mountaineering journals (including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal), maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.
Climbers with verified ascents
The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 without any bottled, or supplementary, oxygen.
|2||Jerzy Kukuczka||1979–1987 (deceased)||1948||39||Polish|
|3||2||Erhard Loretan||1982–1995 (deceased)||1959||36||Swiss|
|8||Young-Seok Park||1993–2001 (deceased)||1963||38||Korean|
|30||Chhang Dawa Sherpa||2001–2013||1982||30||Nepali|
|31||14||Kim Chang-Ho||2005–2013 (deceased)||1970||43||Korean|
|34/35||16/17||Romano Benet||1998–2017||1962||55|| Italian|
|40||Zhang Liang(he summitted the central peak and the 2nd peak in May and Sep 2018)||2000-2018||1964||54||Chinese|
Climbers with disputed ascents
Claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses. In most cases, the influential Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley, is an important source regarding the fact-base of the dispute. Her well-regarded "Himalayan Database" is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com).
Cho Oyu is a recurrent problem peak as it is a small hump circa 30 mins into the summit plateau, and the main proxy - "Did you see Everest" - requires clear weather. Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart. Elizabeth Hawley famously got Ed Viesturs to re-climb the main summit of Shishapangma.
|Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)
(His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above)
|Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)
(Hinkes rejects Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his Cho Oyu ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute")
|Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) Summit 2000, Broad Peak 1995)
(As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change)
|Eun-Sun Oh (Kangchenjunga 2009)
(As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally)
|Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)
(Pauner is very open about his uncertainty as it was dark, but says he might reclimb to remove the doubt)
No. 1 – Everest
No. 2 – K2
No. 3 – Kangchenjunga
No. 4 – Lhotse
No. 5 – Makalu
No. 6 – Cho Oyu
No. 7 – Dhaulagiri
No. 8 – Manaslu
No. 9 – Nanga Parbat
No. 10 – Annapurna
No. 11 – Gasherbrum I
No. 12 – Broad Peak
No. 13 – Gasherbrum II
No. 14 – Shishapangma
- Explorers Grand Slam, also known as The Adventurers Grand Slam
- List of deaths on eight-thousanders
- List of highest mountains
- List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit
- List of ski descents of Eight-Thousanders
- Seven Second Summits
- Seven Summits
- Three Poles Challenge
- Volcanic Seven Summits
- In making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains. There is no universally agreed-upon such criterion. However the (generally accepted) list of 14 eight-thousanders is obtained if one uses a topographic prominence cutoff of between 200 and 500 metres (610 and 1524 feet). Some eight-thousand metre subpeaks have been climbed as goals in themselves, for example Lhotse Middle, but this is quite rare.
- "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
- Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co. p. 257.
- "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review". ExplorersWeb. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
- Planetmountain.com, Nanga Parbat: summit and first winter ascent by Simone Moro, Ali Sadpara and Alex Txikon, 26 February 2016
- "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne". ExplorersWeb. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (Subscription required (help)).
- "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
- "Alpinismo, il record di Meroi-Benet: è italiana la prima coppia su tutti gli Ottomila". 11 May 2017.
- "Nepal mountain peak expansion bid stalls". BBC News. 18 October 2013.
- "The new peaks opened as alternatives to Mount Everest". The Telegraph. 23 August 2013.
- "A funny name for a mountain". Mark Horrell. 4 June 2014.
"General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Stairway to heaven - Daily chart". The Economist. 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
- Chinese National Geography, August 2006, page 77.
- https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-28500721 K2 lies in Pakistan, near the northern border with China.
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). archive.org. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "K2 - Peakbagger.com". peakbagger.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "K2: Some background and History". www.everestnews.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "K2 - Geography & history". britannica.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- K2 Archived 7 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Harding, Luke (13 July 2000). "Climbers banned from sacred peak". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
- "The Himalayan Database, The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley". Elizabeth Hawley/Richard Salisbury. 2018.
- If a mountaineer wants worldwide recognition that they have reached the summit of some of the most formidable mountains in the world, they will need to get the approval of Elizabeth Hawley."Elizabeth Hawley, unrivalled Himalayan record keeper". BBC News. 29 August 2010.
- "Elizabeth Hawley, Who Chronicled Everest Treks, Dies at 94". New York Times. 26 January 2018.
- "High Altitude Mountaineering statistics". AdventureStats.com. 2018.
- "Climbers who have ascended to the summits of all of the world's 14 mountains over 8000 metres". 8000ers.com (Eberhard Jurgalski). 2018.
- "Climbers - First 14". 8000ers.com. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
- Coley, Mariah. "Koreans Missing on Annapurna Presumed Dead". Alpinist.com. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
- Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. "Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters"". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
"Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen.
Mounteverest.net. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers - becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.
"The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen.
"The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
"The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
- "Denis Urubko, Cho Oyu and all 14 8000m peaks". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
- "Ralf Dujmovits". Ralf-dujmovits.de. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "Summit 8000 - Andrew Lock's quest to climb all fourteen of the highest mountains in the world". Andrew-lock.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "Australia's Most Accomplished Mountaineer". Andrew Lock. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "Piotr Pustelnik summits Annapurna - bags the 14x8000ers!". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits - completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Abele Blanc summits Annapurna and all 8000ers". Planetmountain.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Climbers - First 14, updated table on 8000ers.com". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Everest - Mount Everest by climbers, news". Mounteverest.net. 18 May 2005. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- "Mario Panzeri: sono in cima! E finalmente sono 14 ottomila". Montagna.tv. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "日本人初の快挙、8000m峰14座登頂 竹内洋岳". Nikkei.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Climbers - First 14". 8000ers.com. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-13.
- Nives Meroi and Romano Benet climbed all the Eight-thousanders together, it wasn't revealed if one of them climbed the last peak a few moments before the other, thus they share the same position
- "Nives Meroi and Romano Benet summit Annapurna, their 14th 8000er". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Nives Meroi in Roman Benet preplezala 14 osemtisočakov". Sta.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Slovenec s 15. osemtisočaka". Delo.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- "Pokoril všetky osemtisícovky". skrsi.rtvs.sk. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
- "قیچیساز حماسه ساز شد/کوهنورد تبریزی به هشت هزاریها پیوست". yjc. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
- "Ferran Latorre completa los catorce ochomiles en el Everest" (in Spanish). desnivel.com. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- "Cadiach, camino del campo 3 tras coronar el Broad Peak" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
- "China's top mountaineer finds the meaning of life at 26,000 feet". Inkstone. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- I have summitted Cho Oyu 4 times and will be heading for my fifth this coming season. Each time I have watched the Koreans and Japanese go only to where they can see Everest, not the summit, because they know this is what will be asked."Cho Oyu summit: Where is it exactly". Explorersweb.com. September 2017.
- Many people who climb Cho Oyu in Tibet stop at a set of prayer flags with views of Everest and believe they’ve reached the top, unaware they still have to walk for 15 minutes across the summit plateau until they can see the Gokyo Lakes in Nepal."When is a summit not a summit?". Mark Horrell. 12 November 2014.
- "Asia, Tibet, Cho Oyu and Shisha Pangma Central (West) Summit". American Alpine Journal. 1991.
- "Keeper of the Mountains: The Elizabeth Hawley Story". Rocky Mountain Books. 5 October 2012. p. 185-195.
- But a South Korean climber, who followed in their footprints on the crusted snow three days later [in 1997] in clearer weather, did not consider that they actually gained the top. While [Sergio] Martini and [Fausto] De Stefani indicated they were perhaps only a few meters below it, Park Young-Seok claimed that their footprints stopped well before the top, perhaps 30 meters below a small fore-summit and 150 vertical meters below the highest summit. Now in 2000 [Sergio] Martini was back again, and this time he definitely summited Lhotse."Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985-2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 274.
- AdventureStats.net, Official records. "Climbers that have summited 10 to 13 of the 14 Main-8000ers". Retrieved 2008-11-30.
- But his claim to have now climbed all 8000ers is open to question. In April 1990 he and others reached the summit plateau of Cho Oyu. It was misty so they could not see well; nine years later Hinkes said he had “wandered around for a while” in the summit area but could see very little and eventually descended to join the others, one of whom said they had not reached the top."Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985-2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 347.
- "Vladislav Terz". www.russianclimb.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
- "AdventureStats - by Explorersweb". www.adventurestats.com. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
- Russianclimb.com, Mountaineering World of Russia & CIS. "Vladislav Terzyul, List of ascents". Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- "Sad results on Makalu and Unanswered Questions: 1 missing climber and 1 passed away on Makalu". Everestnews2004.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb - More dark clouds mounting on Anna summit push; Miss Oh's Kanchen summit "disputed" after renewed accusations". Explorersweb.com. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- "New doubts over Korean Oh Eun-Sun's climbing record, Hawley to investigate". BBC News. 27 August 2010.
- What would appear to be the most serious blow to Miss Oh, on 26 August this year the Korean Alpine Federation, the nation’s largest climbing association, concluded that Miss Oh had not reached the top of Kangchenjunga."Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985-2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 394.
- "Desnivel; Carlos Pauner consigue la cima del Everest". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- "Carlos Pauner is not sure if they hit the top of the Shisha Pangma (8,027)". lainformacion.com. 18 February 2016.