Jaisalmer State

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Jaisalmer State
Kingdom 1156–1818
Princely State 1818–1947
Dynasty Bhati
1156–1947
Flag of Jaisalmer
Flag
Coat of arms of Jaisalmer
Coat of arms
Jaisalmer and Neighbours.svg
Map of Jaisalmer State with the duchies of Satto, Pithala, Kanod, Tota, Bhadariya, and Nachna
Area 
• 1931
41,600 km2 (16,100 sq mi)
Population 
• 1931
76,255
History 
• Established
1156
1947
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Chalukya Empire
India
Today part ofRajasthan, India
Coat of arms based on The Princely Armory. Publ. by The Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta. 1877
Flag of Jaisalmer over Royal Palace

Jaisalmer State was a Bhati Rajput kingdom in the far-western part of present-day Rajasthan, India, from the mid-12th century CE until 1947. In 1156 CE, Rawal Jaisal moved his capital from Ludarva to Jaisalmer because the former was vulnerable to attacks from Turko-Afghan and Baloch tribes. The descendants of Jaisal continued to exercise absolute control over Jaisalmer until 1818 CE, when a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire made it a princely state, a British Protectorate still running its own internal affairs. Known as the Maharawal, the native ruler of the princely state was entitled to a 15-gun salute.[1]

Early History[edit]

The royal dynasty of Jaisalmer claims to be descended from the deified hero Krishna. The Bhatti rulers originally ruled parts of Afghanistan; their ancestor Rawal Gaj is believed to have founded the city of Gajni. According to James Tod, this city is present-day Ghazni in Afghanistan, while Cunningham identifies it as modern-day Rawalpindi. Rawal Gaj was killed in battle while fighting the Persian king of Khorasan, and his descendants were forced to migrate to Punjab. His descendant Rawal Salivahan is believed to have founded the city of Sialkot and made it his new capital. Salivahan defeated the Saka Scythians in 78 CE at Kahror, assuming the title of Saka-ari (foe of the Sakas). Salivahan's grandson Rawal Bhati (Bhatti) conquered several neighbouring regions. It is from him that the Bhati (Bhatti) clan derives its name.[2]

History of Jaisalmer[edit]

The Bhatti kingdom, marked as Multhan in 800 CE

The state of Jaisalmer had its foundations in what remains of the Empire ruled by the Bhati dynasty. Early Bhati rulers ruled over large empire stretching from Ghazni[3] in modern-day Afghanistan to Sialkot, Lahore and Rawalpindi in modern-day Pakistan[4] to Bhatinda and Hanumangarh in Modern day India.[5] The empire crumbled over time because of continuous invasions from the central Asia. According to Satish Chandra, the Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan made an alliance with the Bhatti rulers of Multhan, because they wanted to end the slave raids made by the Turkic ruler of Ghazni, however the alliance was defeated by Alp Tigin in 977 CE.[6] Bhati dominions continued to be shifted towards the South as they ruled Multan, then finally got pushed into Cholistan and Jaisalmer where Rawal Devaraja built Dera Rawal / Derawar.[7] Jaisalmer was the new capital founded in 1156 by Maharawal Jaisal Singh and the state took its name from the capital. On 11 December 1818 Jaisalmer became a British protectorate in the Rajputana Agency.[8][7]

Traditionally, in the Middle Ages, the main source of income for the kingdom was levies on caravans, but the economy was heavily affected when Bombay emerged as a major port and sea trade replaced the traditional land routes. Maharawals Ranjit Singh and Bairi Sal Singh attempted to turn around the economic decline but the dramatic reduction in trade impoverished the kingdom. A severe drought and the resulting famine from 1895 to 1900, during the reign of Maharawal Salivahan Singh, only made matters worse by causing widespread loss of the livestock that the increasingly agriculturally based kingdom relied upon.

The attempts of Maharawal Jawahir Singh (1914–1949) at modernization were also not entirely successful in turning the kingdom’s economy around, and the drylands of Jaisalmer remained backward compared with other regions of Rajputana, especially the neighbouring state of Jodhpur. Nonetheless, the extensive water storage and supply, sanitation, and health infrastructures developed in the 1930s by the prime minister Dewan Bahadur Brijmohan Nath Zutshi provided significant relief during the severe droughts of 1941 and 1951. Maharawal During 1930-1947, Jawahir Singh and his ministers also promoted technical education and the academic disciplines of civil and mechanical engineering in the state.

After the departure of the British from India in 1947, the Maharawal signed an Instrument of Accession to the new Union of India, while retaining some internal autonomy until the 1950s.

Rulers[edit]

Rawals[edit]

  • 1153 – 1168: Rawal Jaisal Singh
  • 1168 – 1200: Shalivahan Singh II
  • 1200 – 1200: Baijal Singh
  • 1200 – 1219: Kailan Singh
  • 1219 – 1241: Chachak Deo Singh
  • 1241 – 1271: Karan Singh I
  • 1271 – 1275: Lakhan Sen
  • 1275 – 1276: Punpal Singh
  • 1276 – 1294: Jaitsi Singh I
  • 1294 – 1295: Mulraj Singh I
  • 1295 – 1306: Durjan Sal (Duda)
  • 1306 – 1335: Gharsi Singh
  • 1335 – 1402: Kehar Singh II
  • 1402 – 1436: Lachhman Singh
  • 1436 – 1448: Bersi Singh
  • 1448 – 1457: Chachak Deo Singh II
  • 1457 – 1497: Devidas Singh
  • 1497 – 1530: Jaitsi Singh II
  • 1530 – 1530: Karan Singh II
  • 1530 – 1551: Lunkaran Singh
  • 1551 – 1562: Maldev Singh
  • 1562 – 1578: Harraj Singh
  • 1578 – 1624: Bhim Singh
  • 1624 – 1634: Kalyan Singh
  • 1634 – 1648: Manohar Das Singh
  • 1648 – 1651: Ram-Chandra Singh
  • 1651 – 1661: Sabal Singh

Maharawals[edit]

  • 1661 – 1702: Amar Singh of Jaisalmer (b. 16.. – d. 1702)
  • 1702 – 1708: Jaswant Singh of Jaisalmer (d. af.1722)
  • 1708 – 1722: Budh Singh (d. 1722)
  • 1722 – 1762: Akhi Singh
  • 1762 – 1820: Mulraj II (b. ... – d. 1820)
  • 1820 – 1846: Gaj Singh (b. ... – d. 1846)
  • 1846 – 1864: Ranjit Singh of Jaisalmer
  • 1864 – 1891: Bairi Sal (b. ... – d. 1891)
  • 12 Apr 1891 – 11 Apr 1914: Shalivahan Singh III (b. 1887 – d. 19...)
  • 9 Jul 1914 – 15 Aug 1947: Jawahir Singh (b. 1882 – d. 1949)
  • 1949 – 1950: Girdhar Singh (b. 13th Nov. 1907 - d. 27th Aug. 1950)
  • 1950 – 1982 (titular): Raghunath Singh (b. 18th Nov. 1929 - d. 28th Feb. 1982, titles and privileges abolished in 1971)
  • 1982 – present (customary only): Brijraj Singh (b. 13th Nov. 1968)

Dewans (prime ministers)[edit]

  • c.1885 – 1891: Mohata Nathmal
  • c.1890 – 1903: Mehta Jagjiwan
  • 189. – 1900: Thakur Kushal Singh (acting)
  • 1900: Rawatmal Purohit Khetrapaliya (acting)
  • c.1909: Lakshmi Das Sapat
  • 1911 – Jun 1912: Mohammed Niyaz Ali Kazi Hapiri (b. 1866 – d. 19..)
  • Jun 1912 – 21 Mar 1930: Murarji Rooji (Moraji Rao) Sapat
  • c.1892 – 1902: HH Shri Panna Lal Ji Soni Nathani
  • c.1930 – 1932: HH Shri Umedmal Ji Soni Nathani (acting)
  • 19.. – 19..: M.L. Khosala
  • 19.. – 19..: Pandit Jamana Lal
  • 19.. – 19..: Munshi Nand Kishore (known for improvements in animal husbandry)
  • 19.. – 19..: Lala Rakhpat Raj
  • 19.. – 19..: P.K. Shurugula
  • 19.. – 19..: Dewan Bahadur Brijmohan Nath Zutshi (known for development of modern waterworks, hospitals and girls' schools)
  • 19.. – 19..: Anand Swaroop (known for improvements in education)
  • 19.. – 19..: Onkar Singh
  • c.1940 – c.1942: Lakhpat Rai Sikund[citation needed]
  • c.1942 – 19..: Dewan Bahadur Brijmohan Nath Zutshi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 24, p. 386.
  2. ^ https://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V14_008.gif
  3. ^ "Rajasthan or the Central and Western Rajpoot States, Volume 2, page 197-198". Higginbotham And Co. Madras. 14 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 21, page 272 - Imperial Gazetteer of India - Digital South Asia Library". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  5. ^ "Bhatinda Government: District at A glance- Origin". Bhatinda Government. 14 August 2018. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  6. ^ Medieval India 1206-1526 part one, pg.17 by Satish Chandra
  7. ^ a b "Provinical Gazetteers Of India: Rajputana". Government of India. 14 August 2018.
  8. ^ Princely States of India

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 26°55′N 70°54′E / 26.92°N 70.9°E / 26.92; 70.9