Jayapura

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Jayapura
City
Jayapura1.JPG
Official seal of Jayapura
Seal
Jayapura is located in West Papua (province)
Jayapura
Jayapura
Location of Jayapura in Papua
Jayapura is located in Indonesia
Jayapura
Jayapura
Location of Jayapura in Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°31′58.8″S 140°43′1.2″E / 2.533000°S 140.717000°E / -2.533000; 140.717000
Country  Indonesia
Province Papua
Founded 1910
Government
 • Mayor Drs.Tommy Benhur Mano,MM
Area
 • Total 935.92 km2 (361.36 sq mi)
Elevation 287 m (942 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 315,872
Time zone WIT (UTC+9)
Area code(s) +62 967

Jayapura City (Indonesian: Kota Jayapura) is the provincial capital of Papua, Indonesia. It is situated on the island of New Guinea. It is situated on Yos Sudarso Bay (formerly known as Humboldt Bay). It covers an area of 935.92 km2, and borders Jayapura Regency to the west, Keerom Regency to the south, the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the north. It had a population of 256,705 at the 2010 Census;[1] the latest official estimate (as at January 2014) is 315,872.

Administrative districts[edit]

The city comprises five districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census:[1]

District Population
2010 Census
Muara Tami 11,137
Abepura 73,157
Heram 40,435
Jayapura Selatan
(South Jayapura)
66,937
Jayapura Utara
(North Jayapura)
65,039

Etymology[edit]

Jayapura is Sanskrit for "City of Victory" (jaya: "victory"; pura: "city"). The reason for that name is that Suharto wanted to mention his victories while fighting Operation Trikora against the Netherlands. The last battle was fought in Jayapura during 14 August 1962 till 15 August 1962. Nowadays the Humbold bay native called the city as "Port Numbay".

Geography[edit]

Looking east to Yos Sudarso Bay, showing the floating village of Tobati (left) and Engros (right), just to the south of Jayapura.

The topography of Jayapura varies from valleys, hilly, plateau, and high mountain up to 700 meter above sea level. Jayapura overlooks the Yos Sudarso Bay. Jayapura is about 94,000 ha wide divided into 5 districts. Around 30% of the area is inhabited, consisting of a rough terrain, swamps, and protected forest. Average temperature is 29 °C-31.8 °C.

History[edit]

Documentation of the Siboga Expedition showing the community house of Tobati village natives of the Metu-Debi Island, current southern Jayapura.

Before its inclusion into the colonial government of the Dutch Indies, Jayapura was known as Numbay.[2] Trade in Numbay was active long before the entry of the Dutch, centered around the Island of MetuiDebi and the area where the former Gereja Pengharapan ("Church of the Favor of God") stand, in Sam Ratulangi Road. The form of the trade was bartering, especially active between 1897 and 1905. The commodity was spices, cassava, salted fish and bird of paradise. The society of Numbay was led by an ondoafi (chief of the tribe). In the 1800s, Numbay had already maintained relationship with the Ternate Sultanate.[2]

On 7 March 1910, Numbay was officially annexed to the colonial government of Dutch Indies. Captain J.P. Sachse renamed the city into Hollandia.[2] Hollandia was the capital of a district of the same name in the northeast of West New Guinea. The name Hollandia persisted until 1962.

The northern part of Dutch New Guinea was occupied by Japanese forces in 1942. Allied forces drove out the Japanese after amphibious landings near Hollandia, from 21 April 1944. The area served as General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters until the conquest of the Philippines in March 1945. Over twenty U.S. bases were established and half a million US personnel moved through the area.[3]

In 1945, the Dutch made Hollandia the capital of Netherlands New Guinea. After the territory was handed over to the United Nations, on 1 October 1962, the city became known by the Indonesian name Kota Baru, and retained the name when Indonesia took control, on 1 May 1963. The city was briefly renamed Sukarnapura,[4] after President Sukarno, until the end of 1968, when it acquired its present name.

Jayapura was struck by the Aitape Tsunami after the 1998 Papua New Guinea earthquake.[5]

Religious history[edit]

On 12 May 1949, the Apostolic Prefecture of Hollandia was established in the city. In 1963, it was renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Kota Baru. In 1964, it was again renamed as the Apostolic Vicariate of Sukarnapura. It was promoted in 1966 as the Diocese of Sukarnapura, renamed in 1969 as the Diocese of Djajapura, and finally renamed in 1973 as the Diocese of Jayapura.

Sport[edit]

Jayapura is the home of the Persipura, a professional football club that has produced many famous Papuan-Indonesian footballers[6] and have won the Indonesia Super League once in the 2008–09 season. Persipura plays its home matches in the Mandala Stadium.

Twin towns and Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Fabio Maria Lopes Costa (5 June 2015). "Jelajah Sepeda Papua - Jayapura, Cahaya Dari Timur". Jelajah Sepeda Papua (in Indonesian) (Jakarta: KOMPAS). KOMPAS. p. 24. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  3. ^ "Jayapura". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  4. ^ The spelling SukarnApura was because Sukarno is a Javanese name which many endings include O, and when Indonesians wanted to call the city after his name as Indonesian based on Malay suffix A, sukarno's name within the city's name was altered to include A.
  5. ^ "The Impact of the 1998 Aitape Tsunami at Jayapura, Indonesia" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  6. ^ "Persipura Consistently to Develop Local Players". Papua Untuk Semua. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 2°31′59″S 140°43′01″E / 2.533°S 140.717°E / -2.533; 140.717