2011 Census of India

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15th Census
of India
General information
Country India
Date taken 1 March 2011 0.00 PM
Total population 1,210,854,977
Percent change Increase 17.70%[1]
Most populous state Uttar Pradesh (199,812,341)
Least populous state Sikkim (610,577)

The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indians by Unique Identification Authority of India. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 and 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on 31 March 2011, the Indian population increased to 121 crore with a decadal growth of 17.64%.[2] Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of 9.21%. The motto of census 2011 was 'Our Census, Our future'.

Spread across 29 states and 7 union territories, the census covered 640 districts, 5,767 tehsils, 7,933 towns and more than 6 lakh villages. A total of 27 lakh officials visited households in 7,933 towns and 6 lakh villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation.[3] The cost of the exercise was approximately 2,200 crore (US$330 million) – this comes to less than $0.50 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.60 per person.[3] Conducted every 10 years, this census faced big challenges considering India's vast area and diversity of cultures and opposition from the manpower involved.

Information on castes was included in the census following demands from several ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav and Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.[4] Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits.[5] Earlier, there was speculation of conduction caste-based census in 2011, first time after 80 years since 1931, to find the exact population of Other Backward Class (OBCs) in India,[6][7][8][9] which was later accepted and Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 was conducted whose first findings were revealed on 3 July 2015 by Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.[10] Mandal Commission report of 1980 quoted OBC population at 52%, though National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2006 quoted OBC population at 41%[11]

There is only one instance of a caste-count in post-independence India. It was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Communist government under E M S Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various lower castes. The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala, 1971.[12]

Census[edit]

C Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India for the 2011 Indian Census. Census data was collected in 16 languages and the training manual was prepared in 18 languages. In 2011, India and Bangladesh also conducted their first-ever joint census of areas along their border.[13][14] The census was conducted in two phases. The first, the house-listing phase, began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of data about all the buildings and census houses.[15] Information for the National Population Register was also collected in the first phase. The second, the population enumeration phase, was conducted from 9 – 28 February 2011 all over the country. The eradication of epidemics, the availability of more effective medicines for the treatment of various types of diseases and the improvement in the standard of living were the main reasons for the high decadal growth of population in India.

Information[edit]

House-listings[edit]

The House-listing schedule contained 35 questions.[16]

Building number
Census house number
Predominant material of floor, wall and roof of the census house
Ascertain use of actual house
Condition of the census house
Household number
Total number of persons in the household
Name of the head of the household
Sex of the head
Caste status (SC or ST or others)
Ownership status of the house
Number of dwelling rooms
Number of married couple the household
Main source of drinking water
Availability of drinking water source
Main source of lighting
Latrine within the premises
Type of latrine facility
Waste water outlet connection
Bathing facility within the premises
Availability of kitchen
Fuel used for cooking
Radio/Transistor
Television
Computer/Laptop
Telephone/Mobile phone
Bicycle
Scooter/Motor cycle/Moped
Car/Jeep/Van
Availing Banking services.

Population enumeration[edit]

The Population enumeration schedule contained 30 questions.[17][18]

Name of the person
Relationship to head
Sex
Date of birth and age
Current marital status
Age at marriage
Religion
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
Disability
Mother tongue
Other languages known
Literacy status
Status of attendance (Education)
Highest educational level attained
Working any time during last year
Category of economic activity
Occupation Nature of industry
Trade or service
Class of worker
Non economic activity
Seeking or available for work
Travel to place of work
Birthplace
Place of last residence
Reason for migration
Duration of stay in the place of migration
Children surviving
Children ever born
Number of children born alive during last one year

National Population Register[edit]

The National Population Register household schedule contained 9 questions.[19]

Name of the person and resident status
Name of the person as should appear in the population register
Relationship to head
gender
Date of birth
Marital status
Educational qualification
Occupation/Activity
Names of father, mother and spouse

Once the information was collected and digitized, fingerprints were taken and photos collected. Unique Identification Authority of India was to issue a 12-digit identification number to all individuals and the first ID was to have been issued in 2011.[20][21][22]

Census report[edit]

Decadal growth of Indian population (1901–2011).

Provisional data from the census was released on 31 March 2011 (and was updated on 20 May 2013).[23][24][25][26][27]

Population Total 1,210,854,977
Males 62,37,24,248
Females 58,64,69,174
Literacy Total 74%
Males 82.10%
Females 65.50%
Density of population per km2 382
Sex ratio per 1000 males 943 females
Child sex ratio (0–6 age group) per 1000 males 918

Population[edit]

The population of India as per 2011 census was 1,210,193,422.[28] India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001, slightly lower than the population of Brazil. India, with 2.4% of the world's surface area, accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with roughly 200 million people. A little over 5 out of 10 Indians live in the six states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.[29]

India is the homeland of major belief systems such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism, while also being home to several indigenous faiths and tribal religions which have survived the influence of major religions for centuries.

Ever since its inception, the Census of India has been collecting and publishing information about the religious affiliations as expressed by the people of India. In fact, population census has the rare distinction of being the only instrument that collects this diverse and important characteristic of the Indian population.

Population distribution in India by states
Rank State /
Union Territory
(UT)
Type Population[30]  % of total population[31] Males Females Sex Ratio
[32]
Literacy rate (%) Rural[33]
(%)
Population
Urban[33]
Population
Area[34]
(km²)
Density
(/km²)
Decadal Growth% (2001-2011)
1 Uttar Pradesh State 19,98,12,341 16.5 10,44,80,510 9,53,31,831 930 67.68 15,51,11,022 4,44,70,455 2,40,928 828 20.1%
2 Maharashtra State 11,23,74,333 9.28 5,82,43,056 5,41,31,277 929 82.34 6,15,45,441 5,08,27,531 3,07,713 365 16.0%
3 Bihar State 10,40,99,452 8.6 5,42,78,157 4,98,21,295 918 61.80 9,20,75,028 1,17,29,609 94,163 1,102 25.1%
4 West Bengal State 9,12,76,115 7.54 4,68,09,027 4,44,67,088 950 76.26 6,22,13,676 2,91,34,060 88,752 1,030 13.9%
5 Andhra Pradesh State 8,45,80,777 6.99 4,24,42,146 4,21,38,631 993 67.02 56,361,702 2,82,19,075 2,75,045 308 11.1%
6 Madhya Pradesh State 7,26,26,809 6.00 3,76,12,306 3,50,14,503 931 69.32 5,25,37,899 2,00,59,666 3,08,245 236 20.3%
7 Tamil Nadu State 7,21,47,030 5.96 3,61,37,975 3,60,09,055 996 80.09 3,71,89,229 3,49,49,729 1,30,058 555 15.6%
8 Rajasthan State 6,85,48,437 5.66 3,55,50,997 3,29,97,440 928 66.11 5,15,40,236 1,70,80,776 3,42,239 201 21.4%
9 Karnataka State 6,10,95,297 5.05 3,09,66,657 3,01,28,640 973 75.36 3,75,52,529 2,35,78,175 1,91,791 319 15.7%
10 Gujarat State 6,04,39,692 4.99 3,14,91,260 2,89,48,432 919 78.03 3,46,70,817 2,57,12,811 1,96,024 308 19.2%
11 Odisha State 4,19,74,218 3.47 2,12,12,136 2,07,62,082 979 72.87 3,49,51,234 69,96,124 1,55,707 269 14.0%
12 Kerala State 3,34,06,061 2.76 1,60,27,412 1,73,78,649 1084 94.00 1,74,45,506 1,59,32,171 38,863 859 4.9%
13 Jharkhand State 3,29,88,134 2.72 1,69,30,315 1,60,57,819 948 66.41 2,50,36,946 79,29,292 79,714 414 22.3%
14 Assam State 3,12,05,576 2.58 1,59,39,443 1,52,66,133 958 72.19 2,67,80,526 43,88,756 78,438 397 16.9%
15 Punjab State 2,77,43,338 2.29 1,46,39,465 1,31,03,873 895 75.84 1,73,16,800 1,03,87,436 50,362 550 13.7%
16 Chhattisgarh State 2,55,45,198 2.11 1,28,32,895 1,27,12,303 991 70.28 1,96,03,658 59,36,538 1,35,191 189 22.6%
17 Haryana State 2,53,51,462 2.09 1,34,94,734 1,18,56,728 879 75.55 1,65,31,493 88,21,588 44,212 573 19.9%
18 Delhi UT 1,67,87,941 1.39 88,87,326 78,00,615 868 86.21 9,44,727 1,29,05,780 1,484 11,297 21%
19 Jammu and Kashmir State 1,25,41,302 1.04 66,40,662 59,00,640 889 67.16 91,34,820 34,14,106 2,22,236 56 23.7%
20 Uttarakhand State 1,00,86,292 0.83 51,37,773 49,48,519 963 79.63 70,25,583 30,91,169 53,483 189 19.2%
21 Himachal Pradesh State 68,64,602 0.57 34,81,873 33,82,729 972 82.80 61,67,805 6,88,704 55,673 123 12.8%
22 Tripura State 36,73,917 0.30 18,74,376 17,99,541 960 87.22 27,10,051 9,60,981 10,486 350 14.7%
23 Meghalaya State 29,66,889 0.25 14,91,832 14,75,057 989 74.43 23,68,971 5,95,036 22,429 132 27.8%
24 Manipur State 27,21,756 0.21 12,90,171 12,80,219 992 79.21 18,99,624 8,22,132 22,327 122 18.7%
25 Nagaland State 19,78,502 0.16 10,24,649 9,53,853 931 79.55 14,06,861 5,73,741 16,579 119 -0.5%
26 Goa State 14,58,545 0.12 7,39,140 7,19,405 973 88.70 5,51,414 9,06,309 3,702 394 8.2%
27 Arunachal Pradesh State 13,83,727 0.11 7,13,912 6,69,815 938 65.38 10,69,165 3,13,446 83,743 17 25.9%
28 Puducherry UT 12,47,953 0.10 6,12,511 6,35,442 1037 85.85 3,94,341 8,50,123 479 2,598 27.7%
29 Mizoram State 10,97,206 0.09 5,55,339 5,41,867 976 91.33 5,29,037 5,61,997 21,081 52 22.8%
30 Chandigarh UT 10,55,450 0.09 5,80,663 4,74,787 818 86.05 29,004 10,25,682 114 9,252 17.1%
31 Sikkim State 6,10,577 0.05 3,23,070 2,87,507 890 81.42 4,55,962 1,51,726 7,096 86 12.4%
32 Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT 3,80,581 0.03 2,02,871 1,77,710 876 86.63 2,44,411 1,35,533 8,249 46 6.7%
33 Dadra and Nagar Haveli UT 3,43,709 0.03 1,93,760 1,49,949 774 76.24 1,83,024 1,59,829 491 698 55.5%
34 Daman and Diu UT 2,43,247 0.02 1,50,301 92,946 618 87.10 60,331 1,82,580 112 2,169 53.5%
35 Lakshadweep UT 64,473 0.01 33,123 31,350 946 91.85 14,121 50,308 32 2,013 6.2%
TOTAL India 28 + 7 121,08,54,977 100 62,37,24,248 58,64,69,174 943 73.00 83,30,87,662 37,71,05,760 32,87,240 382 17.64%

Religious demographics[edit]

The religious data on India Census 2011 was released by the Government of India on 25 August 2015.[35][36][37] Hindus are 79.8% (966.3 million), while Muslims are 14.23% (172.2 million) in India.[38][38][39][40] For the first time, a "No religion" category was added in the 2011 census.[41][42] 2.87 million were classified as people belonging to "No Religion" in India in the 2011 census.[43][44] - 0.24% of India's population of 1.21 billion.[45][46] Given below is the decade-by-decade religious composition of India till the 2011 census.[47][48][49] There are six religions in India that have been awarded "National Minority" status - Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists and Parsis.[50][51] Sunnis, Shias, Bohras , Agakhanis and Ahmadiyyas were identified as sects of Islam in India.[52][53][54] As per 2011 census, six major faiths- Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains make up over 99.4% of India’s 121 crore population, while “other religions, persuasions” (ORP) count is 82. Among the ORP faiths, six faiths- 49.57 lakh-strong Sarna, 10.26 lakh-strong Gond, 5.06 lakh-strong Sari, Doni Polo (3.02 lakh) in Arunachal Pradesh, Sanamahi (2.22 lakh) in Manipur, Khasi (1.38 lakh) in Meghalaya dominate.[55] Maharashtra is having the highest number of atheists in the country with 9,652 such people, followed by Meghalaya (9,089) and Kerala.[56]

Population trends for major religious groups in India (1951–2011)
Religious
group
Population
% 1951
Population
% 1961
Population
% 1971
Population
% 1981
Population
% 1991
Population
% 2001
Population
% 2011[57]
Hinduism 84.1% 83.45% 82.73% 82.30% 81.53% 80.46% 79.80%
Islam 9.8% 10.69% 11.21% 11.75% 12.61% 13.43% 14.23%
Christianity 2.3% 2.44% 2.60% 2.44% 2.32% 2.34% 2.30%
Sikhism 1.79% 1.79% 1.89% 1.92% 1.94% 1.87% 1.72%
Buddhism 0.74% 0.74% 0.70% 0.70% 0.77% 0.77% 0.70%
Jainism 0.46% 0.46% 0.48% 0.47% 0.40% 0.41% 0.37%
Zoroastrianism 0.13% 0.09% 0.09% 0.09% 0.08% 0.06% n/a
Other religions / No religion 0.43% 0.43% 0.41% 0.42% 0.44% 0.72% 0.9%

Literacy[edit]

Any one above age 7 who can read and write in any language with an ability to understand was considered a literate. In censuses before 1991, children below the age 5 were treated as illiterates. The literacy rate taking the entire population into account is termed as "crude literacy rate", and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is termed as "effective literacy rate". Effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04% with 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females being literate.[58]

S.No. Census Year Total (%) Male (%) Female (%)
1 1901 5.35 9.83 0.60
2 1911 5.92 10.56 1.05
3 1921 7.16 12.21 1.81
4 1931 9.50 15.59 2.93
5 1941 16.10 24.90 7.30
6 1951 16.67 24.95 9.45
7 1961 24.02 34.44 12.95
8 1971 29.45 39.45 18.69
9 1981 36.23 46.89 24.82
10 1991 42.84 52.74 32.17
11 2001 64.83 75.26 53.67
12 2011 74.04 82.14 65.46
  • The table lists the "crude literacy rate" in India from 1901 to 2011.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Decadal Growth :www.censusindia.gov.in" (PDF). 
  2. ^ "India's population — 127,42,39,769 and growing". 
  3. ^ a b C Chandramouli (23 August 2011). "Census of India 2011 – A Story of Innovations". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 
  4. ^ Demand for caste census rocks Lok Sabha
  5. ^ India to conduct first record of nation’s caste system since days of the Raj
  6. ^ "OBC data not in 2011 Census, says Moily". Indian Express. 2009-12-18. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  7. ^ "No data since 1931, will 2011 Census be all-caste inclusive? – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 11 March 2010. 
  8. ^ "Caste in Census 2011: Is it necessary?". The Times Of India. 28 May 2010. 
  9. ^ "OBCs form 41% of population: Survey – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 1 September 2007. 
  10. ^ "Govt releases socio-economic and caste census for better policy-making". 
  11. ^ "OBc count: 52 or 41%? – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 1 November 2006. 
  12. ^ G.O.K 1971: Appendix XVIII
  13. ^ "Bangladesh and India begin joint census of border areas". 
  14. ^ "Census in Indian and Bangladesh enclaves ends". 
  15. ^ Kumar, Vinay (4 April 2010). "House listing operations for Census 2011 progressing well". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "Census of India 2011; Houselisting and Housing Census Schedule" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  17. ^ "Census of India 2011; Household Schedule-Side A" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  18. ^ "Census of India 2011; Household Schedule-Side B" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  19. ^ "National population register; Household Schedule" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  20. ^ "Census operation in history kicks off". The Hindu. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  21. ^ "India launches new biometric census". Yahoo news. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. [dead link]
  22. ^ "India launches biometric census". BBC. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  23. ^ "India's total population is now 121 crore". LiveMint. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  24. ^ "India at Glance – Population Census 2011". Census Organisation of India. 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  25. ^ "It's official. We are the second most populous nation in the world at 1.2 billion". 
  26. ^ "India's total population is now 1.21 billion". 
  27. ^ "India's total population is 1.21 billion, final census reveals". 
  28. ^ "Why activists are upset with Census disability numbers". 
  29. ^ "Indian States Census 2011". Census Organization of India. 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  30. ^ "List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011". 2011 Census of India. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  31. ^ "Ranking of States and Union territories by population size: 1991 and 2001" (PDF). Government of India (2001). Census of India. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  32. ^ "Population" (PDF). Government of India (2011). Census of India. 
  33. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals". Government of India (2011). Census of India. Retrieved 2011-07-23. 
  34. ^ "Area of India/state/district". Government of India (2001). Census of India. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  35. ^ Abantika Ghosh, Vijaita Singh (24 January 2015). "Census 2011: Muslims record decadal growth of 24.6 pc, Hindus 16.8 pc". Indian Express. Indian Express. Retrieved 2015-01-27. 
  36. ^ "Hindus 79.8%, Muslims 14.2% of population: census data". 
  37. ^ "India Census 2011". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2015-08-25. 
  38. ^ a b "Muslim population growth slows". 
  39. ^ "Muslim representation on decline". The Times of India. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-31. 
  40. ^ Share on Twitter (2015-08-26). "Muslim share of population up 0.8%, Hindus' down 0.7% between 2001 and 2011 - Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  41. ^ "The tradition of atheism in India goes back 2,000 years. I'm proud to be a part of that". 
  42. ^ "Why a Tinder date is better than 72 virgins in paradise". 
  43. ^ "Against All Gods: Meet the league of atheists from rural Uttar Pradesh". 
  44. ^ "People without religion have risen in Census 2011, but atheists have nothing to cheer about". 
  45. ^ "2.87 million Indians have no faith, census reveals for first time". 
  46. ^ "1.88 lakh people in Tamil Nadu state 'no religion' in 2011 census". 
  47. ^ "Muslim politics:At a crossroads". livemint.com. Livemint. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  48. ^ Aariz Mohammed (1–15 May 2013). "Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims - i". Milli Gazette. Milli Gazette. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  49. ^ Aariz Mohammed (1–15 May 2013). "Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims - i" (PDF). Milli Gazette. Milli Gazette. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  50. ^ National minority status for Jains
  51. ^ Jains become sixth minority community
  52. ^ "Sunnis, Shias, Bohras , Agakhanis and Ahmadiyyas were identified as sects of Islam.". 
  53. ^ "Protest against inclusion of Ahmediyyas in Muslim census". 
  54. ^ "Minority in a minority". 
  55. ^ "Fewer minor faiths in India now, finds Census; number of their adherents up". 
  56. ^ "God versus Atheism, Bengal vouches for believers". 
  57. ^ "Population by religious community - 2011". 2011 Census of India. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015. 
  58. ^ "Census Provional Population Totals". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 

External links[edit]