Indian Administrative Service
(As Imperial Civil Service)
|Staff College||Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie, (Uttarakhand)|
|Cadre Controlling Authority||Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension, Department of Personnel and Training|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government service|
|General nature||Policy Formulation
Advisors to Ministers
Managing bureaucracy (Center and State)
|Preceding service||Imperial Civil Service (1893–1946)|
|Cadre Strength||4737 members (direct recruitment – 3398, promotion – 1339) (2013)|
|Association||IAS officers Association|
|Head of the All India Civil Services|
Current: Pradeep Kumar Sinha, IAS
The Indian Administrative Service (abbreviated as IAS) (Hindi: भारतीय प्रशासनिक सेवा) is the premier administrative civil service of the Government of India. IAS officers hold key and strategic positions in the Union Government, States and public-sector undertakings. Like in various countries (example UK) following Parliamentary system, IAS as the permanent bureaucracy in India forms an inseparable part of the executive branch of the Government of India thus providing continuity and neutrality to the administration. Unlike Candidates selected to other civil services, a person once appointed to Indian Administrative Service or Indian Foreign Service (IFS) becomes ineligible to reappear in Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission because there are no higher civil services other than aforementioned two services under Government of India.
Along with the IPS and forest services, the IAS is one of the three All India Services—its cadre can be employed by both - the Union Government and the States. Upon confirming to service after probation as Sub-Divisional Magistrate, an IAS officer is given administrative command of entire district as District collector. On attaining the upper levels of Super Time Scale to Apex Scale, they can go on to head whole departments and subsequently entire Ministries of Government of India and States. IAS officers represent Government of India at the international level in bilateral and multilateral negotiations. On deputations they work at Intergovernmental organizations like World Bank and United Nations or its Agencies. IAS officers at various levels of administration play vital roles in conducting free, fair and smooth elections in India under the direction of Election Commission of India and states.
The erstwhile Indian Civil Service was higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947. The civil services were divided into two categories - covenanted and uncovenanted. The covenanted civil service consisted of only white British civil servants occupying the higher posts in the government. The uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration.
At the time of the partition of India and departure of the British, in 1947, the Indian Civil Service was divided between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan. The part which went to India was named the Indian Administrative Service, while the part that went to Pakistan was named the "Civil Service of Pakistan".
Recruitment to the Indian Administrative Service is done through an extremely competitive examination called the "Civil Services Examination", organized by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). In 2012, over 500,000 candidates took this exam from which only 170 were finally recruited into the Indian Administrative Service.
Allocation and placement
After being selected in the UPSC exam, candidates undergo training at LBSNAA, mussoorie for IAS. There is one cadre in each Indian state, except for three joint cadres: Assam–Meghalaya, Manipur–Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh–Goa–Mizoram–Union Territories (AGMUT).
The "insider-outsider ratio" (ratio of officers who are posted in their home states) is maintained as 1:2. as 'insiders'. The rest are posted outsiders according to the 'roster' in states other than their home states. Till 2008 there was no choice for any state cadre and the candidates, if not placed in the insider vacancy of their home states, were allotted to different states in alphabetic order of the roster, beginning with the letters A,H,M,T for that particular year. For example, if in a particular year the roster begins from 'A', which means the first candidate in the roster will go to the Andhra Pradesh state cadre of IAS, the next one to Bihar, and subsequently to Chhattisgarh, Gujarat and so on in alphabetical order. The next year the roster starts from 'H', for either Haryana or Himachal Pradesh.( if it has started from Haryana in the previous occasion when it all started from 'H', then this time it would start from Himachal Pradesh). This highly intricate system has on one hand ensured that officers from different states are placed all over India, it has also resulted in wide disparities in the kind of professional exposure for officers, when we compare officers in small and big and also developed and backward state, since the system ensures that the officers are permanently placed to one state cadre. The only way the allotted state cadre can be changed is by marriage to an officer of another state cadre of IAS/IPS/IFS. One can even go to his home state cadre on deputation for a limited period, after which one has to invariably return to the cadre allotted to him or her.
The centralising effect of these measures was considered extremely important by the system's framers, but has received increasing criticism over the years. In his keynote address at the 50th anniversary of the Service in Mussoorie, former Cabinet Secretary Nirmal Mukarji argued that separate central, state and local bureaucracies should eventually replace the IAS as an aid to efficiency. There are also concerns that without such reform, the IAS will be unable to "move from a command and control strategy to a more interactive, interdependent system".
Functions of the civil servant/officer
A civil servant is responsible for the law and order and general administration in the area under his work. Typically the functions of an IAS officer are as follows:
- To handle the daily affairs of the government, including framing and implementation of policy in consultation with the minister-in-charge of the concerned ministry.
- Implementation of policy requires supervision.
- Implementation requires travelling to places where the policies are being implemented.
- Implementation also includes expenditure of public funds which again requires personal supervision as the officers are answerable to the Parliament and State Legislature for any irregularities that may occur.
- In the process of policy formulation and decision making, officers at higher levels like Joint Secretary and Deputy Secretary contribute to the final shape of the policy and/or take a final decision with the concurrence of the minister concerned or the cabinet (depending on the gravity of the issue).
Most IAS officers start their careers in the state administration at the sub-divisional level as a sub divisional magistrate. They are entrusted with the law and order situation of the city along with general administration and development work of the areas under their charge. Since early 20th-century, Indian civil servants are colloquially called "babus", while Indian bureaucracy is called "babudom", as in the "rule of babus", especially in the Indian media.
|Grade||Position in the State Government(s) or Central government||Pay Scale (per month)|
|Cabinet Secretary Grade||Cabinet Secretary of India||₹90,000|
|Apex Scale||Chief Secretary of States, Secretary (Union Secretaries in charge) of various ministries/Additional Principal Secretary/Principal Secretary of Government of India||₹80,000 (fixed)|
|Above Super Time Scale||Additional Chief Secretary/Financial Commissioners in states, Additional Secretaries/Special Secretary to the Government of India||₹67,000-79,000|
|Super Time Scale||Divisional Commissioner in a large division or Secretary in state government or position of Principal Staff Officer (PSO)/ Joint Secretary to Government of India||₹37,400-₹67,000 plus grade pay of ₹10000|
|Selection Grade||Divisional Commissioner in small division/District collector in a large district or Special Secretary in the state government or a Director in the Government of India/Joint Director or Sr.Principal Private Secretary of Government of India||₹37,400-₹67,000 plus grade Pay of ₹8700|
|Junior Administrative Grade||District collector/District Magistrate in a small district or Joint Secretary in the state government or a Deputy Secretary/Deputy Director or Principal Private Secretary in the Government of India||₹15,600-₹39,100 plus grade pay of ₹7600|
|Senior Time Scale||Chief Development Officer or Municipal Commissioner or Vice Chairman of District Development Authority in a district or Under Secretary/Additional District Magistrate in State or Under Secretary/Assistant Director in Government of India or Sr.Private Secretary in Government of India||₹15,600-₹39,100 plus grade pay of ₹6600|
|Junior Time Scale||Sub-Divisional Magistrate in a sub-division of a district (Entry)/Section Officer/Private Secretary in Government of India||₹15,600-₹39,100 plus grade pay of ₹5400|
- Narendra Kumar Singhi (1974). Bureaucracy, Positions and Persons: Role Structures, Interactions, and Value-orientations of Bureaucrats in Rajasthan. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-0-88386-294-0.
- Bankey Bihari Misra (1977). The bureaucracy in India: an historical analysis of development up to 1947. Oxford University Press.
- Indian bureaucracy at the crossroads, by Syamal Kumar Ray. Published by Sterling, 1979.
- Corruption in Indian politics and bureaucracy, by Satyavan Bhatnagar, S. K. Sharma, Punjab University. Published by Ess Ess Publications, 1991. ISBN 81-7000-123-4.
- T. S. R. Subramanian (2004). Journeys through babudom and netaland: governance in India. Rupa & Co.
- Sudhansu Mohanty (2004). Babudom : Catacombs Of India Bureaucracy. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0383-3.
- Indian Engineering Service
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- Best websites for IAS preparation - Must check these websites!
- "2013 Total Cadre strength of IAS as on January 2013" (PDF). Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension. Retrieved 22 january 2012. Check date values in:
- Meghna Sabharwal, Evan M. Berman "Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan (Public Administration and Public Policy," (2013)
- "Civil Service". The British Library. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "Important Highlights of Civil Service Examination, 2012". Press Information Bureau.
- Educational Philosophy of Dr. Zakir Hussain. Dr. Noorejahan H. p. 325. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Mukarji, Nirmal. Speech published "Restructuring the Bureaucracy: Do We Need the All-India Services?"in Arora, Balveer and Radin, Beryl, Eds. The Changing Role of the All-India Services: An ada for future research on federalism and the All-India services. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research, 2000.
- Radin, B.A. (2007). "The Indian Administrative Service (IAS) in the 21st Century: Living in an Intergovernmental Environment" (PDF). International Journal of Public Administration 30 (13): 1525–1548. doi:10.1080/01900690701229848. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- Exam Result IAS information website
- One Stop IAS
- "Yet to start work, Natgrid CEO highest paid babu". The Times of India. Aug 23, 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- "A barbed look at babudom: Will the typically British humour of Yes Minister work if transplanted to an Indian setting? Viewers of a Hindi satellite channel have a chance to find out.". The Times of India. Sep 2, 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
- "Babu". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-09-17.
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