List of birds of Cuba
This is a list of birds species recorded in the archipelago of Cuba which consists of the main island of Cuba and over 1000 smaller cays and islands. The avifauna of Cuba include a total of 368 species, of which 25 are endemic, 17 are globally threatened and 8 have been introduced by humans. Extinct species include the passenger pigeon and Cuban red macaw.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total species count for Cuba.
The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the archipelago of Cuba
- (E) Endemic - a species endemic to the archipelago of Cuba.
- (Es) Endemic subspecies - a subspecies endemic to the archipelago of Cuba.
- (I) Introduced - a species introduced to the archipelago of Cuba as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
- 1 Loons
- 2 Grebes
- 3 Shearwaters and petrels
- 4 Storm petrels
- 5 Tropicbirds
- 6 Gannets and boobies
- 7 Cormorants
- 8 Darters
- 9 Frigatebirds
- 10 Pelicans
- 11 Bitterns, herons and egrets
- 12 Ibises and spoonbills
- 13 Storks
- 14 Flamingos
- 15 Ducks, geese and swans
- 16 New World vultures
- 17 Osprey
- 18 Hawks and kites
- 19 Caracaras and falcons
- 20 New World quails
- 21 Pheasants
- 22 Guineafowls
- 23 Cranes
- 24 Limpkin
- 25 Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
- 26 Jacanas
- 27 Oystercatchers
- 28 Stilts and avocets
- 29 Plovers
- 30 Sandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes
- 31 Skuas and jaegers
- 32 Gulls, terns and skimmers
- 33 Auks
- 34 Pigeons and doves
- 35 Parakeets and parrots
- 36 Cuckoos and anis
- 37 Barn owls
- 38 Typical owls
- 39 Nightjars
- 40 Swifts
- 41 Hummingbirds
- 42 Trogons
- 43 Water kingfishers
- 44 Todies
- 45 Woodpeckers, flickers and sapsuckers
- 46 Tyrant flycatchers
- 47 Swallows and martins
- 48 Kinglets
- 49 Waxwings
- 50 Wrens
- 51 Mockingbirds and thrashers
- 52 Thrushes, solitaires and bluebirds
- 53 Gnatcatchers
- 54 Old World flycatchers
- 55 Crows
- 56 Starlings
- 57 Estrildid finches
- 58 Vireos
- 59 New World warblers
- 60 Tanagers
- 61 American sparrows, yellow-finches, honeycreepers and towhees
- 62 Cardinals, grosbeaks and North American buntings
- 63 Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and orioles
- 64 Cardueline finches
- 65 Sparrows
- 66 See also
- 67 References
Loons, known as divers in Europe, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. It is the size of a large duck or small goose, which it somewhat resemble when swimming, but is completely unrelated to these waterfowl.
|Common loon||Gavia immer||(A)|
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.
|Least grebe||Tachybaptus dominicus|
|Pied-billed grebe||Podilymbus podiceps|
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.
|Black-capped petrel||Pterodroma hasitata|
|Cory's shearwater||Calonectris diomedea||(A)|
|Sooty shearwater||Ardenna griseus||(A) near-threatened|
|Manx shearwater||Puffinus puffinus||(A)|
|Audubon's shearwater||Puffinus lherminieri||(A)|
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.
|Wilson's storm petrel||Oceanites oceanicus||(A)|
|Band-rumped storm petrel||Oceanodroma castro||(A)|
|Leach's storm petrel||Oceanodroma leucorhoa||(A)|
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.
|Red-billed tropicbird||Phaethon aethereus||(A)|
|White-tailed tropicbird||Phaethon lepturus||(A)|
Gannets and boobies
|Northern gannet||Morus bassanus||(A)|
|Masked booby||Sula dactylatra||(A)|
|Red-footed booby||Sula sula||(A)|
|Brown booby||Sula leucogaster||(A)|
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.
|Double-crested cormorant||Phalacrocorax auritus|
|Neotropic cormorant||Phalacrocorax brasilianus|
Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.
|Magnificent frigatebird||Fregata magnificens|
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes.
|American white pelican||Pelecanus erythrorhynchos||(A)|
|Brown pelican||Pelecanus occidentalis|
Bitterns, herons and egrets
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.
|Great blue heron||Ardea herodias|
|Great egret||Ardea alba|
|Reddish egret||Egretta rufescens|
|Tricoloured heron||Egretta tricolor|
|Little blue heron||Egretta caerulea|
|Snowy egret||Egretta thula|
|Cattle egret||Bubulcus ibis|
|Green heron||Butorides virescens|
|Black-crowned night heron||Nycticorax nycticorax||(A)|
|Yellow-crowned night heron||Nyctanassa violacea|
|Least bittern||Ixobrychus exilis|
|American bittern||Botaurus lentiginosus||(A)|
Ibises and spoonbills
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Threskiornithidae Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.
|White ibis||Eudocimus albus|
|Scarlet ibis||Eudocimus ruber||(A)|
|Glossy ibis||Plegadis falcinellus||(A)|
|Roseate spoonbill||Platalea ajaja|
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.
|Wood stork||Mycteria americana||(A)|
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside down.
|Caribbean flamingo||Phoenicopterus ruber|
Ducks, geese and swans
Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.
|Fulvous whistling duck||Dendrocygna bicolor|
|White-faced whistling duck||Dendrocygna viduata||(A)|
|West Indian whistling duck||Dendrocygna arborea||vulnerable|
|Black-bellied whistling duck||Dendrocygna autumnalis||(A)|
|Tundra swan||Cygnus columbianus||(A)|
|Greater white-fronted goose||Anser albifrons||(A)|
|Snow goose||Chen caerulescens||(A)|
|Canada goose||Branta canadensis||(A)|
|Muscovy duck||Cairina moschata||(I)|
|Wood duck||Aix sponsa|
|American wigeon||Anas americana|
|Green-winged teal||Anas crecca||(A)|
|Northern pintail||Anas acuta||(A)|
|White-cheeked pintail||Anas bahamensis|
|Blue-winged teal||Anas discors|
|Cinnamon teal||Anas cyanoptera||(A)|
|Northern shoveler||Anas clypeata|
|Ring-necked duck||Aythya collaris|
|Greater scaup||Aythya marila||(A)|
|Lesser scaup||Aythya affinis|
|Hooded merganser||Lophodytes cucullatus||(A)|
|Red-breasted merganser||Mergus serrator||(A)|
|Masked duck||Nomonyx dominica|
|Ruddy duck||Oxyura jamaicensis|
New World vultures
Order: Cathartiformes Family: Cathartidae The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion.
|Black vulture||Coragyps atratus||(A)|
|Turkey vulture||Cathartes aura|
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
Hawks and kites
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.
|Hook-billed kite||Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii||(Es)|
|Swallow-tailed kite||Elanoides forficatus||(A)|
|Snail kite||Rostrhamus sociabilis|
|Northern harrier||Circus hudsonius||(A)|
|Sharp-shinned hawk||Accipiter striatus fringilloides||(Es)|
|Gundlach's hawk||Accipiter gundlachi||(E) endangered|
|Cuban black hawk||Buteogallus gundlachii||(E)|
|Broad-winged hawk||Buteo platypterus cubanensis||(Es)|
|Red-tailed hawk||Buteo jamaicensis|
Caracaras and falcons
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.
|Northern caracara||Caracara cheriway||(A)|
|American kestrel||Falco sparverius sparveroides||(Es)|
|Peregrine falcon||Falco peregrinus|
New World quails
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.
|Northern bobwhite||Colinus virginianus cubanensis||(Es) near-threatened|
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.
|Ring-necked pheasant||Phasianus colchicus||(I)|
Guineafowls are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage.
|Helmeted guineafowl||Numida meleagris||(I)|
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched rather than retracted.
|Sandhill crane||Grus canadensis nesiotes||(Es)|
The limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab-brown plumage and a greyer head and neck.
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.
|Black rail||Laterallus jamaicensis|
|Clapper rail||Rallus crepitans|
|King rail||Rallus elegans ramsdeni||(Es)|
|Virginia rail||Rallus limicola|
|Yellow-breasted crake||Porzana flaviventer|
|Zapata rail||Cyanolimnas cerverai||(E) endangered|
|Spotted rail||Pardirallus maculatus|
|Purple gallinule||Porphyrio martinicus|
|Common gallinule||Gallinula galeata|
|American coot||Fulica americana|
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.
|Northern jacana||Jacana spinosa|
|American oystercatcher||Haematopus palliatus||(A)|
Stilts and avocets
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.
|Black-necked stilt||Himantopus mexicanus|
|American avocet||Recurvirostra americana||(A)|
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.
|American golden-plover||Pluvialis dominica||(A)|
|Black-bellied plover||Pluvialis squatarola|
|Semipalmated plover||Charadrius semipalmatus||(A)|
|Wilson's plover||Charadrius wilsonia|
|Piping plover||Charadrius melodus||(A) near-threatened|
|Snowy plover||Charadrius nivosus|
Sandpipers, curlews, stints, godwits, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.
|Wilson's snipe||Gallinago delicata|
|Short-billed dowitcher||Limnodromus griseus||(A)|
|Long-billed dowitcher||Limnodromus scolopaceus||(A)|
|Hudsonian godwit||Limosa haemastica||(A)|
|Marbled godwit||Limosa fedoa||(A)|
|Long-billed curlew||Numenius americanus||(A) near-threatened|
|Upland sandpiper||Bartramia longicauda||(A)|
|Greater yellowlegs||Tringa melanoleuca|
|Lesser yellowlegs||Tringa flavipes|
|Solitary sandpiper||Tringa solitaria|
|Spotted sandpiper||Actitis macularia|
|Ruddy turnstone||Arenaria interpres|
|Red knot||Calidris canutus||(A)|
|Semipalmated sandpiper||Calidris pusilla|
|Western sandpiper||Calidris mauri||(A)|
|Least sandpiper||Calidris minutilla|
|White-rumped sandpiper||Calidris fuscicollis||(A)|
|Pectoral sandpiper||Calidris melanotos||(A)|
|Stilt sandpiper||Calidris himantopus||(A)|
|Buff-breasted sandpiper||Calidris subruficollis||(A) near-threatened|
|Wilson's phalarope||Phalaropus tricolor||(A)|
|Red-necked phalarope||Phalaropus lobatus||(A)|
|Red phalarope||Phalaropus fulicarius||(A)|
Skuas and jaegers
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.
|South polar skua||Stercorarius maccormicki||(A)|
|Pomarine jaeger||Stercorarius pomarinus||(A)|
|Parasitic jaeger||Stercorarius parasiticus||(A)|
|Long-tailed jaeger||Stercorarius longicaudus||(A)|
Gulls, terns and skimmers
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes gulls, kittiwakes, terns and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.
|Ring-billed gull||Larus delawarensis||(A)|
|Great black-backed gull||Larus marinus||(A)|
|Herring gull||Larus argentatus||(A)|
|Black-headed gull||Chroicocephalus ridibundus||(A)|
|Bonaparte's gull||Chroicocephalus philadelphia||(A)|
|Laughing gull||Leucophaeus atricilla|
|Sabine's gull||Xema sabini||(A)|
|Black-legged kittiwake||Rissa tridactyla||(A)|
|Gull-billed tern||Gelochelidon nilotica||(A)|
|Caspian tern||Hydroprogne caspia||(A)|
|Sandwich tern||Thalasseus sandvicensis|
|Royal tern||Thalasseus maxima|
|Roseate tern||Sterna dougallii||(A)|
|Common tern||Sterna hirundo||(A)|
|Arctic tern||Sterna paradisaea||(A)|
|Forster's tern||Sterna forsteri||(A)|
|Least tern||Sternula antillarum|
|Bridled tern||Onychoprion anaethetus|
|Sooty tern||Onychoprion fuscata|
|Black tern||Chlidonias niger||(A)|
|Large-billed tern||Phaetusa simplex||(A)|
|Brown noddy||Anous stolidus|
|Black skimmer||Rynchops niger||(A)|
Auks are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits.
Pigeons and doves
|Rock dove||Columba livia||(I)|
|White-crowned pigeon||Columba leucocephala||near-threatened|
|Scaly-naped pigeon||Columba squamosa||(A)|
|Plain pigeon||Columba inornata||(A) near-threatened|
|European turtle dove||Streptopelia turtur|
|Eurasian collared dove||Streptopelia decaocto||(I)|
|Mourning dove||Zenaida macroura|
|Zenaida dove||Zenaida aurita|
|White-winged dove||Zenaida asiatica|
|Common ground dove||Columbina passerina|
|Grey-fronted quail-dove||Geotrygon caniceps caniceps||(Es)|
|Key West quail-dove||Geotrygon chrysia|
|Ruddy quail-dove||Geotrygon montana|
|Blue-headed quail-dove||Starnoenas cyanocephala||(E) endangered|
Parakeets and parrots
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back.
|Cuban parakeet||Psittacara euops||(E) vulnerable|
|Cuban amazon||Amazona leucocephala leucocephala||(Es) near-threatened|
Cuckoos and anis
|Black-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus erythropthalmus||(A)|
|Yellow-billed cuckoo||Coccyzus americanus|
|Mangrove cuckoo||Coccyzus minor|
|Great lizard cuckoo||Saurothera merlini merlini||(Es) main island, Cayo Conuco, Caibarien|
|Great lizard cuckoo||Saurothera merlini decolor||(Es) Isla de Pinos|
|Great lizard cuckoo||Saurothera merlini santamariae||(Es) Santa Maria, Coco, Paredon Grande and Romano Cays|
|Smooth-billed ani||Crotophaga ani|
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.
|Barn owl||Tyto alba||(A)|
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.
|Bare-legged owl||Margarobyas lawrencii||(E)|
|Cuban pygmy owl||Glaucidium siju||(E)|
|Burrowing owl||Athene cunicularia|
|Stygian owl||Asio stygius suguapa||(Es)|
|Long-eared owl||Asio otus||(A)|
|Short-eared owl||Asio flammeus|
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.
|Antillean nighthawk||Chordeiles gundlachii|
|Cuban nightjar||Antrostomus cubanensis||(E)|
|Eastern whip-poor-will||Antrostomus vociferus||(A)|
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.
|Black swift||Cypseloides niger||(A)|
|White-collared swift||Streptoprocne zonaris|
|Chimney swift||Chaetura pelagica||(A)|
|Antillean palm swift||Tachornis phoenicobia iradii||(Es)|
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.
|Cuban emerald||Chlorostilbon ricordii ricordii||(Es)|
|Bee hummingbird||Mellisuga helenae||(E) near-threatened|
|Ruby-throated hummingbird||Archilochus colubris||(A)|
The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage.
|Cuban trogon||Priotelus temnurus||(E)|
Water kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails.
|Belted kingfisher||Megaceryle alcyon|
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resemble small kingfishers, but have flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards.
|Cuban tody||Todus multicolor||(E)|
Woodpeckers, flickers and sapsuckers
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.
|West Indian woodpecker||Melanerpes superciliaris superciliaris||(Es) main island and Cayo Cantiles|
|West Indian woodpecker||Melanerpes superciliaris murceus||(Es) Isla de Pinos|
|West Indian woodpecker||Melanerpes superciliaris florentinoi||(Es) Cayo Largo|
|West Indian woodpecker||Melanerpes superciliaris sanfelipensis||(Es) Cayo Real|
|Yellow-bellied sapsucker||Sphyrapicus varius|
|Cuban green woodpecker||Xiphidiopicus percussus||(E)|
|Northern flicker||Colaptes auratus chrysocaulosus||(Es)
|Fernandina's flicker||Colaptes fernandinae||(E) vulnerable|
|Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker||Campephilus principalis bairdii||(A) (Es) critically endangered (possibly extinct)|
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust and have stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.
|Western wood pewee||Contopus sordidulus||(A)|
|Eastern wood pewee||Contopus virens||(A)|
|Cuban pewee||Contopus caribaeus||(Es) main island, Isla de Pinos, several cays|
|Cuban pewee||Contopus morenoi||(Es) Zapata, LOs Canarreos|
|Cuban pewee||Contopus nerlyi||(Es) Jardines de la Reina|
|Cuban pewee||Contopus florentinoi||(Es) Jardines de la Reina|
|Yellow-bellied flycatcher||Empidonax flaviventris||(A)|
|Acadian flycatcher||Empidonax virescens||(A)|
|Alder flycatcher||Empidonax alnorum|
|Willow flycatcher||Empidonax traillii||(A)|
|Eastern phoebe||Sayornis phoebe||(A)|
|Great crested flycatcher||Myiarchus crinitus||(A)|
|La Sagra's flycatcher||Myiarchus sagrae|
|Tropical kingbird||Tyrannus melancholicus||(A)|
|Western kingbird||Tyrannus verticalis||(A)|
|Eastern kingbird||Tyrannus tyrannus||(A)|
|Grey kingbird||Tyrannus dominicensis|
|Loggerhead kingbird||Tyrannus caudifasciatus caudifasciatus||(Es)|
|Giant kingbird||Tyrannus cubensis||(E) endangered|
|Scissor-tailed flycatcher||Tyrannus forficatus||(A)|
|Fork-tailed flycatcher||Tyrannus savana||(A)|
Swallows and martins
The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.
|Purple martin||Progne subis|
|Cuban martin||Progne cryptoleuca|
|Tree swallow||Tachycineta bicolor|
|Bahama swallow||Tachycineta cyaneoviridis||(A) vulnerable|
|Northern rough-winged swallow||Stelgidopteryx serripennis||(A)|
|Bank swallow||Riparia riparia||(A)|
|Cliff swallow||Petrochelidon pyrrhonota||(A)|
|Cave swallow||Petrochelidon fulva cavicola||(Es)|
|Barn swallow||Hirundo rustica|
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice.
|Ruby-crowned kinglet||Regulus calendula||(A)|
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.
|Cedar waxwing||Bombycilla cedrorum||(A)|
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.
|Zapata wren||Ferminia cerverai||(E) endangered|
|House wren||Troglodytes aedon||(A)|
|Marsh wren||Cistothorus palustris||(A)|
Mockingbirds and thrashers
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull-greys and browns.
|Grey catbird||Dumetella carolinensis||(A)|
|Bahama mockingbird||Mimus gundlachii|
|Northern mockingbird||Mimus polyglottos|
|Brown thrasher||Toxostoma rufum||(A)|
Thrushes, solitaires and bluebirds
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.
|Eastern bluebird||Sialia sialis||(A)|
|Cuban solitaire||Myadestes elisabeth||(E) near-threatened|
|Grey-cheeked thrush||Catharus minimus||(A)|
|Bicknell's thrush||Catharus bicknelli||(A) vulnerable|
|Swainson's thrush||Catharus ustulatus||(A)|
|Hermit thrush||Catharus guttatus||(A)|
|Wood thrush||Hylocichla mustelina||(A)|
|Red-legged thrush||Turdus plumbeus schistaceus||(Es) eastern Cuba|
|Red-legged thrush||Turdus plumbeus rubripes||(Es) central and western Cuba and Isle of Pines|
|American robin||Turdus migratorius|
These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish grey in colour and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, which nest in bushes or trees.
|Blue-grey gnatcatcher||Polioptila caerulea|
|Cuban gnatcatcher||Polioptila lembeyei||(E)|
Old World flycatchers
Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.
|Northern wheatear||Oenanthe oenanthe||(A)|
The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.
|Cuban palm crow||Corvus minutus||(E) endangered|
|Cuban crow||Corvus nasicus|
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.
|Common myna||Acridotheres tristis||(I)|
|European starling||Sturnus vulgaris||(A)|
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in build and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.
|Nutmeg mannikin||Lonchura punctulata||(A)|
|White-eyed vireo||Vireo griseus||(A)|
|Thick-billed vireo||Vireo crassirostris||(A)|
|Cuban vireo||Vireo gundlachii||(E)|
|Yellow-throated vireo||Vireo flavifrons|
|Blue-headed vireo||Vireo solitarius||(A)|
|Warbling vireo||Vireo gilvus|
|Philadelphia vireo||Vireo philadelphicus||(A)|
|Red-eyed vireo||Vireo olivaceus||(A)|
|Black-whiskered vireo||Vireo altiloquus|
New World warblers
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
|Bachman's warbler||Vermivora bachmanii||critically endangered (possibly extinct)|
|Blue-winged warbler||Vermivora cyanoptera||(A)|
|Golden-winged warbler||Vermivora chrysoptera||(A) near-threatened|
|Tennessee warbler||Orethlypis peregrina||(A)|
|Orange-crowned warbler||Orethlypis celata||(A)|
|Nashville warbler||Orethlypis ruficapilla||(A)|
|Virginia's warbler||Orethlypis virginiae||(A)|
|Northern parula||Setophaga americana|
|Yellow warbler||Setophaga petechia|
|Chestnut-sided warbler||Setophaga pensylvanica||(A)|
|Magnolia warbler||Setophaga magnolia|
|Cape May warbler||Setophaga tigrina|
|Black-throated blue warbler||Setophaga caerulescens|
|Yellow-rumped warbler||Setophaga coronata|
|Black-throated grey warbler||Setophaga nigrescens||(A)|
|Black-throated green warbler||Setophaga virens|
|Blackburnian warbler||Setophaga fusca||(A)|
|Yellow-throated warbler||Setophaga dominica|
|Olive-capped warbler||Setophaga pityophila|
|Pine warbler||Setophaga pinus||(A)|
|Prairie warbler||Setophaga discolor|
|Palm warbler||Setophaga palmarum|
|Bay-breasted warbler||Setophaga castanea||(A)|
|Blackpoll warbler||Setophaga striata|
|Cerulean warbler||Setophaga cerulea||(A) vulnerable|
|Hooded warbler||Setophaga citrina||(A)|
|American redstart||Setophaga ruticilla|
|Black-and-white warbler||Mniotilta varia|
|Prothonotary warbler||Protonotaria citrea||(A)|
|Worm-eating warbler||Helmitheros vermivorus|
|Swainson's warbler||Limnothlypis swainsonii||(A)|
|Northern waterthrush||Parkesia noveboracensis|
|Louisiana waterthrush||Parkesia motacilla|
|Connecticut warbler||Oporornis agilis||(A)|
|Kentucky warbler||Geothlypis formosa||(A)|
|Mourning warbler||Geothlypiis philadelphia||(A)|
|Common yellowthroat||Geothlypis trichas|
|Yellow-headed warbler||Teretistris fernandinae||(E)|
|Oriente warbler||Teretistris fornsi||(E)|
|Wilson's warbler||Cardellina pusilla||(A)|
|Canada warbler||Cardellina canadensis||(A)|
|Yellow-breasted chat||Icteria virens||(A)|
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.
|Western spindalis||Spindalis zena pretrei||(Es)|
|Red-legged honeycreeper||Cyanerpes cyaneus||(I)|
American sparrows, yellow-finches, honeycreepers and towhees
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.
|Cuban bullfinch||Melopyrrha nigra nigra||(Es)|
|Cuban grassquit||Tiaris canorus||(E)|
|Yellow-faced grassquit||Tiaris olivacea|
|Black-faced grassquit||Tiaris bicolor||(A)|
|Saffron finch||Sicalis flaveola||(A)|
|Green-tailed towhee||Pipilo chlorurus||(A)|
|Zapata sparrow||Torreornis inexpectata||(E) endangered|
|Chipping sparrow||Spizella passerina||(A)|
|Clay-coloured sparrow||Spizella pallida||(A)|
|Lark sparrow||Chondestes grammacus||(A)|
|Savannah sparrow||Passerculus sandwichensis|
|Grasshopper sparrow||Ammodramus savannarum|
|Lincoln's sparrow||Melospiza lincolnii||(A)|
|White-crowned sparrow||Zonotrichia leucophrys||(A)|
Cardinals, grosbeaks and North American buntings
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.
|Scarlet tanager||Piranga olivacea||(A)|
|Summer tanager||Piranga rubra||(A)|
|Western tanager||Piranga ludoviciana||(A)|
|Rose-breasted grosbeak||Pheucticus ludovicianus||(A)|
|Blue grosbeak||Passerina caerulea||(A)|
|Lazuli bunting||Passerina amoena||(A)|
|Indigo bunting||Passerina cyanea|
|Painted bunting||Passerina ciris||(A) near-threatened|
Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles and orioles
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.
|Tawny-shouldered blackbird||Agelaius humeralis humeralis||(Es)|
|Tawny-shouldered blackbird||Agelaius humeralis scopulus||(Es)|
|Red-winged blackbird||Agelaius phoeniceus|
|Red-shouldered blackbird||Agelaius assimilis||(E)|
|Eastern meadowlark||Sturnella magna hippocrepis||(Es)|
|Yellow-headed blackbird||Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus||(A)|
|Cuban blackbird||Dives atroviolacea||(E)|
|Rusty blackbird||Euphagus carolinus||(A)|
|Greater Antillean grackle||Quiscalus niger gundlachii||(Es) main island except western tip, Coco, Romano, Guajaba and other cays|
|Greater Antillean grackle||Quiscalus niger caribaeus||(Es) western tip of main island, Isla de Pinos, southern and some northern cays|
|Shiny cowbird||Molothrus bonariensis|
|Brown-headed cowbird||Molothrus ater||(A)|
|Hooded oriole||Icterus cucullatus||(A)|
|Baltimore oriole||Icterus galbula||(A)|
|Orchard oriole||Icterus spurius||(A)|
|Cuban oriole||Icterus melanopsis||(E)|
|Hispaniolan oriole||Icterus dominicensis melanopsis||(Es)|
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.
|Lesser goldfinch||Spinus psaltria|
|American goldfinch||Spinus tristis||(A)|
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.
|House sparrow||Passer domesticus||(I)|
- Orlando H. Garrido and Arturo H. Kirkconnell, Birds of Cuba, Christopher Helm, Cornell 2000 ISBN 0-7136-5784-7
- Fox, Neil and Michelle (Autumn 2007). "First documented record of Northern Gannet Morus bassanus in Cuba". Cotinga (28): 76.