List of home video game consoles

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History of video games

This is a list of home video game consoles in chronological order, which includes the very first home video game consoles ever created, such as first generation Pong consoles, from the first ever cartridge console Odyssey, ranging from the major video game companies such as Magnavox, Atari, Nintendo, Sega, NEC, 3DO, SNK, Sony, Microsoft to secondary market consoles.

The list is divided into eras which are named based on the dominant console type of the era, though not all consoles of those eras are of the same type. Some eras are referred to based on how many bits a major console could process. The "128-bit era" (sixth generation) was the final era in which this practice was widespread.[citation needed]

This list does not include other types of video game consoles such as handheld game consoles, which are usually of lower computational power than home consoles due to their smaller size, microconsoles, which are usually low-cost Android-based devices that rely on downloading, or dedicated consoles past the First Generation, which have games built in and do not use any form of physical media. Consoles have been redesigned from time to time to improve their market appeal. Redesigned models are not listed on their own.

List of release date in order[edit]

There are a total of 92 game platforms released since the Second generation, and 10 canceled platforms.

This list only counts the first iteration of each console's hardware, because several systems have had "slim", enhanced or other hardware revisions, but they aren't individually listed here. It also includes unreleased systems.

   Background shading indicates the best-selling console of each respective generation.
   Background shading indicates canceled systems that either stopped being developed at any stage or were canceled.
  Hash-tag Hash-tags indicate console series/platforms that have different hardware revisions.

First generation (1972–1983)[edit]

Series / Name Number of units Release date Manufacturer Units sold
Magnavox Odyssey September 1972 Magnavox United States 350,000
Ping-O-Tronic Hash-tag 2 1974 Zanussi Italy 1 million[2]
VideoSport MK2 1974 Henry's United Kingdom >10,000[3]
VideoMaster Line Hash-tag 15[4] 1975[5] VideoMaster United Kingdom
TV Tennis Electrotennis September 12, 1975 Epoch Co. Japan 10.000[6]
Magnavox Odyssey series Hash-tag 11 1975 Magnavox United States
Atari PONG Hash-tag 8 1975 Atari United States
PC-50X Family Hash-tag 27 1975 General Instrument United States
Tele-Spiel Hash-tag 6 1975 Philips Netherlands
Commodore TV Game Hash-tag 2 1975 Commodore Canada
Video 2000 1975 Interton Germany
Unisonic Line Hash-tag 9 1976 Unisonic United States
TV Scoreboard 1976 Tandy Corp United States
Gameroom Tele-Pong 1976 Entex Industries United States
Coleco Telstar Hash-tag 14 1976 Coleco United States 1 million [7]
APF TV Fun Hash-tag 7 1976 APF United States
TV Master Series Hash-tag 9 1976 Binatone United Kingdom
Video Pinball 7 1977 Atari United States
Stunt Cycle 1977 Atari United States
Bandai TV Jack Hash-tag 6 July 1977 Bandai Japan
Video 3000 1977 [8] Interton Germany
Video Cassetti Rock 1977 Takatoku Toys Japan
Color TV-Game Hash-tag 5 June 1, 1977 Nintendo Japan
Programmable Television 1977[9] ITT United States/Schaub-Lorenz West Germany
Турнир 1978 ? Soviet Union
BSS 01 1980 VEB Kombinat Mikroelektronik Erfurt East Germany ca. 1000
Compu-Vision 1983[10] Bentley Electronics United Kingdom
Game Brain Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1978) Atari United States 3 prototypes
  • Consoles of the early 1970s, such as the Pong consoles and the Magnavox Odyssey, were often inaccurately called "analog", but were actually discrete logic circuits.[11]

Second generation (1976–1992)[edit]

There were a total of 18 game platforms released in the second generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold
Fairchild Channel F Hash-tag November 1976 Fairchild United States
RCA Studio II January 1977 RCA United States
Bally Astrocade 1977 Midway United States
Atari 2600 Hash-tag September 11, 1977 Atari Inc. United States 30 million[12]
APF-MP1000 January 1, 1978 APF United States
Champion 2711 1978 Unisonic United States
VC 4000 1978 Interton Germany
Magnavox Odyssey² December 1978 Magnavox/Philips United States / Netherlands
APF Imagination Machine 1979 APF United States
Bandai Super Vision 8000 1979 Bandai Japan
Intellivision Hash-tag 1980 Mattel United States 2 million[13]
VTech CreatiVision 1981 VTech Hong Kong
Epoch Cassette Vision Hash-tag July 30, 1981 Epoch Japan
Arcadia 2001/Leisure Vision 1982 Emerson Radio United States
ColecoVision August 1982 Coleco United States
Atari 5200 November 1982 Atari Inc. United States
Vectrex November 1982 GCE/Milton Bradley Company United States
Compact Vision TV Boy October 1983 Gakken Japan
Video Arcade System Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1983) Ultravision United States N/A

Third generation (1983–2003)[edit]

There were a total of 23 game platforms released in the third generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU "Bits"
Videopac+ G7400 1983 Philips Netherlands Intel 8048 @ 5.91MHz 8-bit
My Vision 1983 Nichibutsu Japan 8-bit
Pyuuta Jr. April 1983 Tomy Japan 8-bit
Sega SG-1000 Hash-tag July 15, 1983 Sega Japan 2 million Zilog Z80 @ 3.58 MHz 8-bit
NES/Family Computer (Famicom) Hash-tag July 15, 1983 Nintendo Japan 61.91 million Ricoh 2A03 processor (MOS Technology 6502 core) 8-bit
PV-1000 October 1983 Casio Japan Z80A clocked at 3.579 MHz 8-bit
Epoch Super Cassette Vision July 17, 1984 Epoch Japan 400,000 NEC PD7801G 8-bit
Bridge Companion 1985 BBC/Heber United Kingdom Zilog Z80 8-bit
Video Art 1985 LJN United States
Zemmix Hash-tag 1985 Daewoo Electronics South Korea Zilog Z80 8-bit
Sega Mark III/Sega Master System Hash-tag October 20, 1985 Sega Japan, Tec Toy Brazil 13 million Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz 8-bit
Family Computer Disk System[14] February 21, 1986 Nintendo Japan 4.44 million Ricoh 2A03 processor (MOS Technology 6502 core) 8-bit
Videosmarts 1986 Connor Electronics United States (1986–1988), VTech Hong Kong (1989–1990)
Atari 7800 May 1986 Atari Corporation United States 8-bit
Atari XEGS 1987 Atari Corporation United States 2 million MOS Technology 6502C 8-bit
Video Challenger 1987 Tomy/Bandai Japan
Action Max 1987 Worlds of Wonder United States HD401010 8-bit
View-Master Interactive Vision 1988 View-Master Ideal Group, Inc. United States 8-bit
Terebikko 1988 Bandai Japan
VTech Socrates 1988 VTech Hong Kong 8-bit
Video Driver October 1988[15] Sega Japan
Amstrad GX4000 September 1990 Amstrad United Kingdom 15,000 Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz 8-bit
Commodore 64 Games System December 1990 Commodore Canada MOS Technology 8500 @ 0.985 MHz 8-bit
RDI Halcyon Cancelled (supposed to be released in January 1985) RDI Video Systems United States <12 Zilog Z80
Control-Vision Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1989) Digital Pictures & Hasbro United States N/A
  • The Videopac+ G7400 was planned to be released in America as the Odyssey³ Command Center, with a different case design, but it never occurred, although some prototypes exist.
  • Although fully developed, functional, and with 2 games ready, the few Halcyon units that exist were handmade for investors of the company to try out the product, it is not believed that it ever went into full production or entered the market at all. Less than 12 Main Control Units (Halcyon 200LD, the console itself) are known to exist, but more Halcyon branded Laserdisc players (LD-700, made by Pioneer) exist.

Fourth generation (1987–2004)[edit]

There were a total of 17 game platforms released in the fourth generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU "Bits"
PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16 Hash-tag October 30, 1987 NEC Japan 10,000,000 Hudson Soft HuC6280 16-bit (8-bit CPU, 16-bit graphics)
Sega Genesis/Mega Drive Hash-tag October 29, 1988 Sega Japan 30,750,000 Motorola 68000 @ 7.6 MHz, Zilog Z80 @ 3.58 MHz 16-bit (16/32 bit processor, 16 bit graphics)
TurboGrafx-CD/CD-ROM² Hash-tag December 4, 1988 NEC Japan 16-bit (8-bit processor, 16-bit graphics)
PC Engine2/SuperGrafx December 8, 1989 NEC Japan Hudson Soft HuC6280 16-bit (8-bit CPU, 16-bit graphics)
Neo-Geo AES April 26, 1990 SNK Japan 750,000 Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz, Zilog Z80A @ 4 MHz 24-bit (16/32 bit processor, 24 bit graphics)
Super NES/Super Famicom Hash-tag November 21, 1990 Nintendo Japan 49,100,000 Ricoh 5A22 @ 3.58 MHz 16-bit
Commodore CDTV March 1991 Commodore Canada Motorola 68000 @ 7 MHz 16-bit
CD-i Hash-tag December 3, 1991 Philips Netherlands 1,500,000 Philips SCC68070 @ 15.5 MHz 16-bit (could be upgraded to 32-bit)
Sega CD/Mega CD Hash-tag December 12, 1991 Sega Japan 2,240,000 Motorola 68000 @ 12.5 MHz 16-bit (16/32 bit processor, 16 bit graphics)
Memorex VIS June 1992 Memorex/Tandy Corp United States 15,000 Intel 80286 @ 12 MHz 16-bit
Sega Pico June 26, 1993 Sega/Majesco Entertainment Japan Motorola 68000 @ 7.6 MHz, Zilog Z80 @ 3.58 MHz 16-bit
Picno 1993 KonamiJapan 16-bit
Pioneer LaserActive August 20, 1993 Pioneer Corporation Japan 16-bit
Neo-Geo CD Hash-tag September 9, 1994 SNK Japan Motorola 68000 @ 12 MHz, Zilog Z80 @ 4 MHz 16-bit
Sega 32X November 21, 1994 Sega Japan 665,000 2 × SH-2 32-bit RISC @ 23 MHz 32-bit
Satellaview April 23, 1995 Nintendo Japan 16-bit
Super A'Can October 25, 1995 Funtech Taiwan Motorola 68000 @ 10.738635 MHz 16-bit
Konix Multisystem Cancelled (supposed to be released in August 1989) Konix United Kingdom N/A 16-bit
Atari Panther Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1991) Atari Corporation United States N/A Motorola 68000 32-bit
WOWOW Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1992) Taito Japan
SNES-CD Cancelled (development stopped in 1993) Nintendo Japan N/A 16-bit
  • SNK created the Neo Geo CD as a much cheaper alternative to the AES, lowering the price of games considerably, from ~300$ to ~50$ . It's essentially an AES console with a media format change from cartridges to CDs, placing it in the fourth generation.

Fifth generation (1993–2005)[edit]

There were a total of 14 game platforms released in the fifth generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU "Bits"
FM Towns Marty Hash-tag February 20, 1993 Fujitsu Japan AMD 386SX at 16 MHz 32-bit
Amiga CD32 September 17, 1993 Commodore Canada >100,000 Motorola 68EC020@ 14.18 MHz (PAL) 14.32 MHz (NTSC) 32-bit
3DO Interactive Multiplayer Hash-tag October 4, 1993 Panasonic/Sanyo Japan/GoldStar South Korea 2 million RISC CPU ARM60 based on ARM architecture @ 12.5 MHz 32-bit
Atari Jaguar November 23, 1993 Atari Corporation United States <250,000[16][17] Motorola 68000 @ 13.295 MHz, Custom 32-bit graphics RISC "Tom" @ 26.59 MHz, Custom 32-bit sound RISC "Jerry" @ 26.59 MHz 64-bit (32-bit graphics, 32-bit sound)
CPS Changer 1994 Capcom Japan Motorola 68000 @ 10 MHz 16-bit
Playdia September 23, 1994 Bandai Japan Toshiba TMP87C800F 8-bit
Sega Saturn Hash-tag November 22, 1994 Sega Japan 9.26 million 2× Hitachi SH-2 @ 28.6 MHz 32-bit
PlayStation Hash-tag December 3, 1994 Sony Japan 102.49 million R3000 @ 33.8688 MHz 32-bit
PC-FX December 23, 1994 NEC Japan >400,000 NEC V810 32-bit
Apple Bandai Pippin March 28, 1995 Bandai Japan/Apple Inc. United States 42,000 PowerPC 603 RISC (66 MHz) 32-bit
Atari Jaguar CD September 21, 1995 Atari Corporation United States N/A 64-bit (uses Jaguar processors)
Casio Loopy October 19, 1995 Casio Japan RISC SH-1 (SH7021) 32-bit
Nintendo 64 June 23, 1996 Nintendo Japan 32.93 million NEC VR4300 @ 93.75 MHz 64-bit
Nintendo 64DD December 1, 1999 Nintendo Japan N/A 64-bit (uses N64 processor)

Sixth generation (1998–2013)[edit]

There were a total of 9 game platforms released in the sixth generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU "Bits"
Dreamcast November 27, 1998 Sega Japan 9.13 million Hitachi SH-4 32-bit RISC @ 200 MHz 128-bit (32-bit processor, 128-bit graphics)
Nuon Hash-tag 2000 VM Labs United States >25 thousand Nuon MPE hybrid stack processor 128-bit (SIMD)
PlayStation 2 Hash-tag March 4, 2000 Sony Japan 155 million Emotion Engine @ 294.912 MHz (launch), 299 MHz (newer models) 128-bit (SIMD)
GameCube Hash-tag November 14, 2001 Nintendo Japan 21.74 million IBM PowerPC Gekko @ 486 MHz 128-bit (SIMD)
Xbox November 15, 2001 Microsoft United States 24 million Custom 733 MHz Intel Pentium III "Coppermine-based" processor 128-bit (SIMD)
iQue Player November 17, 2003 Nintendo Japan >0.1 million R-4300 CPU @ 93.75 MHz 64-bit
Xavix PORT 2004 SSD COMPANY LIMITED Japan 8-bit,16-bit and 32-bit (depending on game cartridge)
V.Smile Hash-tag August 4, 2004 VTech Hong Kong 128-bit
Advanced Pico Beena Hash-tag 2005 Sega Japan 350,000 ARM7TDMI clocked at 81MHz
L600 Cancelled (development stopped in April 2001) Indrema N/A x86 @ 600 MHz 32-bit
Panasonic M2 Cancelled (supposed to be released in 1997) Panasonic Japan N/A Dual PowerPC 602 Processors @ 66 MHz 64-bit (dual 32-bit)

Seventh generation (2005–2017)[edit]

There were a total of 7 game platforms released in the seventh generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU
Game Wave October 2005 ZAPiT Canada 70 thousand (as of 2008)[18]
Xbox 360 Hash-tag November 22, 2005 Microsoft United States 83.7 million (as of March 31, 2014)[19][20][21][22] 3.2 GHz PowerPC Tri-Core Xenon
V.Flash September 2006 VTech Hong Kong
HyperScan October 23, 2006 Mattel United States
PlayStation 3 Hash-tag November 11, 2006 Sony Japan 80 million[23] 3.2 GHz Cell Broadband Engine with 1 PPE & 7 SPEs
Wii Hash-tag November 19, 2006 Nintendo Japan 101.63 million (as of December 31, 2016)[24] IBM PowerPC "Broadway"
Zeebo May 25, 2009 Zeebo Inc. United States
Phantom Cancelled (supposed to be released in September 2005) Phantom United States N/A

Eighth generation (2012–present)[edit]

There are a total of 4 game platforms released in the current generation;

Name Release date Manufacturer Units sold CPU
Wii U November 18, 2012 Nintendo Japan 13.56 million (as of December 31, 2016)[25] 1.24 GHz Tri-Core IBM PowerPC "Espresso"
PlayStation 4 Hash-tag November 15, 2013 Sony Japan 91.6 million (as of December 31, 2018)[26] Semi-custom 8-core AMD x86-64 Jaguar 1.6 GHz CPU (integrated into APU)
Xbox One Hash-tag November 22, 2013 Microsoft United States >41 million (as of 2018)[a] Custom 1.75 GHz AMD 8-core APU (2 quad-core Jaguar modules)
Nintendo Switch March 3, 2017 Nintendo Japan 32.27 million (as of December 31, 2018)[32] Octa-core (4×ARM Cortex-A57 & 4×ARM Cortex-A53) @ 1.020 GHz
  • The Nintendo Switch was released during this period, but has been referred to as a hybrid video game console, combining features of home and handheld systems.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lithner, Martin Tobias (2019-01-14). Super Retro:id: A Collector's Guide to Vintage Consoles. BoD - Books on Demand. ISBN 9789177856771.
  2. ^ "Riapre Sèleco, e la tv torna a parlare l'italiano". Tom's Hardware (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  3. ^ "Pong-Story : Henry's VideoSport MK2". www.pong-story.com. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  4. ^ http://www.pong-story.com/vm.htm
  5. ^ http://www.pong-story.com/hometvg.htm
  6. ^ Lithner, Martin Tobias (2019-01-14). Super Retro:id: A Collector's Guide to Vintage Consoles. BoD - Books on Demand. ISBN 9789177856771.
  7. ^ Herman, Leonard (1997). Phoenix: the fall & rise of videogames (2nd ed.). Union, NJ: Rolenta Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-9643848-2-5. Retrieved 16 February 2012. Like Pong, Telstar could only play video tennis but it retailed at an inexpensive $50 that made it attractive to most families that were on a budget. Coleco managed to sell over a million units that year.
  8. ^ http://pongmuseum.com/collection/interton-video3000-silver.php#p
  9. ^ http://videogamekraken.com/itt-schaub-lorenz-programmable-television
  10. ^ http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/det/32309/Bentley-Compu-Vision/
  11. ^ Bub, Andrew (June 7, 2005). "The Original GamerDad: Ralph Baer". gamerdad.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
  12. ^ "AtGames to Launch Atari Flashback 4 to Celebrate Atari's 40th Anniversary!" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  13. ^ "Intellivision: Intelligent Television". GameSpy. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  14. ^ Add-on to Famicom - Japan only.
  15. ^ http://videogamekraken.com/video-driver
  16. ^ Blake Snow (May 4, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  17. ^ ATARI CORP Annual Report (Regulation S-K, item 405) (10-K405) ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
  18. ^ "VP Final - MP4". December 20, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  19. ^ "Earnings Release FY13 Q4". Microsoft. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  20. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q1". Microsoft. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  21. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q2". Microsoft. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  22. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q3". Microsoft. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  23. ^ "PlayStation 3 Sales Reach 80 Million Units Worldwide". Sony Computer Entertainment. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  24. ^ "IR Information: Sales Data - Hardware and Software Sales Units". Nintendo Co., Ltd. December 31, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
  25. ^ "IR Information: Sales Data - Hardware and Software Sales Units". Nintendo Co., Ltd. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  26. ^ "PLAYSTATION 4 SALES SURPASS 91.6 MILLION UNITS WORLDWIDE AFTER THE STRONG HOLIDAY SEASON". Sony Interactive Entertainment. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  27. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q3". Microsoft. April 24, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2014. Microsoft sold in 2.0 million Xbox console units, including 1.2 million Xbox One consoles.
  28. ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q4". Microsoft. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. We sold in 1.1 million consoles in the fourth quarter, as we drew down channel inventory, compared to 1.0 million consoles during the prior year.
  29. ^ Futter, Mike (October 22, 2015). "[Update] Microsoft Will Focus Primarily On Xbox Live Usership, Not Console Shipments". Game Informer. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
  30. ^ "Microsoft Annual Meeting of Shareholders". Microsoft. December 3, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2015. Finally, our gaming business is thriving with the Xbox One hitting 10 million units sold. I am thrilled to welcome Mojang and Minecraft community to Microsoft.
  31. ^ Souppouris, Aaron (December 7, 2016). "Sony has sold 50 million PlayStation 4s". Engadget. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  32. ^ "Dedicated Video Game Sales Units". Nintendo. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  1. ^ Starting with Microsoft's fiscal quarter ending June 2014 (Q4), the company stopped divulging individual platform sales in their fiscal reports.[27][28] Microsoft stated it will shift focus to the amount of active users on Xbox Live starting in late 2015.[29] Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella unveiled at a December 3, 2014 shareholder presentation that 10 million units were sold.[30] Third-party estimates suggest sales reached approximately 25-30 million worldwide by late 2016.[31]