List of the most distant astronomical objects

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This article documents the most distant astronomical objects so far discovered, and the time periods in which they were so classified.

Distances to remote objects, other than those in nearby galaxies, are nearly always inferred by measuring the cosmological redshift of their light. By their nature, very distant objects tend to be very faint, and these distance determinations are difficult and subject to errors. An important distinction is whether the distance is determined via spectroscopy or using a photometric redshift technique. The former is generally both more precise and also more reliable, in the sense that photometric redshifts are more prone to being wrong due to confusion with lower redshift sources that have unusual spectra. For that reason, a spectroscopic redshift is conventionally regarded as being necessary for an object's distance to be considered definitely known, whereas photometrically determined redshifts identify "candidate" very distant sources. Here, this distinction is indicated by a "p" subscript for photometric redshifts.

Notably distant objects[edit]

1 Gly = 1 billion light-years.

Most distant astronomical objects with spectroscopic redshift determinations
Name Redshift
(z)
Light travel distance§
(Gly)[1]
Type Notes
GN-z11 z = 11.09 13.39 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[2]
EGSY8p7 z = 8.68 13.23 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[3]
GRB 090423 z = 8.2 13.18 Gamma-ray burst [4][5]
EGS-zs8-1 z = 7.73 13.13 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[6]
z7 GSD 3811 z = 7.66 13.11 Galaxy galaxy[7]
z8 GND 5296 z = 7.51 13.10 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[8][9]
A1689-zD1 z = 7.5 13.10 Galaxy Galaxy[10]
SXDF-NB1006-2 z = 7.215 13.07 Galaxy Galaxy[11][12]
GN-108036 z = 7.213 13.07 Galaxy Galaxy[12][13]
BDF-3299 z = 7.109 13.05 Galaxy [14]
ULAS J1120+0641 z = 7.085 13.05 Quasar [15]
A1703 zD6 z = 7.045 13.04 Galaxy [12]
BDF-521 z = 7.008 13.04 Galaxy [14]
G2-1408 z = 6.972 13.03 Galaxy [12][16]
IOK-1 z = 6.964 13.03 Galaxy [12][17] Lyman-alpha emitter[18]
LAE J095950.99+021219.1 z = 6.944 13.03 Galaxy Lyman-alpha emitter — Faint galaxy[19]

§ The tabulated distance is the light travel distance, which has no direct physical significance. See discussion at distance measures and Observable Universe

As of 2012, there were about 50 possible objects z = 8 or farther, and another 100 z = 7 candidates, based on photometric redshift estimates released by the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) project from observations made between mid-2002 and December 2012.[20] Not everything is included here.[20]

Notable candidates for most distant astronomical objects, based on photometric redshift estimates
Name Redshift
(z)
Light travel distance§
(Gly)
Type Notes
UDFj-39546284 zp≅11.9? 13.37 Protogalaxy This is a candidate protogalaxy,[21][22][23][24] although recent analyses have suggested it is likely to be a lower redshift source.[25][26]
MACS0647-JD zp≅10.7 13.3 Galaxy Candidate most distant galaxy, which benefits by being magnified by the gravitational lensing effect of an intervening cluster of galaxies.[27][28]
A2744-JD zp≅9.8 13.2 Galaxy Galaxy is being magnified and lensed into three multiple images, geometrically supporting its redshift. Faintest known galaxy at z~10.[29][30]
MACS1149-JD zp≅9.6 13.2[31] Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy [32]
GRB 090429B zp≅9.4 13.14[33] Gamma-ray burst [34] The photometric redshift in this instance has quite large uncertainty, with the lower limit for the redshift being z>7.
UDFy-33436598 zp≅8.6 13.1 Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy [35]
UDFy-38135539 zp≅8.6 13.1 Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy A spectroscopic redshift of z = 8.55 was claimed for this source in 2010,[36] but has subsequently been shown to be mistaken.[37]
BoRG-58 zp≅8 13 Cluster or protocluster Protocluster candidate[38]

§ The tabulated distance is the light travel distance, which has no direct physical significance. See discussion at distance measures and Observable Universe


List of most distant objects by type[edit]

Most distant object by type
Type Object Redshift Notes
Any astronomical object, no matter what type GN-z11 z = 11.09 With an estimated distance of about 32 billion light-years, astronomers announced it as the most distant astronomical galaxy known.[39]
Galaxy or protogalaxy GN-z11 z = 11.09 Announced March 2016.[39]
Galaxy cluster CL J1001+0220 z≅2.506 As of 2016[40]
Galaxy supercluster
Quasar ULAS J1120+0641 z = 7.085 [15]
See also: List of quasars
Black hole ULAS J1120+0641 z = 7.085 [15]
Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected by an event)
Progenitor of GRB 090423 z = 8.2 [4][5] Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4,[41] and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation.
Star or protostar or post-stellar corpse
(detected as a star)
SDSS J1229+1122 55 Mly (17 Mpc) The blue supergiant is illuminating a nebula in the tidal tail of galaxy IC 3418.[42]
Star cluster
System of star clusters Globular cluster system in elliptical galaxy behind NGC 6397 1.2Gly [43][44][45][46][47]
X-ray jet GB 1428+4217 nearside quasar jet z = 4.72
12.4Gly
The previous recordholder was at 12.2Gly.[48]
Microquasar XMMU J004243.6+412519 2.5 Mly First extragalactic microquasar discovered[49][50][51]
Planet SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04 27,710ly [52]
  • An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy.[53]
  • A controversial microlensing event of lobe A of the double gravitationally lensed Q0957+561 suggests that there is a planet in the lensing galaxy lying at redshift 0.355 (3.7 Gly).[54][55]
Most distant event by type
Type Event Redshift Notes
Gamma-ray burst GRB 090423 z = 8.2 [4][5] Note, GRB 090429B has a photometric redshift zp≅9.4,[41] and so is most likely more distant than GRB 090423, but is lacking spectroscopic confirmation.
Core collapse supernova SN 1000+0216 z = 3.8993 [56]
Type Ia supernova SN UDS10Wil z = 1.914 [57]
Type Ia supernova SN SCP-0401
(Mingus)
z = 1.71 First observed in 2004, it was not until 2013 that it could be identified as a Type-Ia SN.[58][59]
Cosmic Decoupling Cosmic Background Radiation creation z~1000 to 1089 [60][61]

Timeline of most distant astronomical object recordholders[edit]

Objects in this list were found to be the most distant object at the time of determination of their distance. This is frequently not the same as the date of their discovery.

Distances to astronomical objects may be determined through parallax measurements, use of standard references such as cepheid variables or Type Ia supernovas, or redshift measurement. Spectroscopic redshift measurement is preferred, while photometric redshift measurement is also used to identify candidate high redshift sources. The symbol z represents redshift.

Most Distant Object Titleholders (not including candidates based on photometric redshifts)
Object Type Date Distance
(z = Redshift)
Notes
GN-z11 Galaxy 2016— z = 11.09 [62]
EGSY8p7 Galaxy 2015 − 2016 z = 8.68 [62][63][64][65]
Progenitor of GRB 090423 / Remnant of GRB 090423 Gamma-ray burst progenitor / Gamma-ray burst remnant 2009 − 2015 z = 8.2 [5][66]
IOK-1 Galaxy 2006 − 2009 z = 6.96 [66][67][68][69]
SDF J132522.3+273520 Galaxy 2005 − 2006 z = 6.597 [69][70]
SDF J132418.3+271455 Galaxy 2003 − 2005 z = 6.578 [70][71][72][73]
HCM-6A Galaxy 2002 − 2003 z = 6.56 The galaxy is lensed by galaxy cluster Abell 370. This was the first non-quasar galaxy found to exceed redshift 6. It exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z = 6.28[71][72][74][75][76][77]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
Quasar 2001 − 2002 z = 6.28 [78][79][80][81][82][83]
SDSS 1044-0125
(SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2)
Quasar 2000 − 2001 z = 5.82 [84][85][82][83][86][87][88]
SSA22-HCM1 Galaxy 1999 − 2000 z>=5.74 [89][90]
HDF 4-473.0 Galaxy 1998 − 1999 z = 5.60 [90]
RD1 (0140+326 RD1) Galaxy 1998 z = 5.34 [91][92][93][90][94]
CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 Galaxies 1997 − 1998 z = 4.92 These were the most remote objects discovered at the time. The pair of galaxies were found lensed by galaxy cluster CL1358+62 (z = 0.33). This was the first time since 1964 that something other than a quasar held the record for being the most distant object in the universe.[92][95][96][93][90][97]
PC 1247-3406 Quasar 1991 − 1997 z = 4.897 [84][98][99][100][101]
PC 1158+4635 Quasar 1989 − 1991 z = 4.73 [84][101][102][103][104][105]
Q0051-279 Quasar 1987 − 1989 z = 4.43 [106][102][105][107][108][109]
Q0000-26
(QSO B0000-26)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.11 [106][102][110]
PC 0910+5625
(QSO B0910+5625)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.04 This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.[84][102][111][112]
Q0046–293
(QSO J0048-2903)
Quasar 1987 z = 4.01 [106][102][111][113][114]
Q1208+1011
(QSO B1208+1011)
Quasar 1986 − 1987 z = 3.80 This is a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45 ″.[111][115][116]
PKS 2000-330
(QSO J2003-3251, Q2000-330)
Quasar 1982 − 1986 z = 3.78 [111][117][118]'
OQ172
(QSO B1442+101)
Quasar 1974 − 1982 z = 3.53 [119][120][121]
OH471
(QSO B0642+449)
Quasar 1973 − 1974 z = 3.408 Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe".[119][121][122][123][124]
4C 05.34 Quasar 1970 − 1973 z = 2.877 Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.[121][125][126][127]
5C 02.56
(7C 105517.75+495540.95)
Quasar 1968 − 1970 z = 2.399 [97][127][128]
4C 25.05
(4C 25.5)
Quasar 1968 z = 2.358 [97][127][129]
PKS 0237-23
(QSO B0237-2321)
Quasar 1967 − 1968 z = 2.225 [125][129][130][131][132]
4C 12.39
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
Quasar 1966 − 1967 z = 2.1291 [97][132][133][134]
4C 01.02
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
Quasar 1965 − 1966 z = 2.0990 [97][132][133][135]
3C 9 Quasar 1965 z = 2.018 [132][136][137][138]<ref>Schmidt, Maarten (1965). "Large Redshifts of Five Quasi-Stellar Sources". Astrophysical Journal. 141: 1295. Bibcode:1965ApJ...141.1295S. doi:10.1086/148217. </ref>[139]
3C 147 Quasar 1964 − 1965 z = 0.545 [140][141][142][143]
3C 295 Radio galaxy 1960 − 1964 z = 0.461 [90][97][144][145][146]
LEDA 25177 (MCG+01-23-008) Brightest cluster galaxy 1951 − 1960 z = 0.2
(V = 61000 km/s)
This galaxy lies in the Hydra Supercluster. It is located at B1950.0 08h 55m 4s +03° 21′ and is the BCG of the fainter Hydra Cluster Cl 0855+0321 (ACO 732).[90][146][147][148][149][150][151]
LEDA 51975 (MCG+05-34-069) Brightest cluster galaxy 1936 - z = 0.13
(V = 39000 km/s)
The brightest cluster galaxy of the Bootes Cluster (ACO 1930), an elliptical galaxy at B1950.0 14h 30m 6s +31° 46′ apparent magnitude 17.8, was found by Milton L. Humason in 1936 to have a 40,000 km/s recessional redshift velocity.[150][152][153]
LEDA 20221 (MCG+06-16-021) Brightest cluster galaxy 1932 - z = 0.075
(V = 23000 km/s)
This is the BCG of the Gemini Cluster (ACO 568) and was located at B1950.0 07h 05m 0s +35° 04′[152][154]
BCG of WMH Christie's Leo Cluster Brightest cluster galaxy 1931 − 1932 z =
(V = 19700 km/s)
[154][155][156][157]
BCG of Baede's Ursa Major Cluster Brightest cluster galaxy 1930 − 1931 z =
(V = 11700 km/s)
[157][158]
NGC 4860 Galaxy 1929 − 1930 z = 0.026
(V = 7800 km/s)
[158][159][160]
NGC 7619 Galaxy 1929 z = 0.012
(V = 3779 km/s)
Using redshift measurements, NGC 7619 was the highest at the time of measurement. At the time of announcement, it was not yet accepted as a general guide to distance, however, later in the year, Edwin Hubble described redshift in relation to distance, which became accepted widely as an inferred distance.[159][161][162]
NGC 584
(Dreyer nebula 584)
Galaxy 1921 − 1929 z = 0.006
(V = 1800 km/s)
At the time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. However, in 1923, galaxies were generally recognized as external to the Milky Way.[150][159][161][163][164][165][166]
M104 (NGC 4594) Galaxy 1913 − 1921 z = 0.004
(V = 1180 km/s)
This was the second galaxy whose redshift was determined; the first being Andromeda – which is approaching us and thus cannot have its redshift used to infer distance. Both were measured by Vesto Melvin Slipher. At this time, nebula had yet to be accepted as independent galaxies. NGC 4594 was measured originally as 1000 km/s, then refined to 1100, and then to 1180 in 1916.[159][163][166]
Arcturus
(Alpha Bootis)
Star 1891 − 1910 160 ly
(18 mas)
(this is very inaccurate, true=37 ly)
This number is wrong; originally announced in 1891, the figure was corrected in 1910 to 40 ly (60 mas). From 1891 to 1910, it had been thought this was the star with the smallest known parallax, hence the most distant star whose distance was known. Prior to 1891, Arcturus had previously been recorded of having a parallax of 127 mas.[167][168][169][170]
Capella
(Alpha Aurigae)
Star 1849 -  72 ly
(46 mas)
[171][172][173]
Polaris
(Alpha Ursae Minoris)
Star 1847 - 1849 50 ly
(80 mas)
(this is very inaccurate, true=~375 ly)
[174][175]
Vega
(Alpha Lyrae)
Star (part of a double star pair) 1839 - 1847 7.77 pc
(125 mas)
[174]
61 Cygni Binary star 1838 − 1839 3.48 pc
(313.6 mas)
This was the first star other than the Sun to have its distance measured.[174][176][177]
Uranus Planet of the Solar System 1781 − 1838 18 AU This was the last planet discovered before the first successful measurement of stellar parallax. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.
Saturn Planet of the Solar System 1619 − 1781 10 AU From Kepler's Third Law, it was finally determined that Saturn is indeed the outermost of the classical planets, and its distance derived. It had only previously been conjectured to be the outermost, due to it having the longest orbital period, and slowest orbital motion. It had been determined that the stars were much farther away than the planets.
Mars Planet of the Solar System 1609 − 1619 2.6 AU when Mars is diametrically opposed to Earth Kepler correctly characterized Mars and Earth's orbits in the publication Astronomia nova. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.
Sun Star 3rd century BC — 1609 380 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=16000 Earth radii) Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance of the Sun from the Earth in relation to the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The distance to the Moon was described in Earth radii (20, also inaccurate). The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously. At the time, it was assumed that some of the planets were further away, but their distances could not be measured. The order of the planets was conjecture until Kepler determined the distances of the four true planets from the Sun that were not Earth. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.
Moon Moon of a planet 3rd century BC 20 Earth radii (very inaccurate, true=64 Earth radii) Aristarchus of Samos made a measurement of the distance between the Earth and the Moon. The diameter of the Earth had been calculated previously. At the time, it was assumed that some of the planets were further away, but their distances could not be measured. The order of the planets was conjecture until Kepler determined the distances of the four true planets from the Sun that were not Earth. It had been conjectured that the fixed stars were much farther away than the planets.
  • z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion
  • mas represents parallax, a measure of angle and distance can be determined through trigonometry

List of objects by year of discovery that turned out to be most distant[edit]

This list contains a list of most distant objects by year of discovery of the object, not the determination of its distance. Objects may have been discovered without distance determination, and were found subsequently to be the most distant known at that time. However, object must have been named or described. An object like OJ 287 is ignored even though it was detected as early as 1891 using photographic plates, but ignored until the advent of radiotelescopes.

Examples
Year of record Modern
light travel distance (Mly)
Object Type Detected using First record by (1)
964 2.5[178] Andromeda Galaxy Spiral galaxy naked eye Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi[179]
1654 3 Triangulum Galaxy Spiral galaxy refracting telescope Giovanni Battista Hodierna[180]
1779 68[181] Messier 58 Barred spiral galaxy refracting telescope Charles Messier[182]
1785 76.4[183] NGC 584 Galaxy William Herschel
1880s 206 ± 29[184] NGC 1 Spiral galaxy Dreyer, Herschel
1959 2,400[185] 3C 273 Quasar Parkes Radio Telescope Maarten Schmidt, Bev Oke[186]
1960 5,000[187] 3C 295 Radio galaxy Palomar Observatory Rudolph Minkowski
Data missing from table
2009 13,000[188] GRB 090423 Gamma-ray burst progenitor Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission Krimm, H. et al.[189]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Light travel distance was calculated from redshift value using cosmological calculator, with parameters values as of 2015: H0=67.74 and OmegaM=0.3089 (see table in Lambda-CDM model article).
  2. ^ P. A. Oesch, G. Brammer, P. G. van Dokkum, G. D. Illingworth, R. J. Bouwens, I. Labbe, M. Franx, I. Momcheva, M. L. N. Ashby, G. G. Fazio, V. Gonzalez, B. Holden, D. Magee, R. E. Skelton, R. Smit, L. R. Spitler, M. Trenti, S. P. Willner (2016). "A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z = 11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy". The Astrophysical Journal. 819 (2): 129. arXiv:1603.00461free to read. Bibcode:2016ApJ...819..129O. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/2/129. 
  3. ^ Adi Zitrin, Ivo Labbe, Sirio Belli, Rychard Bouwens, Richard S. Ellis, Guido Roberts-Borsani, Daniel P. Stark, Pascal A. Oesch, Renske Smit (2015). "Lyman-alpha Emission from a Luminous z = 8.68 Galaxy: Implications for Galaxies as Tracers of Cosmic Reionization". The Astrophysical Journal. 810: L12. arXiv:1507.02679free to read. Bibcode:2015ApJ...810L..12Z. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/810/1/L12. 
  4. ^ a b c NASA, "New Gamma-Ray Burst Smashes Cosmic Distance Record", 28 April 2009
  5. ^ a b c d Tanvir, N. R.; Fox, D. B.; Levan, A. J.; Berger, E.; Wiersema, K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Cucchiara, A.; Krühler, T.; Gehrels, N.; Bloom, J. S.; Greiner, J.; Evans, P. A.; Rol, E.; Olivares, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Farihi, J.; Willingale, R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Cenko, S. B.; Perley, D.; Maund, J. R.; Duke, J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Adamson, A. J.; Allan, A.; Bremer, M. N.; Burrows, D. N.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; et al. (2009). "A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z~8.2". Nature. 461 (7268): 1254. Bibcode:2009Natur.461.1254T. doi:10.1038/nature08459. PMID 19865165. 
  6. ^ P. A. Oesch, P. G. van Dokkum, G. D. Illingworth, R. J. Bouwens, I. Momcheva, B. Holden, G. W. Roberts-Borsani, R. Smit, M. Franx, I. Labbe, V. Gonzalez, D. Magee (2015). "A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE". The Astrophysical Journal. 804 (2): L30. arXiv:1502.05399free to read. Bibcode:2015ApJ...804L..30O. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L30. 
  7. ^ Song, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Livermore, R. C.; Capak, P. L.; Dickinson, M.; Fontana, A. (2016). "Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z = 7-8 Galaxies: Lyman-alpha Emission from a Galaxy at z = 7.66". arXiv:1602.02160free to read [astro-ph.GA]. 
  8. ^ S. L. Finkelstein, C. Papovich, M. Dickinson, M. Song, V. Tilvi, A. M. Koekemoer, K. D. Finkelstein, B. Mobasher, H. C. Ferguson, M. Giavalisco, N. Reddy, M. L. N. Ashby, A. Dekel, G. G. Fazio, A. Fontana, N. A. Grogin, J.-S. Huang, D. Kocevski, M. Rafelski, B. J. Weiner, S. P. Willner (2013). "A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51". Nature. 502 (7472): 524–527. arXiv:1310.6031free to read. Bibcode:2013Natur.502..524F. doi:10.1038/nature12657. 
  9. ^ Morelle, R. (23 October 2013). "New galaxy 'most distant' yet discovered". BBC News. 
  10. ^ Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Michałowski, Michał Jerzy (2015). "A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization". Nature. 519 (7543): 327–330. arXiv:1503.00002free to read. Bibcode:2015Natur.519..327W. doi:10.1038/nature14164. PMID 25731171. 
  11. ^ "SXDF-NB1006-2 – Thirty Meter Telescope". 
  12. ^ a b c d e "Press Release". 
  13. ^ "NASA – NASA Telescopes Help Find Rare Galaxy at Dawn of Time". 
  14. ^ a b Vanzella; et al. (2011). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshift Beyond 7". ApJL. 730 (2): L35. arXiv:1011.5500free to read. Bibcode:2011ApJ...730L..35V. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/730/2/L35. 
  15. ^ a b c Scientific American, "Brilliant, but Distant: Most Far-Flung Known Quasar Offers Glimpse into Early Universe", John Matson, 29 June 2011
  16. ^ Fontana, A.; Vanzella, E.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Boutsia, K.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Giallongo, E.; Maiolino, M.; Moorwood, A.; Santini, P. (2010). "The lack of intense Lyman~alpha in ultradeep spectra of z = 7 candidates in GOODS-S: Imprint of reionization?". The Astrophysical Journal. 725 (2): L205. arXiv:1010.2754free to read. Bibcode:2010ApJ...725L.205F. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/725/2/L205. 
  17. ^ Hogan, Jenny (2006). "Journey to the birth of the Universe". Nature. 443 (7108): 128–129. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..128H. doi:10.1038/443128a. PMID 16971914. 
  18. ^ Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Mobasher, Bahram; Dickinson, Mark; Penner, Kyle; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Stern, Daniel; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Spinrad, Hyron (2011). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Three z-Dropout Galaxies at z = 6.844 – 7.213: Demographics of Lyman-Alpha Emission in z ~ 7 Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 744 (2): 83. arXiv:1107.3159free to read. Bibcode:2012ApJ...744...83O. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/83. 
  19. ^ Rhoads, James E.; Hibon, Pascale; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cooper, Michael; Weiner, Benjamin (2012). "A Lyman Alpha Galaxy at Redshift z = 6.944 in the COSMOS Field". The Astrophysical Journal. 752 (2): L28. arXiv:1205.3161free to read. Bibcode:2012ApJ...752L..28R. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/752/2/L28. 
  20. ^ a b Garth Illingworth; Rychard Bouwens; Pascal Oesch; Ivo Labbe; Dan Magee (December 2012). "Our Latest Results". FirstGalaxies. Retrieved March 10, 2016. 
  21. ^ Wall, Mike (December 12, 2012). "Ancient Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen". Space.com. Retrieved December 12, 2012. 13.75 Big Bang – 0.38=13.37 
  22. ^ NASA, "NASA's Hubble Finds Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Ever Seen in Universe", 26 January 2011
  23. ^ "Hubble finds a new contender for galaxy distance record". Space Telescope (heic1103 – Science Release). 26 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
  24. ^ HubbleSite, "NASA's Hubble Finds Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Ever Seen in Universe", STScI-2011-05, 26 January 2011
  25. ^ Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Momcheva, Ivelina; Oesch, Pascal A. (2013). "A Tentative Detection of an Emission Line at 1.6 mum for the z ~ 12 Candidate". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 765: L2. Bibcode:2013ApJ...765L...2B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/L2. 
  26. ^ Bouwens, R. J.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Brammer, G.; Magee, D.; Spitler, L. R.; Franx, M.; Smit, R.; Trenti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Carollo, C. M. (2013). "Photometric Constraints on the Redshift of z ~ 10 Candidate UDFj-39546284 from D". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 765: L16. Bibcode:2013ApJ...765L..16B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/L16. 
  27. ^ information@eso.org. "Hubble spots three magnified views of most distant known galaxy". www.spacetelescope.org. 
  28. ^ KDE Group, University of Kassel; DMIR Group, University of Würzburg & L3S Research Center. "BibSonomy". 
  29. ^ "Hubble Finds Distant Galaxy Through Cosmic Magnifying Glass". NASA. 
  30. ^ Zitrin, Adi; Zheng, Wei; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, John; Lam, Daniel; Shu, Xinwen; Huang, Xingxing; Diego, Jose M.; Ford, Holland; Lim, Jeremy; Bauer, Franz E.; Infante, Leopoldo; Kelson, Daniel D.; Molino, Alberto (2014). "A GEOMETRICALLY SUPPORTED z ∼ 10 CANDIDATE MULTIPLY IMAGED BY THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744". The Astrophysical Journal. 793: L12. arXiv:1407.3769free to read. Bibcode:2014ApJ...793L..12Z. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/793/1/L12. 
  31. ^ "NASA – NASA Telescopes Spy Ultra-Distant Galaxy". 
  32. ^ Zheng, W.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Moustakas, J.; Shu, X.; Jouvel, S.; Høst, O.; Molino, A.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Moustakas, L. A.; Carrasco, M.; Ford, H.; Benítez, N.; Lauer, T. R.; Seitz, S.; Bouwens, R.; Koekemoer, A.; Medezinski, E.; Bartelmann, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Donahue, M.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jha, S. W.; Kelson, D. D.; Lahav, O.; Lemze, D.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M. (2012). "A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang". Nature. 489 (7416): 406–408. arXiv:1204.2305free to read. Bibcode:2012Natur.489..406Z. doi:10.1038/nature11446. PMID 22996554. 
  33. ^ Penn State SCIENCE, "Cosmic Explosion is New Candidate for Most Distant Object in the Universe", Derek. B. Fox , Barbara K. Kennedy , 25 May 2011
  34. ^ Space Daily, Explosion Helps Researcher Spot Universe's Most Distant Object, 27 May 2011
  35. ^ "ESA Science & Technology: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (annotated)". 
  36. ^ David Shiga. "Dim galaxy is most distant object yet found". New Scientist. 
  37. ^ Bunker, Andrew J.; Caruana, Joseph; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J.; Hickey, Samantha (2013). "VLT/XSHOOTER and Subaru/MOIRCS spectroscopy of HUDF.YD3: no evidence for Lyman &". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 430 (4): 3314. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.430.3314B. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt132. 
  38. ^ Trenti, M.; Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Shull, J. M.; Oesch, P.; Bouwens, R. J.; Munoz, J. A.; Romano-Diaz, E.; Treu, T.; Shlosman, I.; Carollo, C. M. (2011). "Overdensities of Y-dropout Galaxies from the Brightest-of-Reionizing Galaxies Su". The Astrophysical Journal. 746: 55. arXiv:1110.0468free to read. Bibcode:2012ApJ...746...55T. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/55. 
  39. ^ a b Drake, Nadia (March 3, 2016). "Astronomers Spot Most Distant Galaxy—At Least For Now". National Geographic. Retrieved March 10, 2016. 
  40. ^ Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Finoguenov, Alexis; Liu, Daizhong; Schrieber, Corenin; Martin, Sergio; Strazzullo, Veronica; Valentino, Francesco; van Der Burg, Remco; Zanella, Anita; Cisela, Laure; Gobat, Raphael; Le Brun, Amandine; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Shu, Xinwen; Tan, Qinghua; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Xanxia (2016). "Discovery of a galaxy cluster with a violently starbursting core at z=2.506". The Astrophysical Journal. 828 (1). arXiv:1604.07404free to read. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/828/1/56. 
  41. ^ a b Science Codex, "GRB 090429B – most distant gamma-ray burst yet", NASA/Goddard, 27 May 2011
  42. ^ Sky and Telescope, "The Most Distant Star Ever Seen?", Camille M. Carlisle, 12 April 2013
  43. ^ New Scientist, "Lucky Hubble find raises star cluster mystery", Rachel Courtland, 8 July 2008 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  44. ^ Astronomy Magazine, "A star cluster hides star clusters", Francis Reddy, 10 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  45. ^ Space.com, "Faraway Galaxy Plays Peekaboo", Ker Than, 10 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  46. ^ ScienceDaily, "Astronomers Find The Most Distant Star Clusters Hidden Behind A Nearby Cluster", 14 January 2007 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  47. ^ Kalirai, Jason S.; Richer, H.; Anderson, J.; Strader, J.; Forde, K.; "Globular Clusters in a Globular Cluster", 2007 AAS/AAPT Joint Meeting, American Astronomical Society Meeting 209, #228.02; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 38, p.1214, December 2006; Bibcode2006AAS...20922802K
  48. ^ SpaceDaily, "Record-Setting X-ray Jet Discovered", 30 November 2012 (accessed 4 December 2012)
  49. ^ ESA, "Artist's impression of the X-ray binary XMMU J004243.6+412519", 12 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  50. ^ e! Science News, "XMMU J004243.6+412519: Black-Hole Binary At The Eddington Limit", 12 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  51. ^ SpaceDaily, "Microquasar found in neighbor galaxy, tantalizing scientists", 17 December 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
  52. ^ USA Today, "Smallest, most distant planet outside solar system found", Malcolm Ritter, 25 January 2006 (accessed 5 August 2010)
  53. ^ Schneider, J. "Notes for star PA-99-N2". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2010-08-06. 
  54. ^ Exoplaneten.de, "The Microlensing Event of Q0957+561" (accessed 5 August 2010)
  55. ^ Schild, R.E. (1996). "Microlensing Variability of the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Q0957+561 A,B". Astrophysical Journal. 464: 125. Bibcode:1996ApJ...464..125S. doi:10.1086/177304. 
  56. ^ Cooke, Jeff; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Carlberg, Raymond G.; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Horst, Chuck; Omori, Yuuki; Díaz, C. Gonzalo (2012). "Superluminous supernovae at redshifts of 2.05 and 3.90". Nature. 491 (7423): 228. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..228C. doi:10.1038/nature11521. PMID 23123848. 
  57. ^ information@eso.org. "Record-breaking supernova in the CANDELS Ultra Deep Survey: before, after, and difference". www.spacetelescope.org. 
  58. ^ Science Newsline, "The Farthest Supernova Yet for Measuring Cosmic History", Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 9 January 2013 (accessed 10 January 2013)
  59. ^ Space.com, "Most Distant 'Standard Candle' Star Explosion Found", Mike Wall, 9 January 2013 (accessed 10 January 2013)
  60. ^ Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L. (2009). "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results". Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 180 (2): 225–245. arXiv:0803.0732free to read. Bibcode:2009ApJS..180..225H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/225. 
  61. ^ Redshift states the Cosmic microwave background radiation as having a redshift of z = 1089
  62. ^ a b Jonathan Amos (3 March 2016). "Hubble sets new cosmic distance record". BBC News. 
  63. ^ Mike Wall (5 August 2015). "Ancient Galaxy Is Most Distant Ever Found". Space.com. 
  64. ^ W. M. Keck Observatory (6 August 2015). "A new record: Keck Observatory measures most distant galaxy". Astronomy Now. 
  65. ^ Mario De Leo Winkler (15 July 2015). "The Farthest Object in the Universe". Huffington Post. 
  66. ^ a b New Scientist, "Most distant object in the universe spotted", Rachel Courtland, 22:32 27 April 2009 . Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  67. ^ New Scientist, "First generation of galaxies glimpsed forming", 'David Shiga ', 19:01 13 September 2006 (accessed 2009/11/11)
  68. ^ Iye, M; Ota, K; Kashikawa, N; Furusawa, H; Hashimoto, T; Hattori, T; Matsuda, Y; Morokuma, T; Ouchi, M; Shimasaku, K (2006). "A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96". Nature. 443 (7108): 186–8. Bibcode:2006Natur.443..186I. doi:10.1038/nature05104. PMID 16971942. 
  69. ^ a b Taniguchi, Yoshi (23 June 2008). "Star Forming Galaxies at z > 5". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 3 (S250). arXiv:0804.0644free to read. doi:10.1017/S1743921308020796. 
  70. ^ a b Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Ajiki, Masaru; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Takashi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kodaira, Keiichi; Kaifu, Norio; Ando, Hiroyasu; Karoji, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Aoki, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Fujita, Shinobu S.; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hayashino, Tomoki; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Iye, Masanori; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Matsuda, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Morokuma, Tomoki; Motohara, Kentaro; Nariai, Kyoji; Ohta, Koji; Ohyama, Youichi; et al. (2005). "The SUBARU Deep Field Project: Lymanα Emitters at a Redshift of 6.6" (PDF). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 57: 165. Bibcode:2005PASJ...57..165T. doi:10.1093/pasj/57.1.165. 
  71. ^ a b BBC News, Most distant galaxy detected, Tuesday, 25 March 2003, 14:28 GMT
  72. ^ a b SpaceRef, Subaru Telescope Detects the Most Distant Galaxy Yet and Expects Many More, Monday, March 24, 2003
  73. ^ Kodaira, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Kaifu, N.; Ando, H.; Karoji, H.; Ajiki, Masaru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Aoki, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Fujita, Shinobu S.; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hayashino, Tomoki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Iye, Masanori; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kosugi, George; Matsuda, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Murayama, Takashi; Nagao, Tohru; Nariai, Kyoji; Ohta, Kouji; et al. (2003). "The Discovery of Two Lyman$α$ Emitters Beyond Redshift 6 in the Subaru Deep Field". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 55 (2): L17. arXiv:astro-ph/0301096free to read. doi:10.1093/pasj/55.2.L17. 
  74. ^ New Scientist, New record for Universe's most distant object, 17:19 14 March 2002
  75. ^ BBC News, Far away stars light early cosmos, Thursday, 14 March 2002, 11:38 GMT
  76. ^ The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568:L75–L79, April 1, 2002 ;A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370; doi:10.1086/340424
  77. ^ "K2.1 HCM 6A — Discovery of a redshift z = 6.56 galaxy lying behind the cluster Abell 370". Hera.ph1.uni-koeln.de. 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  78. ^ Pentericci, L.; Fan, X.; Rix, H. W.; Strauss, M. A.; Narayanan, V. K.; Richards, G T.; Schneider, D. P.; Krolik, J.; Heckman, T.; Brinkmann, J.; Lamb, D. Q.; Szokoly, G. P. (2001). "VLT observations of the z = 6.28 quasar SDSS 1030+0524". The Astronomical Journal. 123 (5): 2151. arXiv:astro-ph/0112075free to read. doi:10.1086/340077. 
  79. ^ The Astrophysical Journal, 578:702–707, 20 October 2002, A Constraint on the Gravitational Lensing Magnification and Age of the Redshift z = 6.28 Quasar SDSS 1030+0524
  80. ^ White, Richard L.; Becker, Robert H.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A. (2003). "Probing the Ionization State of the Universe atz>6". The Astronomical Journal. 126: 1. Bibcode:2003AJ....126....1W. doi:10.1086/375547. 
  81. ^ Farrah, D.; Priddey, R.; Wilman, R.; Haehnelt, M.; McMahon, R. (2004). "The X-Ray Spectrum of thez = 6.30 QSO SDSS J1030+0524". The Astrophysical Journal. 611: L13. Bibcode:2004ApJ...611L..13F. doi:10.1086/423669. 
  82. ^ a b PennState Eberly College of Science, Discovery Announced of Two Most Distant Objects, June 2001
  83. ^ a b SDSS, Early results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: From under our nose to the edge of the universe, June 2001
  84. ^ a b c d PennState – Eberly College of Science – Science Journal – Summer 2000 -- Vol. 17, No. 1 International Team of Astronomers Finds Most Distant Object
  85. ^ The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 522:L9–L12, 1999 September 1, An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at z = 5.74
  86. ^ PennState Eberly College of Science, X-rays from the Most Distant Quasar Captured with the XMM-Newton Satellite, Dec 2000
  87. ^ UW-Madison Astronomy, Confirmed High Redshift (z > 5.5) Galaxies – (Last Updated 10th February 2005)
  88. ^ SPACE.com, Most Distant Object in Universe Comes Closer, 01 December 2000
  89. ^ The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 522:L9–L12, September 1, 1999, An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at z = 5.74
  90. ^ a b c d e f Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 111: 1475–1502, 1999 December; Search Techniques for Distant Galaxies; Introduction
  91. ^ New York Times, Peering Back in Time, Astronomers Glimpse Galaxies Aborning, October 20, 1998
  92. ^ a b Astronomy Picture of the Day, A Baby Galaxy, March 24, 1998
  93. ^ a b Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel; Graham, James R.; Chaffee, Frederic H. (1998). "A Galaxy at z = 5.34". The Astrophysical Journal. 498 (2): L93. arXiv:astro-ph/9803137free to read. doi:10.1086/311331. 
  94. ^ "A New Most Distant Object: z = 5.34". Astro.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  95. ^ Astronomy Picture of the Day, Behind CL1358+62: A New Farthest Object, July 31, 1997
  96. ^ Franx, Marijn; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Tran, Kim-Vy (1997). "A Pair of Lensed Galaxies at [CLC][ITAL]z[/ITAL][/CLC]=4.92 in the Field of CL 1358+62". The Astrophysical Journal. 486 (2): L75. Bibcode:1997ApJ...486L..75F. doi:10.1086/310844. 
  97. ^ a b c d e f "Astrophysics and Space Science" 1999, 269/270, 165-181 ; Galaxies at High Redshift - 8. Z > 5 Galaxies ; Garth Illingworth
  98. ^ Smith, J. D.; Djorgovski, S.; Thompson, D.; Brisken, W. F.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Meylan, G.; Piotto, G.; Suntzeff, N. B. (1994). "Multicolor detection of high-redshift quasars, 2: Five objects with Z greater than or approximately equal to 4". The Astronomical Journal. 108: 1147. Bibcode:1994AJ....108.1147S. doi:10.1086/117143. 
  99. ^ New Scientist, issue 1842, 10 October 1992, page 17, Science: Infant galaxy's light show
  100. ^ FermiLab Scientists of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Discover Most Distant Quasar December 8, 1998
  101. ^ a b Hook, Isobel M.; McMahon, Richard G. (1998). "Discovery of radio-loud quasars with z = 4.72 and z = 4.01". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 294: L7. Bibcode:1998MNRAS.294L...7H. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01368.x. 
  102. ^ a b c d e Turner, Edwin L. (1991). "Quasars and galaxy formation. I - the Z greater than 4 objects". Astronomical Journal. 101: 5. Bibcode:1991AJ....101....5T. doi:10.1086/115663. 
  103. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PC 1158+4635, QSO B1158+4635 -- Quasar
  104. ^ Cowie, Lennox L. (1991). "Young Galaxies". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 647: 31. Bibcode:1991NYASA.647...31C. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1991.tb32157.x. 
  105. ^ a b New York Times, Peering to Edge of Time, Scientists Are Astonished, November 20, 1989
  106. ^ a b c Warren, S. J.; Hewett, P. C.; Osmer, P. S.; Irwin, M. J. (1987). "Quasars of redshift z = 4.43 and z = 4.07 in the South Galactic Pole field". Nature. 330 (6147): 453. Bibcode:1987Natur.330..453W. doi:10.1038/330453a0. 
  107. ^ Levshakov, S. A. (1989). "Absorption spectra of quasars". Astrophysics. 29 (2): 657. Bibcode:1988Ap.....29..657L. doi:10.1007/BF01005972. 
  108. ^ New York Times, Objects Detected in Universe May Be the Most Distant Ever Sighted, January 14, 1988
  109. ^ New York Times, Astronomers Peer Deeper Into Cosmos, May 10, 1988
  110. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0000-26, QSO B0000-26 -- Quasar
  111. ^ a b c d Schmidt, Maarten; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E. (1987). "PC 0910 + 5625 - an optically selected quasar with a redshift of 4.04". Astrophysical Journal. 321: L7. Bibcode:1987ApJ...321L...7S. doi:10.1086/184996. 
  112. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PC 0910+5625, QSO B0910+5625 -- Quasar
  113. ^ Warren, S. J.; Hewett, P. C.; Irwin, M. J.; McMahon, R. G.; Bridgeland, M. T.; Bunclark, P. S.; Kibblewhite, E. J. (1987). "First observation of a quasar with a redshift of 4". Nature. 325 (6100): 131. Bibcode:1987Natur.325..131W. doi:10.1038/325131a0. 
  114. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0046-293, QSO J0048-2903 -- Quasar
  115. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q1208+1011, QSO B1208+1011 -- Quasar
  116. ^ New Scientist, Quasar doubles help to fix the Hubble constant, 16 November 1991
  117. ^ Orwell Astronomical Society (Ipswich) – OASI ; Archived Astronomy News Items, 1972–1997
  118. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PKS 2000-330, QSO J2003-3251 -- Quasar
  119. ^ a b OSU Big Ear, History of the OSU Radio Observatory
  120. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : OQ172, QSO B1442+101 -- Quasar
  121. ^ a b c "QUASARS – THREE YEARS LATER". 
  122. ^ Time Magazine, The Edge of Night, Monday, Apr. 23, 1973
  123. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : OH471, QSO B0642+449 -- Quasar
  124. ^ Warren, S J; Hewett, P C (1990). "The detection of high-redshift quasars". Reports on Progress in Physics. 53 (8): 1095. Bibcode:1990RPPh...53.1095W. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/53/8/003. 
  125. ^ a b The Structure of the Physical Universe, Volume III – The Universe of Motion, CHAPTER 23 – Quasar Redshifts, by Dewey Bernard Larson, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 79-88078, ISBN 0-913138-11-8 , Copyright © 1959, 1971, 1984
  126. ^ Bahcall, John N.; Oke, J. B. (1971). "Some Inferences from Spectrophotometry of Quasi-Stellar Sources". Astrophysical Journal. 163: 235. Bibcode:1971ApJ...163..235B. doi:10.1086/150762. 
  127. ^ a b c Lynds, R.; Wills, D. (1970). "The Unusually Large Redshift of 4C 05.34". Nature. 226 (5245): 532. Bibcode:1970Natur.226..532L. doi:10.1038/226532a0. 
  128. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : 5C 02.56, 7C 105517.75+495540.95 -- Quasar
  129. ^ a b Burbidge, Geoffrey (1968). "The Distribution of Redshifts in Quasi-Stellar Objects, N-Systems and Some Radio and Compact Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 154: L41. Bibcode:1968ApJ...154L..41B. doi:10.1086/180265. 
  130. ^ Time Magazine, A Farther-Out Quasar, Friday, Apr. 07, 1967
  131. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO B0237-2321, QSO B0237-2321 -- Quasar
  132. ^ a b c d Burbidge, Geoffrey (1967). "On the Wavelengths of the Absorption Lines in Quasi-Stellar Objects". Astrophysical Journal. 147: 851. Bibcode:1967ApJ...147..851B. doi:10.1086/149072. 
  133. ^ a b Time Magazine, The Man on the Mountain, Friday, Mar. 11, 1966
  134. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q1116+12, 4C 12.39 -- Quasar
  135. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0106+01, 4C 01.02 -- Quasar
  136. ^ Time Magazine, Toward the Edge of the Universe, Friday, May. 21, 1965
  137. ^ Time Magazine, The Quasi-Quasars, Friday, Jun. 18, 1965
  138. ^ The Cosmic Century: A History of Astrophysics and Cosmology Page 379 by Malcolm S. Longair – 2006
  139. ^ The Discovery of Radio Galaxies and Quasars, 1965
  140. ^ Schmidt, Maarten; Matthews, Thomas A. (1965). "Redshifts of the Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3c 47 and 3c 147". Quasi-Stellar Sources and Gravitational Collapse: 269. Bibcode:1965qssg.conf..269S. 
  141. ^ Schneider, Donald P.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E. (1992). "Radio properties of optically selected high-redshift quasars. I - VLA observations of 22 quasars at 6 CM". Astronomical Journal. 103: 1451. Bibcode:1992AJ....103.1451S. doi:10.1086/116159. 
  142. ^ Time Magazine, Finding the Fastest Galaxy: 76,000 Miles per Second, Friday, Apr. 10, 1964
  143. ^ Schmidt, Maarten; Matthews, Thomas A. (1964). "Redshift of the Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3c 47 and 3c 147". Astrophysical Journal. 139: 781. Bibcode:1964ApJ...139..781S. doi:10.1086/147815. 
  144. ^ "The Discovery of Radio Galaxies and Quasars". Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  145. ^ McCarthy, Patrick J. (1993). "High Redshift Radio Galaxies". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 31: 639. doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.31.090193.003231. 
  146. ^ a b Sandage, Allan (1961). "The Ability of the 200-INCH Telescope to Discriminate Between Selected World Models". Astrophysical Journal. 133: 355. Bibcode:1961ApJ...133..355S. doi:10.1086/147041. 
  147. ^ Hubble, E. P. (1953). "The law of red shifts (George Darwin Lecture)". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 113 (6): 658. Bibcode:1953MNRAS.113..658H. doi:10.1093/mnras/113.6.658. 
  148. ^ Observational; Models, World. "6.1. Local Tests for Linearity of the Redshift-Distance Relation". Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988 (26): 561–630. 
  149. ^ Humason, M. L.; Mayall, N. U.; Sandage, A. R. (1956). "Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae". Astronomical Journal. 61: 97. Bibcode:1956AJ.....61...97H. doi:10.1086/107297. 
  150. ^ a b c "1053 May 8 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society". The Observatory. 73: 97. 1953. Bibcode:1953Obs....73...97. 
  151. ^ Merrill, Paul W. (1958). "From Atoms to Galaxies". Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets. 7: 393. Bibcode:1958ASPL....7..393M. 
  152. ^ a b Humason, M. L. (January 1936). "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal. 83: 10. Bibcode:1936ApJ....83...10H. doi:10.1086/143696. 
  153. ^ "The First 50 Years At Palomar: 1949–1999 ; The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics'; 5.2.1. The Mount Wilson Years ; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1999. 37: 445-486
  154. ^ a b Chant, C. A. (1 April 1932). "Notes and Queries (Doings at Mount Wilson-Ritchey's Photographic Telescope-Infra-red Photographic Plates)". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 26: 180. Bibcode:1932JRASC..26..180C. 
  155. ^ Humason, Milton L. (July 1931). "Apparent Velocity-Shifts in the Spectra of Faint Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal. 74: 35. Bibcode:1931ApJ....74...35H. doi:10.1086/143287. 
  156. ^ Hubble, Edwin; Humason, Milton L. (July 1931). "The Velocity-Distance Relation among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal. 74: 43. Bibcode:1931ApJ....74...43H. doi:10.1086/143323. 
  157. ^ a b Humason, M. L. (1 January 1931). "The Large Apparent Velocities of Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Leaflet of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1: 149. Bibcode:1931ASPL....1..149H. 
  158. ^ a b Humason, M. L. (1930). "The Rayton short-focus spectrographic objective". Astrophysical Journal. 71: 351. Bibcode:1930ApJ....71..351H. doi:10.1086/143255. 
  159. ^ a b c d Trimble, Virginia (1996). "H_0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant, 1925-1975". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 108: 1073. Bibcode:1996PASP..108.1073T. doi:10.1086/133837. 
  160. ^ "The Berkeley Meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, June 20-21, 1929". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 41: 244. 1929. Bibcode:1929PASP...41..244.. doi:10.1086/123945. 
  161. ^ a b From the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Volume 15 : March 15, 1929 : Number 3 ; The Large Radial Velocity of N. G. C. 7619 ; January 17, 1929
  162. ^ The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada / Journal de la Société Royale D'astronomie du Canada; Vol. 83, No.6 December 1989 Whole No. 621 ; EDWIN HUBBLE 1889–1953
  163. ^ a b National Academy of Sciences; Biographical Memoirs: V. 52 – Vesto Melvin Slipher; ISBN 0-309-03099-4
  164. ^ Bailey, S. I. (1920). "Comet Skjellerup". Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 739. 739: 1. Bibcode:1920BHarO.739....1B. 
  165. ^ New York Times, DREYER NEBULA NO. 584 Inconceivably Distant; Dr. Slipher Says the Celestial Speed Champion Is 'Many Millions of Light Years' Away. ; January 19, 1921, Wednesday
  166. ^ a b New York Times, Nebula Dreyer Breaks All Sky Speed Records; Portion of the Constellation of Cetus Is Rushing Along at Rate of 1,240 Miles a Second. ; January 18, 1921, Tuesday
  167. ^ Hawera & Normanby Star, "Items of Interest", 29 December 1910, Volume LX, page 3 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  168. ^ Evening Star (San Jose), "Colossal Arcturus", Pittsburgh Dispatch, 10 June 1910 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  169. ^ Nelson Evening Mail, "British Bloodthirstiness", 2 November 1891, Volume XXV, Issue 230, Page 3 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  170. ^ "Handbook of astronomy", Dionysius Lardner & Edwin Dunkin, Lockwood & Co. (1875), pp.121
  171. ^ "The Three Heavens", Josiah Crampton, William Hunt and Company (1876), pp.164
  172. ^ (German) "Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung", Volume 4, Alexander von Humboldt, J. G. Cotta (1858), pp.195
  173. ^ "Outlines of Astronomy", John F. W. Herschel, Longman & Brown (1849), ch. 'Parallax of Stars', pp.551 (section 851)
  174. ^ a b c The North American Review, "The Observatory at Pulkowa", FGW Struve, Volume 69 Issue 144 (July 1849)
  175. ^ The Sidereal Messenger, "Of the Precession of the Equinoxes, Nutation of the Earth's Axis, And Aberration of Light", Vol.1, No.12, April 1847: 'Derby, Bradley, & Co.' Cincinnati
  176. ^ SEDS, "Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (July 22, 1784 – March 17, 1846)" . Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  177. ^ Harper's New Monthly Magazine, "Some Talks of an Astronomer", Simon Newcomb, Volume 0049 Issue 294 (November 1874), pp.827 (accessed 2009-Nov-11)
  178. ^ Jensen, Joseph B.; Tonry, John L.; Barris, Brian J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Liu, Michael C.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Ajhar, Edward A.; Blakeslee, John P. (February 2003). "Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (2): 712–726. arXiv:astro-ph/0210129free to read. Bibcode:2003ApJ...583..712J. doi:10.1086/345430. 
  179. ^ Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide, Volume 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1. 
  180. ^ Fodera-Serio, G.; Indorato, L.; Nastasi, P. (February 1985). "Hodierna's Observations of Nebulae and his Cosmology". Journal of the History of Astronomy. 16 (1): 1–36. Bibcode:1985JHA....16....1F. 
  181. ^ G. Gavazzi; A. Boselli; M. Scodeggio; D. Pierini & E. Belsole (1999). "The 3D structure of the Virgo cluster from H-band Fundamental Plane and Tully-Fisher distance determinations". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 304 (3): 595–610. arXiv:astro-ph/9812275free to read. Bibcode:1999MNRAS.304..595G. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02350.x. 
  182. ^ Burnham, Robert Jr (1978). Burnham's Celestial Handbook: Volume Three, Pavo Through Vulpecula. Dover. pp. 2086–2088. ISBN 0-486-23673-0. 
  183. ^ "The OBEY Survey – NGC 584". 
  184. ^ "Distance Results for NGC 0001". NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  185. ^ Falla, D. F.; Evans, A. (1972). "On the Mass and Distance of the Quasi-Stellar Object 3C 273". Astrophysics and Space Science. 15 (3): 395. Bibcode:1972Ap&SS..15..395F. doi:10.1007/BF00649767. 
  186. ^ Variable Star Of The Season Archived January 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  187. ^ Minkowski, R. (1960). "A New Distant Cluster of Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 132: 908. Bibcode:1960ApJ...132..908M. doi:10.1086/146994. 
  188. ^ "Exploding star is oldest object seen in universe". Cnn.com. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  189. ^ Krimm, H.; et al. (2009). "GRB 090423: Swift detection of a burst". GCN Circulars (9198).