Lysychansk

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Lysychansk
Лисичанськ
City
Гірничий технікум.jpg
Кінотеатр «Октябрський».jpg
МеморіалНаПроспекті 1.jpg
Половецькі кам'яні статуї.jpg
Будинок колишньої штейгерівської школи, в якій відбувся виступ Менделєєва Д.jpg
DonSodaLake2.jpg
Top-down, left-right (from upper left): State Mine Industrial College, "Oktyabrskiy" Ex-Cinema, Memorial complex "Pamyat", Kurgan stelae, Museum of Coal Industry Development, Alkali lake of OJSC Lysychansk Soda
Flag of Lysychansk
Coat of arms of Lysychansk
Lysychansk is located in Luhansk Oblast
Lysychansk
Lysychansk
Lysychansk is located in Ukraine
Lysychansk
Lysychansk
Coordinates: 48°55′N 38°24′E / 48.917°N 38.400°E / 48.917; 38.400Coordinates: 48°55′N 38°24′E / 48.917°N 38.400°E / 48.917; 38.400
Country
Oblast Luhansk Oblast
RaionSievierodonetsk Raion
Founded17101
City rights1938
LPR control2 July 2022
Government
 • MayorVacant
Area
 • Total96 km2 (37 sq mi)
Elevation
145 m (475.7 ft)
Population
 (2022)
 • Total93,340
 • Density1,201.430/km2 (3,111.69/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
93100—93199
Area code+380 6451
Licence plateBB
ClimateDfb
WebsiteLis.gov.ua

Lysychansk (Ukrainian: Лисича́нськ [lɪsɪˈtʃɑnʲsʲk]; Russian: Лисича́нск [lʲɪsʲɪˈtɕansk]) is a city in the Sievierodonetsk Raion of the Luhansk Oblast in Eastern Ukraine occupied by Russia. Prior to 2020 municipal classification reforms, it was incorporated as a city of oblast significance. It is located on the high right bank of the Donets river, approximately 115 km from the oblast capital, Luhansk. It faces Sievierodonetsk across the river. Its population prior to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine was approximately 93,340 (2022 est.).[2]

Prior to 2022, the administration of Lysychansk Municipality included the cities of Novodruzhesk and Pryvillia. Together with the cities of Sievierodonetsk, Rubizhne, Kreminna and the nearest towns. The Lysychansk area constituted a major urban and industrial hub of the Donbas area, with a 2009 population of about 353,000.

In the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the city became the site of fierce fighting, and a major battle, the Battle of Lysychansk, which ended with the capture of the city by Russian forces and the Luhansk People's Republic on 2 July.[3] After the September 2022 annexation referendums in Russian-occupied Ukraine, Russia claimed the city was now part of Russia.

History (1721–2013)

In 1721, coal was discovered in the Donets basin near Lisya Balka, a Cossack village established in 1710.[4] In 1795, Lysychansk was the first coal-mining settlement of the Donets basin.[4]

Earlier settlements in the area around Lysychansk were completely destroyed by the Muscovy punitive expedition against the Bulavin Rebellion. After suppressing the uprising, the area was resettled with Voronove (founded by Khokhlov's Cossacks), Syrotyne (Popov's and Sirotin's Cossacks), Borivske (partly settled by former residents of the burned the Borovskaya Sloboda), Metiolkine (Metelnikov's Cossacks) and Smolianynove (Smolkin's Cossacks).[citation needed]

A local newspaper has been published in the city since January 1918.[5]

The present borders of Lysychansk were finalized by the mid-1960s. In 1962, the city of Sievierodonetsk separated from Lysychansk and became its own independent city. In 1963, the towns of Novodruzhesk and Pryvillia were included in the city limits of Lysychansk and became cities. In 1965, Lysychansk incorporated the cities of Verkhnie and Proletarsk.[citation needed]

Russo-Ukrainian war

2014

During the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine the town was captured early April 2014 by pro-Russian separatists.[6][7] On 22 July 2014 Ukrainian Ukrinform reported that the separatists "massively left Lysychansk" with "seized cars from the population and in parking lots;" Russian ITAR-TASS reported the same day that the separatists had "decided to leave the town in order to save the population and stop clashes." This was mainly because their defeat in the Siege of Sloviansk and the evacuation of Kramatorsk made holding the city untenable.[8][9] The next day heavy fighting continued around the town while the Ukrainian National Guard and the Ukrainian army released a statement that stated "the military plan to free Lysychansk, Luhansk region, from terrorist groups in the near future."[10][11] On 24 July 2014 the Ukrainian army claimed its troops had entered Lysychansk and its Col. Andriy Lysenko stated "We will take the town, and the road will be open to Horlivka, then Donetsk."[12][13] On 25 July 2014, Ukrainian forces secured the city from the pro-Russian separatists.[14]

2022

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Lysychansk came under heavy shelling from the Russian military. Some of the most intense strikes occurred late in March 2022, which destroyed dozens of buildings and caused civilian casualties.[15] On 9 May 2022, Russian troops attempted to cross over the Seversky Donets river with a temporary pontoon bridge near Bilohorivka.[16] Ukrainian forces anticipated this approach, monitored the bridge construction, bombing the bridge and Russian vehicles who already crossed resulting in severe Russian losses.[17] Russia made several such attempts, many of which were neutralized by Ukrainian forces.[18]

After the Russian capture of Sievierodenetsk, Lysychansk became the last major city in the Luhansk region under Ukrainian control. On 26 June, TASS reported that Russian forces entered the city from five directions.[19][20] On 27 June, the CNN reported that civilians in Lysychansk have been urged to leave immediately, as Russian forces gain ground in the city.[21]

On 2 July 2022, reports of Ukrainian troops withdrawing from the city and Russian forces moving in were supported by multiple videos from Kadirov's 141st Special Motorized Regiment declaring victory in front of the City Council of Lysychansk.

"After heavy fighting for Lysychansk, the defence forces of Ukraine were forced to withdraw from their occupied positions and lines," the army general staff said. Earlier Russia's Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said his forces had captured Lysychansk and taken full control of Luhansk region. Ukraine's troops were outgunned there. Its general staff said that "in order to preserve the lives of Ukrainian defenders, a decision was made to withdraw". (BBC 4 July 2022)

On 19 September 2022, Ukrainian troops recaptured Bilohorivka, a village 10km from the city.[22]

Geography

Lysychansk is located in the North-Western part of the Luhansk region, 115 km from Luhansk, on the high right bank of the Siverskyi Donets River. The area is surrounded by large hills, ravines and valleys. The city is situated on the northern spur of the Donets Ridge.

Lysychansk lies in the continental climate of the steppe zone of Ukraine. Water resources stemming from here are one of the most important resources. Siverskyi Donets River is the main water artery of the Lysychansk and the whole region. The length of the Siverskyi Donets River within the city is 26.5 km. Verkhnia Bilenka River, a tributary of the Siverskyi Donets River, flows through the southern part of the city, the length of the river within the city is 7.7 km.

Climate

Lysychansk has a humid continental climate (Dfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system.

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 26–27 °C (78.8–80.6 °F) and lows of 14–15 °C (57.2–59 °F). Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of −1 °C (30.2 °F) and lows of −8 to −6 °C (17.6 to 21.2 °F). Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild.[23]

The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) in June 1984. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was −34.0 °C (−29.2 °F) in February 1954.

Annual precipitation is 480 millimeters (18.9 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through March, but snow cover does not usually remain for long.[24]

Climate data for Lysychansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
23.0
(73.4)
31.0
(87.8)
37.0
(98.6)
41.0
(105.8)
40.0
(104.0)
40.0
(104.0)
36.0
(96.8)
31.0
(87.8)
21.0
(69.8)
16.0
(60.8)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
5.0
(41.0)
15.0
(59.0)
22.0
(71.6)
26.0
(78.8)
28.0
(82.4)
27.0
(80.6)
21.0
(69.8)
13.0
(55.4)
4.0
(39.2)
0.0
(32.0)
13.0
(55.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.0
(21.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
1.6
(34.9)
9.5
(49.1)
15.5
(59.9)
20.0
(68.0)
22.0
(71.6)
21.0
(69.8)
15.0
(59.0)
11.0
(51.8)
1.0
(33.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
8.5
(47.3)
Average low °C (°F) −9
(16)
−8
(18)
−3.0
(26.6)
4.0
(39.2)
9.0
(48.2)
14.0
(57.2)
16.0
(60.8)
15.0
(59.0)
9.0
(48.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.0
(28.4)
−6
(21)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F) −32.0
(−25.6)
−34.0
(−29.2)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−11.0
(12.2)
−3.0
(26.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
6.0
(42.8)
4.0
(39.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
−12.0
(10.4)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−34.0
(−29.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 32.0
(1.26)
30.0
(1.18)
36.0
(1.42)
37.0
(1.46)
48.0
(1.89)
53.0
(2.09)
61.0
(2.40)
34.0
(1.34)
45.0
(1.77)
31.0
(1.22)
37.0
(1.46)
36.0
(1.42)
480
(18.91)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 5.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 8.0 89
Source: Microsoft Corporation program "Weather"

Population

  • As of 1 January 2014 the population of Lyscychansk was 103,459.[25]
  • According to the 2001 Census the population of the city proper was 115,229 people, while the population of the total area governed by the city council was 133,258 people.[26]

As of 2006, the ethnic populations were:[27]

Industry

Before 2010, Lysychansk was among the biggest industrial centres in Luhansk Oblast.[28] Since 2010, many plants have closed, with massive lay-offs.[28]

The city and the surrounding area has five coal mines owned by Lysychanskvuhillia. Coal reserves amount to 179.7 million tons. Production capacity is 2.8 million tons of coal per year.

Media

  • Newspaper "Новый путь" (New Path)
  • Television and Radio Company "Акцент" (Accent)
  • Publishing house "Час Пик" (Rush Hour)

Education

Institutes of higher education in Lysychansk include the Donbas State Technical University and Luhansk State University of Internal Affairs.

Attractions

Transportation

Bus

Trolleys and buses run to and from Lysychansk as well as within the city. Most of the buses running in and out of the city start running after 6 am. until 7–9 pm. for different routes.[citation needed]

Direct regular bus service is available to other Ukrainian cities, including Donetsk, Kharkiv, Berdiansk, and Mariupol.[30]

Railway

Lysychansk has a central railway station and three other railway stations: Nasvitevych, Pereizna, Volcheiarska. Almost all transit distance trains stop at Stations Pereizna and Volcheiarska, allowing residents of Southern Lysychansk not to be dependent on the central railway station (not actual from 2014). As of 2021, the non-central stations are only used for short-destination interurban trains (diesel commuter trains).

Lysychansk Central Railway Station has the following train routes: [31]

Since the Russo-Ukrainian War, there is no railway route available from Luhanska Oblast to Russian Federation. In most cases, Lysychansk Central Railway Station became the final destination for long-destination trains.[citation needed]

Airport

The nearest airport is located 12 kilometers from the city center, located in Sievierodonetsk. Built in 1968 the airport is to serve residents and workers of the surrounding cities. The airport is administered by the Lysychansk District pipeline OAO Ukrtransnafta.[32]

Politics

In the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, Viktor Yanukovych won 92.51% of the vote in Lysychansk. Runner-up Viktor Yushchenko received 5.08% of the vote.[33]

In the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, Viktor Yanukovych won 90.95% of the vote in Lysychansk. Runner-up Yulia Tymoshenko received 5.91% of the vote.[34]

Notable people

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Офіційний портал Верховної Ради України". Gska2.rada.gov.ua. 2010-05-19. Retrieved 2015-05-19.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  3. ^ "Ukraine confirms Russia captured eastern city Lysychansk". BBC News. 2022-07-03. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  4. ^ a b Lysychansk at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. ^ № 2905. Новый путь // Летопись периодических и продолжающихся изданий СССР 1986 – 1990. Часть 2. Газеты. М., «Книжная палата», 1994. стр.381
  6. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Air strikes 'hit Luhansk targets' – BBC News". BBC News. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  7. ^ "Police help Kremlin-backed insurgents in Luhansk Oblast's Lysychansk". Kyivpost.com. 2014-05-24. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  8. ^ "Terrorists fleeing from Severodonetsk and Lysychansk – media| Ukrinform". Ukrinform.ua. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  9. ^ "TASS: World – Ukraine troops continue attacks on Lisichansk — Luhansk militia commander". En.itar-tass.com. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  10. ^ "Ukrainian National Guard cleansing Severodonetsk, Lysychansk of militants". En.interfax.com.ua. 2014-07-23. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  11. ^ "Ukraine Votes to Call Up More Reservists". Voanews.com. 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  12. ^ Marson, James (2014-07-24). "Ukraine President Petro Poroshenko Welcomes Breakup of Ruling Coalition – WSJ". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  13. ^ "Ukrainian troops enter Lysychansk". Kyivpost.com. 2014-07-24. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  14. ^ Schwartz, Felicia (2014-07-25). "White House Says Putin 'Culpable' in Flight 17 Crash – WSJ". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  15. ^ "Heavy fighting for Lysychansk ongoing, enemy firing weapons of all calibers". Ukrinform. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  16. ^ Mogul, Rhea; Raine, Andrew; John, Tara; Church, Ben; Sangal, Aditi; Smith-Spark, Laura; Chowdhury, Maureen (2022-05-09). "Ukrainian officials alarmed by Russians crossing major river in the east". CNN. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  17. ^ Santora, Marc (2022-05-13). "Ukraine decimated Russian forces trying to cross a river in the east, Britain's defense ministry says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  18. ^ Altman, Howard (2022-05-12). "Debacle On The Donets: How Russian Forces Got Obliterated Trying To Cross A River". The Drive. Retrieved 2022-05-14.
  19. ^ "Russia in drive to capture Lysychansk after taking Sievierodonetsk". euronews. 2022-06-27. Retrieved 2022-06-27.
  20. ^ "Russian forces turn sights on Lysychansk in battle for eastern Ukraine - Times of India". The Times of India. June 27, 2022. Retrieved 2022-06-27.
  21. ^ Regan, Helen; Haq, Sana Noor; Khalil, Hafsa; Sangal, Aditi (2022-06-27). "Civilians in Lysychansk urged to evacuate as Russian forces close in". CNN. Retrieved 2022-06-27.
  22. ^ "Russia no longer has full control of Luhansk region after Ukraine captures village". the Guardian. 2022-09-19. Retrieved 2022-09-20.
  23. ^ "weather.com". weather.com. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  24. ^ "Climate figures". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  25. ^ "Cities & towns of Ukraine". Pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  26. ^ [1][dead link]
  27. ^ Дністрянський М. Етнополітична географія України: проблеми теорії, методології, практики. — Львів: ЛНУ імені Івана Франка, 2006. — 490 с. (in Ukrainian)
  28. ^ a b The Looming Revolt in Lysychansk, The Ukrainian Week (22 July 2013)
  29. ^ [2] Archived March 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ "LYSYCHANSK AS-2 – operational information of the bus station (bus station) about the schedule of buses and its changes, the availability of free seats in buses". IT-cluster.com.ua. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  31. ^ "Trains numbers and routes available from Lysychansk Central Railway Station". IT-cluster.com.ua. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  32. ^ "Авиабилеты Авиатор". Aviator.net.ua. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  33. ^ "Ukraine. Presidential Election 2004 | Electoral Geography 2.0". Electoralgeography.com. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  34. ^ "Ukraine. Presidential Election 2010 | Electoral Geography 2.0". Electoralgeography.com. Retrieved 2015-05-19.

External links