Macrobiotic diet

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Macrobiotic diet
Alternative medicine
Claims Health effects from a diet avoiding refined foods and most animal products. Specific effects on cancer.
Related fields Diet
Original proponents George Ohsawa
Subsequent proponents Sagen Ishizuka

A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics) is a fad diet fixed on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen Buddhism.[1][2] The diet attempts to balance the supposed yin and yang elements of food and cookware.[3][4] Major principles of macrobiotic diets are to reduce animal product, eat locally grown foods that are in season, and consume meals in moderation.[1]

Macrobiotics writers often claim that a macrobiotic diet is helpful for people with cancer and other chronic diseases, although there is no good evidence to support such recommendations, and the diet can be harmful.[5][1][6] Studies that indicate positive results are of poor methodological quality.[1] Neither the American Cancer Society nor Cancer Research UK recommend adopting the diet.[7][6] Suggestions that a macrobiotic diet improves cardiovascular disease and diabetes are explained by the diet being, in part, consistent with science-based dietary approaches to disease prevention.[1]

Conceptual basis[edit]

Macrobiotic diets are based on the concept of balancing yin and yang.[8]

The macrobiotic diet is associated with Zen Buddhism and is based on the idea of balancing yin and yang.[4] The diet proposes 10 plans which are progressed through to reach a supposedly ideal yin/yang ratio of 5:1.[8] The diet was popularized by George Ohsawa in the 1930s and subsequently elaborated by his disciple Michio Kushi.[7]

Macrobiotics emphasizes locally grown whole grain cereals, pulses (legumes), vegetables, seaweed, fermented soy products and fruit, combined into meals according to the ancient Chinese principle of balance known as yin and yang[citation needed]. Whole grains and whole-grain products such as brown rice and buckwheat pasta (soba), a variety of cooked and raw vegetables, beans and bean products, mild natural seasonings, fish, nuts and seeds, mild (non-stimulating) beverages such as bancha twig tea and fruit are recommended.[citation needed]

Some Macrobiotic proponents, including George Ohsawa, stress the fact that yin and yang are relative qualities that can only be determined in a comparison. All food is considered to have both properties, with one dominating. Foods with yang qualities are considered compact, dense, heavy, hot, whereas those with yin qualities are considered expansive, light, cold, and diffuse.[9] However, these terms are relative; "yangness" or "yinness" is only discussed in relation to other foods.[10]

Brown rice and other whole grains such as barley, millet, oats, quinoa, spelt, rye, and teff are considered by macrobiotics to be the foods in which yin and yang are closest to being in balance. Therefore, lists of macrobiotic foods that determine a food as yin or yang generally compare them to whole grains.[11]

Nightshade vegetables, including tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, eggplant; also spinach, beets and avocados are not recommended or are used sparingly in macrobiotic cooking, as they are considered extremely yin.[12] Some macrobiotic practitioners also discourage the use of nightshades because of the alkaloid solanine, thought to affect calcium balance.[13] Some proponents of a macrobiotic diet believe that nightshade vegetables can cause inflammation in the body and osteoporosis.[14]

Practices[edit]

Food[edit]

Some basic macrobiotic ingredients

Some general guidelines for the Japanese-style macrobiotic diet are the following (it is also said that a macrobiotic diet varies greatly, depending on geographical and life circumstances):[15]

  • Well-chewed whole cereal grains, especially brown rice: 40–60%
  • Vegetables: 25–30%
  • Beans and legumes: 5–10%
  • Miso soup: 5%
  • Sea vegetables: 5%
  • Traditionally or naturally processed foods: 5–10%

Fish and seafood, seeds and nuts, seed and nut butters, seasonings, sweeteners, fruits, and beverages may be enjoyed occasionally, two to three times per week. Other naturally-raised animal products may be included if needed during dietary transition or according to individual needs.

Kitchenware[edit]

Cooking utensils should be made from certain materials such as wood or glass, while some materials including plastic, copper, and non-stick coatings are to be avoided.[3] Electric ovens should not be used.[3]

Japanese popularity and influence[edit]

The macrobiotic way of eating was developed and popularized by the Japanese. During the Edo period in Japan peasants were not allowed to eat meat[citation needed] and had a diet based on staples of rice and soybeans. According to some macrobiotic advocates, a majority of the world population in the past ate a diet based primarily on grains, vegetables, and other plants. Because the macrobiotic diet was developed in Japan, Japanese foods that are thought to be beneficial for health are incorporated by most modern macrobiotic eaters.[16][17]

Cancer[edit]

The American Cancer Society recommends "low-fat, high-fiber diets that consist mainly of plant products"; however, they urge people with cancer not to rely on a dietary program as an exclusive or primary means of treatment.[7] Cancer Research UK states, "There is no scientific evidence to prove that a macrobiotic diet can treat or cure cancer or any other disease".[6]

Nutrition[edit]

Most macrobiotic diets are not nutritionally sound.[8] People following the macrobiotic diet are at increased risk of developing scurvy.[2]

The following nutrients should be monitored especially in children, because of their importance in facilitating growth and function: calcium, protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12, riboflavin, vitamin A, omega-3 fatty acids.[18]

Fish provides vitamin B12 in a macrobiotic diet,[19] as bioavailable B12 analogues have not been established in any natural plant food, including sea vegetables, soya, fermented products, and algae.[20] Although plant-derived foods do not naturally contain B12, some are fortified during processing with added B12 and other nutrients.[21] Vitamin A, in the form of beta-carotene, is available from plants such as carrots and spinach.[22] Adequate protein is available from grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and bean products. Sources of Omega-3 fatty acids are discussed in the relevant article, and include soy products, walnuts, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, and fatty fish. Riboflavin along with most other B vitamins are abundant in whole grains. Iron in the form of non-heme iron in beans, sea vegetables and leafy greens is sufficient for good health; detailed information is in the USDA database.[23]

Safety[edit]

Complications[edit]

One of the earlier versions of the macrobiotic diet that involved eating only brown rice and water has been linked to severe nutritional deficiencies and even death. Strict macrobiotic diets that include no animal products may result in nutritional deficiencies unless they are carefully planned. The danger may be worse for people with cancer, who may have to contend with unwanted weight loss and often have increased nutritional and caloric requirements. Relying on this type of treatment alone and avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.[7]

Children[edit]

Children may also be particularly prone to nutritional deficiencies resulting from a macrobiotic diet.[7]

Pregnancy[edit]

Macrobiotic diets have not been tested in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, and the most extreme versions may not include enough of certain nutrients for normal fetal growth.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lerman RH (7 December 2010). "The Macrobiotic Diet in Chronic Disease". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 25 (6): 621–626. doi:10.1177/0884533610385704. 
  2. ^ a b Pimentel L (2003). "Scurvy: historical review and current diagnostic approach". American Journal of Emergency Medicine (Review). 21 (4): 328–32. doi:10.1016/s0735-6757(03)00083-4. PMID 12898492. Persons at risk include... followers of fad diets such as the Zen macrobiotic diet 
  3. ^ a b c Bijlefeld M, Zoumbaris SK (2014). Macrobiotics. Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6. 
  4. ^ a b Bender DA (2014). diet, macrobiotic. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191752391. 
  5. ^ Hübner J, Marienfeld S, Abbenhardt C, Ulrich CM, Löser C (November 2012). "[How useful are diets against cancer?]". Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (Review) (in German). 137 (47): 2417–22. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1327276. PMID 23152069. 
  6. ^ a b c "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Russell J; Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 638–642. ISBN 9780944235713. 
  8. ^ a b c Roth RA, Wehrle KL (2016). "Chapter 2: Planning a Healthy Diet". Nutrition & Diet Therapy (12th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-305-94582-1. The macrobiotic diet is a system of 10 diet plans, developed from Zen Buddhism 
  9. ^ Porter, pp. 22–25
  10. ^ Porter, pp. 44–49
  11. ^ Porter, pp. 71–78
  12. ^ Kushi and Jack, p. 119.
  13. ^ Stanchich L "All About Nightshades". New Life Journal: Carolina Edition, Apr/May 2003, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 17, 3 pp.
  14. ^ Porter
  15. ^ Kushi M; Blauer S; Esko W (2004). The Macrobiotic Way: The Complete Macrobiotic Lifestyle Book. Avery. ISBN 1-58333-180-8. 
  16. ^ Make Mine Macrobiotic | Lifestyle | Trends in Japan. Web Japan. Retrieved on 2012-04-27.
  17. ^ Panel 11: Globalisation, Hybridity and Continuity in Traditional Japanese Health Practices. iastam.org
  18. ^ American Dietetic, Association; Dietitians Of, Canada (2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. OCLC 1083209. PMID 12778049. Vegetarian diets, like all diets, need to be planned appropriately to be nutritionally adequate. 
  19. ^ National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  20. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Vitamin B-12 (μg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.
  21. ^ Reed Mangels. "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  22. ^ National Institutes of Health. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin A and Carotenoids (Table 2: Selected plant sources of vitamin A from beta-carotene)". Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  23. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20: Iron, Fe (mg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.

Further reading[edit]