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Messier 110

Coordinates: Sky map 00h 40m 22.1s, +41° 41′ 07″
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(Redirected from NGC 205)
Messier 110[1]
Dwarf elliptical galaxy Messier 110 in Andromeda
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension00h 40m 22.05446s[3]
Declination+41° 41′ 07.4963″[3]
Heliocentric radial velocity−241±3[4]
Galactocentric velocity−62±8[4]
Distance2,690 ± 90 kly (825 ± 28 kpc)
Apparent magnitude (V)8.5[5]
Absolute magnitude (V)−16.5[6]
TypeE5 pec[7]
Apparent size (V)21.9 × 11′.0[4]
Other designations
IRAS 00376+4124, LEDA 2429, M110, MCG +07-02-014, NGC 0205, PGC 002429[8]

Messier 110, or M110, also known as NGC 205, is a dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of the Andromeda Galaxy in the Local Group.[9]

Early observational history

In this drawing by Charles Messier, satellite galaxy M110 appears at the upper right.

Charles Messier never included the galaxy in his list, but it was depicted by him, together with M32, on his drawing of "Nébuleuse D'Andromède", later known as the Andromeda Galaxy. A label of the drawing indicates that Messier first saw the object in 1773.[a][10] M110 was independently discovered by Caroline Herschel on August 27, 1783; her brother William Herschel described her discovery in 1785.[b][10][11] The suggestion to assign the galaxy a Messier number was made by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967,[12] making it the last member of the Messier List.



This galaxy has a morphological classification of pec dE5, indicating a dwarf elliptical galaxy with a flattening of 50%. It is designated peculiar (pec) due to patches of dust and young blue stars near its center.[13] This is unusual for dwarf elliptical galaxies in general,[9] and the reason is unclear.[13] Unlike M32, M110 lacks evidence for a supermassive black hole at its center.[14]

The interstellar dust in M110 has a mass of (1.1–1.8)×104 M with a temperature of 18–22 K, and the interstellar gas has (4–7)×106 M. The inner region has sweeping deficiencies in its interstellar medium IM, most likely expelled by supernova explosions. Tidal interactions with M31 may have stripped away a significant fraction of the expelled gas and dust, leaving the galaxy as a whole, as it presents, deficient in its IM density.[15]

Novae have been detected in this galaxy, including one discovered in 1999,[16] and another in 2002. The latter, designated EQ J004015.8+414420, had also been captured in images taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that October.[17]

Local context

The Andromeda Galaxy and its satellite galaxy, Messier 110, to the bottom-right of the center

About half of the Andromeda's satellite galaxies are orbiting it along a highly flattened plane, with 14 out of 16 following the same sense of rotation. One theory proposes that these 16 once belonged to a subhalo surrounding M110, then the group was broken up by tidal forces during a close encounter with Andromeda.[18]

See also



  1. ^ On August 10.
  2. ^ These astronomers refer to it as a nebula, per the understanding at the time


  1. ^ McConnachie, A. W.; et al. (2005). "Distances and metallicities for 17 Local Group galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 356 (4): 979–997. arXiv:astro-ph/0410489. Bibcode:2005MNRAS.356..979M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08514.x.
  2. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E.; Sinnott, R. W. (1988). Sinnott, R. W. (ed.). NGC 2000.0: The Complete New General Catalogue and Index Catalogues of Nebulae and Star Clusters by J. L. E. Dreyer. Sky Publishing Corporation and Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-933346-51-2.
  3. ^ a b Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.
  4. ^ a b c d "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for NGC 205. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
  5. ^ "Messier 110". SEDS Messier Catalog. Archived from the original on 16 June 2023. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  6. ^ Angus, Garry W.; Coppin, Paul; Gentile, Gianfranco; Diaferio, Antonaldo (1 November 2016). "The potential role of NGC 205 in generating Andromeda's vast thin corotating plane of satellite galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 462 (3): 3221–3242. arXiv:1608.03763. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.462.3221A. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1822.
  7. ^ Batcheldor, D.; et al. (September 2013). "An STIS Atlas of Ca II Triplet Absorption Line Kinematics in Galactic Nuclei". The Astronomical Journal. 146 (3): 10. arXiv:1308.1983. Bibcode:2013AJ....146...67B. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/3/67. S2CID 59246892. 67.
  8. ^ "M 110". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
  9. ^ a b Sandage, A.; Bedke, J. (1994). Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies. Carnegie Institution of Washington. ISBN 978-0-87279-667-6.
  10. ^ a b Jones, K. G. (1991). Messier's Nebulae and Star Clusters (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37079-0.
  11. ^ Herschel, William (1785). "On the construction of the heavens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 75: 213–266. From p. 262: "There is a very considerable, broad, pretty faint, small nebula near it [the Andromeda galaxy, M31]; my Sister [Caroline] discovered it August 27, 1783, with a Newtonian 2-feet sweeper. It shews the same faint colour with the great one, and is, no doubt, in the neighborhood of it. It is not [M32] … ; but this is about two-thirds of a degree north preceding it, in a line parallel to β [Beta] and ν [Nu] Andromedae."
  12. ^ Jones, K. G. (1967). "Some New Notes on Messier's Catalogue". Sky & Telescope. 33: 156–158. Bibcode:1967S&T....33..156J.
  13. ^ a b Ford, Holland C.; et al. (July 1973), "Planetary Nebulae in Local-Group Galaxies. I. Identifications in NGC 185, NGC 205, and NGC 221", Astrophysical Journal, 183: L73, Bibcode:1973ApJ...183L..73F, doi:10.1086/181255
  14. ^ Valluri, M.; et al. (2005). "The Low End of the Supermassive Black Hole Mass Function: Constraining the Mass of a Nuclear Black Hole in NGC 205 via Stellar Kinematics". The Astrophysical Journal. 628 (1): 137–152. arXiv:astro-ph/0502493. Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..137V. doi:10.1086/430752. S2CID 16397125.
  15. ^ De Looze, I.; et al. (July 2012). "Herschel and JCMT observations of the early-type dwarf galaxy NGC 205". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 423 (3): 2359–2373. arXiv:1204.1264. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.423.2359D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21044.x. S2CID 34911811.
  16. ^ van den Bergh, S. (2000). "Updated Information on the Local Group". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 112 (770): 529–536. arXiv:astro-ph/0001040. Bibcode:2000PASP..112..529V. doi:10.1086/316548. S2CID 1805423.
  17. ^ "Forum di Astronomia Amatoriale Italiano".
  18. ^ Angus, Garry W.; Coppin, Paul; Gentile, Gianfranco; Diaferio, Antonaldo (November 2016). "The potential role of NGC 205 in generating Andromeda's vast thin corotating plane of satellite galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 462 (3): 3221–3242. arXiv:1608.03763. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.462.3221A. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1822. S2CID 56154943.