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|Pretenders supported||Louis Philippe I|
Louis Philippe II
Victor de Broglie
Albert de Broglie
|Political position||Centre-left to Centre (prior to 1870)|
Centre to Centre-right (post-1870)
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The Orléanists were a French political faction supporting a constitutional monarchy for France led by the House of Orléans as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. The Orléanist faction governed France from 1830 to 1848 in the July Monarchy of King Louis Philippe I. The faction took its name from the Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon (descended from the youngest son of Louis XIII). The faction comprised many liberals and intellectuals who wanted to restore the monarchy as a constitutional monarchy with limited powers for the king and most power in the hands of parliament.
Their base of support came from the financial elite and liberal monarchists. Over time, the July Monarchy alienated the population with its increasing conservatism and repression as represented in the figure of Prime Minister François Guizot. Many Orléanists went into exile during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III. Following the Third Republic in 1870, they were a sizable force on the right wing, but they failed to secure a resumption of the Orléanist succession and their support dwindled over time as republicanism became more accepted.
- 1 Origins
- 2 French Revolution
- 3 Restoration (1815–1830)
- 4 Later history
- 5 Principles of succession
- 6 List of claimants to the French throne since 1848
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
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During the early period of the French Revolution, Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orléans, who disliked King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, naturally assumed the position of a spokesman of the liberal royalists. It was a short step from this position to the attitude of liberal candidates for the throne, which Philippe's son Louis Philippe eventually would achieve.
The Orléanists aimed politically to find a common measure for the monarchical principle and the rights of man as set forth by the revolutionary leaders in 1789 and the princes of the branch of Orléans became the advocates of this attempted compromise. The elder Bourbon branch (as represented by Louis XVIII and later by its last scion, Henri, Count of Chambord) was prepared to grant (octroyer) a charter of liberties or constitution, but he insisted that they ruled by divine right and conferred these liberties on their subjects of their own free will.
The Bourbons' feudal language offended many Frenchmen, who concluded that rights granted as a favour were always subject to revocation as a punishment. Therefore, those of them who considered a monarchical government as more beneficial to France than a republic, but who were not disposed to hold their freedom subject to the pleasure of one man became either Bonapartists, who professed to rule by the choice of the nation, or supporters of the Orléans princes, who were ready to reign by an original compact and by the will of the people. The difference between the supporters of the elder line (or Legitimists) and the Orléanists became profound, for it went down to the very foundations of government.
The first generation of Orléanists were swamped in the turmoil of the French Revolution. Philippe himself, who under the Republic had assumed the name Philippe Égalité and voted for the king's execution, was nonetheless guillotined himself in 1793. Despite this setback, according to Albert Sorel the Orléanists subsisted under the First French Empire and resurfaced when the revival of liberalism overthrew the restored legitimate monarchy of Louis XVIII and Charles X.
After the restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, the liberals were identified with the Orléanists, who rejected the Legitimism of the elder branch as well as Bonapartism, which in their view was essentially democratic Caesarism, i.e. an equal submission of all men to one despotic ruler.
As equality before the law and in social life, which had been far dearer to Frenchmen of the revolutionary epoch than political freedom, seemed secured, the next step was aiming as political freedom. This happened under the guidance of men who were Orléanists because the Orléans princes seemed to them to offer the best guarantee for such a government.
The liberals who were Orléanists found their leaders in men eminent in letters and in practical affairs—François Guizot, Adolphe Thiers, Victor de Broglie and his son Albert, Duke of Broglie, the banker Jacques Laffitte and many others.
When the July Revolution of 1830 resulted in the downfall of the elder Bourbon branch, the Orléanists stepped in. Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who became king, marked a profound change by assuming the title of a King of the French instead of the traditional King of France and Navarre. That king appeared as the chief of the people by compact with the people and not by divine right.
In their dislike of divine right on the one hand and their fear of democracy, which they were convinced would result in Caesarism or a return to Bonapartism, the Orléanists turned for examples of a free government to Britain, a monarchy governing constitutionally based on parliamentary representation of the middle classes. They endeavoured to establish the like in France under the name of a juste-milieu, a via media between absolutism and democracy.
The French equivalent for the English middle-class constituencies was to be a pays legal of about a quarter of a million of voters by whom all the rest of the country was to be virtually represented. Guizot expounded and carried out this doctrine with uncompromising rigour. The Orléanist monarchy became so thoroughly middle-class that the nation outside of the pays legal ended by regarding the government as a privileged class less offensive, but also a great deal less brilliant than the aristocracy of the old monarchy.
Second Republic (1848–1852)
The Revolution of 1848, partly due to errors of conduct in individual princes and politicians but mainly to the resentment of those excluded from the pays legal, swept the Orléanist party from power after eighteen years. The Orléanists indeed continued throughout the Second Republic (1848–1852) and the Empire (1852–1870) to enjoy a marked social and literary prestige, on the strength of the wealth and capacity of some of their members, their influence in the Académie française and the ability of their organs in the press—particularly the Revue des deux Mondes, the Journal des débats and the papers directed by E. Hervé.
Second Empire (1852–1870)
During the Second Empire, which evolved from the Second Republic when its President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte declared himself in the tradition of his uncle Napoleon to be Emperor of the French, the discreet opposition of the Orléanists, exercised for the most part with infinite dexterity and tact by reticences, omissions and historical studies in which the Empire was attacked under foreign or ancient names, was a perpetual thorn in the side of Napoleon III. Yet they possessed little hold on the country outside a cultivated liberal circle in Paris.
Third Republic (1870–1940)
When the Second Empire was swept away by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the people were in disgust at the Bonapartists and its fear of the Republicans and chose a great many royalists to represent it in the Assembly which met in Bordeaux on 12 February 1872. In this body, the Orléanists again exercised a kind of leadership by virtue of individual capacity, but they were counterbalanced by the Legitimists.
This enabled President Adolphe Thiers, himself an Orléanist, to impose the Third Republic on the unwilling majority of the Assembly. Orléanists and Legitimists cooperated to expel Thiers from power on 24 May 1873.
After this, the Orléanists sought a fusion with the Legitimists to strengthen the royalist cause. As far back as 1850, Guizot had thought of proposing a fusion, but under the condition that Henri, Count of Chambord would desist from claiming rule by divine right. When a fusion was arranged in 1873, it stood on quite another footing. After exchanging notes and conferences in committee rooms and drawing-rooms, Philippe, Count of Paris, the representative of the Orléanists, sought an interview with Chambord at Frohsdorff, stating that he came not only to pay his respects to the head of his house, but also to accept his principle (though the Orléanists sometimes assert that this statement was given with mental reservations). However, no final agreement was reached.
Republican gains in the elections of 1876 and the crisis of 16 May 1877 ended the royalist dominance. In 1883, the death of Chambord ended the elder Bourbon branch and left Philippe, Count of Paris as head of the Royal house of France.
However, the party ceased to exist as an independent political organisation as many supporters progressively rallied to the Republic while radical right-wing groups, particularly Action Française, espoused the house of Orléans as the only way to rescue France from what they perceived to be the corruption of the Republic.
Although the Orléanists were given a new vitality, the initiative passed to other organisations who although sincere monarchists also had other agendas. The Orléanist cause ceased to be that of moderation between the extremes of the Bourbons and the Republicans.
Fifth Republic (1958–present)
Under the Fifth Republic, Presidents Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Jacques Chirac have both been classed on the Orléanist tradition of the three French right-wing families identified by historian René Rémond (Bonapartism and Legitimism being the two others).
Principles of succession
Orléanist claims follow these principles:
- The Crown descends to males born in the male line of Hugh Capet.
- The succession normally passes by primogeniture in the male line.
- Only children born of legal marriages conforming with the canon law of the Catholic Church are dynasts.
- The Sovereign or Head of the House must be Roman Catholic.
- The Sovereign or Head of the House must be French and inherit succession rights through a dynast of French nationality.
- Rules of succession to the Crown are governed by the Constitution and/or laws of the realm. It is this rule that separates the Orléanist rule from the Legitimist one.
List of claimants to the French throne since 1848
- Alliance Royale
- French Action
- French dynastic disputes
- Line of succession to the French throne (Orléanist)
- New Royalist Action
- Succession to the French throne
- Agulhon, Maurice (1983). The Republican Experiment, 1848-1852. Cambridge University Press. p. 135.
- Craiutu, Aurelian (2003). Liberalism under Siege: The Political Thought of the French Doctrinaires. Lexington Books. p. 9.
- Takeda, Chinatsu (2018). Mme de Staël and Political Liberalism in France. Springer. pp. 226–227.
- Passmore, Kevin (2013). The Right in France from the Third Republic to Vichy. Oxford University Press. pp. 25–26.
- Slama, Alain-Gérard Slama (October 2006). "Vous avez dit bonapartiste?" (in French). In L'Histoire. No. 313. pp. 60–63.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Aston, Nigel (October 1988). "Orleanism, 1780-1830". History Today. Vol. 38. Issue 10. pp. 41–47.
- Beik, Paul (1965). Louis Philippe and the July Monarchy.
- Collingham, H. A. C. (1988) The July Monarchy: A Political History of France, 1830–1848. Longman.
- Howarth, T. E. B. (1962). Citizen-King: The Life of Louis Philippe, King of the French.
- Newman, Edgar Leon; Simpson, Robert Lawrence (1987). Historical Dictionary of France from the 1815 Restoration to the Second Empire. Greenwood Press. Online edition.