Paadal Petra Sthalam

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Tirumurai
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The twelve volumes of Tamil Śaiva hymns of the sixty-three Nayanars
Parts Name Author
1,2,3 Tirukadaikkappu Sambandar
4,5,6 Tevaram Tirunavukkarasar
7 Tirupaatu Sundarar
8 Tiruvacakam &
Tirukkovaiyar
Manikkavacakar
9 Tiruvisaippa &
Tiruppallaandu
Various
10 Tirumandhiram Tirumular
11 Various
12 Periya Puranam Sekkizhar
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Paadal Petra Sthalam
Raja Raja Chola I
Nambiyandar Nambi


The Paadal Petra Sthalams are 275[1] temples that are revered in the verses of Saiva Nayanars in the 6th-9th century CE and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent. The Divya Desams by comparison are the 108 Vishnu temples glorified in the poems of the contemporary Vaishnava Alvars of Tamil Nadu, India.

Thevaram[edit]

The 3 foremost Nayanars with Manikkavacakar - collectively called the Nalvars: (from left) Sambandar, Appar, Sundarar, Manikkavacakar.

Thevaram (Tamil: தேவாரம்) literally means "garland of divine songs and refers to the collection of verses sung praising Shiva, the primary god of the Shaivite sect of Hindu religion, by three Tamil poets known as Saiva Kuruvars - Thirugnana Sambanthar, Tirunavukkarasar (aka Appar) and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar (aka Sundarar).[2] The three are considered the primary three among the sixty three Nayanmars of the Saivite sect of Hinduism. The former two lived during the 7th century AD while the latter around 8th century AD. All songs in Thevaram are believed to be in sets of ten songs, called pathikam in Tamil. Some musical experts consider Thevaram as a divine musical form.[3] There is a common view that Sanskritization of names of the temples are carried out in later period that superseded the names mentioned in Thevaram - some of the common examples are Chidambaram as against Tillai in Thevaram and Kumbakonam as against Kudanthai.[4]

The 275 temples that are mentioned in Thevaram are referred as Paadal Petra Sthalam, meaning the temples that were sung in the verses. On the contrary, Vaippu Sthalam are temples that were mentioned casually in the songs in Thevaram and lacking a mention of those temples. In modern times, the verses of Tevaram are sung daily and during the festive occasions in most Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu by musicians called Odhuvars.[5]

Thiruvasagam[edit]

Manikkavacakar is considered the 4th in the line of Saiva Kuravars, whose verses are classified as Thiruvasagam. There is a saying that "Thiruvasagathuku urugar, oru vasagathukum orugar" meaning the person who does not budge for thiruvasagam won't budge for anything else.

Paadal Petra Sthalangal[edit]

There are around 275 temples that are revered by the verses of Saiva Kuravars and are amongst the greatest Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu.[1] The list is as shown below.

Chola Nadu - North of Kaveri Chola Nadu - South of Kaveri Eezha Nadu Pandya Nadu Malai Nadu

1. Kovil(Chidambaram)
2. Tiruvetkalam
3. Tirunelvayil
4. Tirukkazhippalai
5. Tirunallurpperumanam
6. Mahendrapalli
7. Ten Tirumullaivayil
8. Kalikkaamoor
9. Tiruchaaikaadu
10. Pallavaneeswaram
11. Thiruvenkadu
12. Keezhai Tirukkattuppalli
13. Thirukkurugavur
14. Sirkazhi
15. Tirukkolakka
16. Pullirukkuvelur
(Vaideeswaran Koyil)

17. Kannaar Kovil
18. Tirukkadaimudi
19. Tiruninriyur
20. Tiruppunkur
21. Tiruneedur
22. Anniyur
23. Tiruvelvikudi
24. Edirkolpaadi
25. Tirumanancheri
26. Tirukkurukkai
27. Karuppariyalur
28. Kurakkukka
29. Tiruvaalkoliputrur
30. Tirumannippadikkarai
31. Omampuliyur
32. Tirukkaanaattumulloor
33. Tirunaarayur
34. Kadambur
35. Pandanallur
36. Kanjanoor
37. Tirukkodikka
38. Tirumangalakkudi
39. Tiruppanantaal
40. Tiruvaappaadi
41. Tirucheignalur
42. Tirundudevankudi
43. Tiruviyalur
44. Kottaiyur
45. Innambar
46. Thirupirambiyam
47. Vijayamangai
48. Tiruvaikavur
49. Vadakurangaaduturai
50. Tiruppazhanam
51. Thiruvaiyaru
52. Tiruneittanam
53. Tirupperumpuliyur
54. Thirumazhapadi
55. Tiruppazhuvur (Aalanturai)
56. Tirukkaanoor
57. Anbilalanturai
58. Tirumaanturai
59. Tiruppaatrurai
60. Tiru Aanaikkaa
61. Tiruppainneeli
62. Tiruppaachilasramam
63. Tiruveengoimalai

1. Vaatpokki
2. Kadambar Kovil
3. Thirupparaithurai
4. Tirukkarkudi
(Uyyakkondan Malai)
5. Thirumukeeswaram
6. Tiruchirappalli
7. Tiruverumbur
8. Nedunkalam
9. Melaittirukkattuppalli
10. Tiruvalampozhil
11. Tiruppoonturutti
12. Thirukkandiyur
13. Tiruchotrutturai
14. Tiruvedikudi
15. Tenkudittittai
16. Tirupullamangai
17. Tiruchakrapalli
18. Thirukkarugavur
19. Tiruppaalaitturai(Papanasam)
20. Tirunallur
21. Aavoor Pasupateeswaram
22. Satthi Mutram
23. Patteswaram
24. Pazhayarai
25. Tiruvalanchuzhi
26. Adi Kumbeswarar Temple
27. Tirukkudandai Keezhkottam
28. Kudandaikkaaronam
29. Tirunageswaram
30. Tiruvidaimarudur
31. Ten Kurangaaduturai
32. Tiruneelakkudi
33. Tiruvaikalmaadakkovil
34. Tirunallam
35. Tirukkozhambam
36. Tiruvavaduturai
37. Tirutturutti
38. Tiruvazhundur
39. Mayiladuturai
40. Viilanagar
41. Tiruppariyalur
42. Tiruchemponpalli
43. Tirunanipalli
44. Tiruvalampuram
45. Tiruttalaichankadu
46. Aakkoor
47. Tirukkadavur
48. Tirukkadavur Mayaanam
49. Tiruvettakkudi
50. Tiruttelicheri
51. Dharumapuram
52. Thirunallar
53. Tirukkottaru
54. Ambar
55. Ambar Maakaalam
56. Tirumeeyachur
57. Tirumeeyachur Ilamkovil
58. Thilataipati
59. Tiruppaampuram
60. Sirukudi
61. Tiruveezhimizhalai
62. Tiruvanniyur
63. Karuvili Kottittai
64. Penu Perunturai
65. Naraiyur
66. Arisirkaraiputtur
67. Sivapuram
68. Kalayanallur
69. Tirukkarukkudi
70. Tiruvanchiyam
71. Nannilam
72. Tirukkondeeswaram
73. Tiruppanaiyur
74. Virkudi
75. Tiruppugalur
76. Tiruppugalur Vardhamaneswaram
77. Ramanadeeswaram
78. Tiruppayatrankudi
79. Tiruchenkattankudi
80. Thirumarugal
81. Tiruchaattamangai
82. Nagaikkaronam
83. Sikkal
84. Keevalur
85. Tiruttevur
86. Palliyin Mukkoodal
87. Achaleswaram
88. Tiruvarur
89. Arurparavaiumandali
90. Vilamar
91. Karaveeram
92. Peruvelur
93. Talaiyalankadu
94. Tirukkudavaayil
95. Tirucherai
96. Tirunalurmayaanam
97. Kaduvaaikaaraiputhur
98. Tiruvirumpoolai
99. Aradaipperumpazhi
100.Avalivanallur
101.Paridiniyamam
102. Tiruvenniyur (Koyil venni)
103. Tiruppoovanur
104. Paadaaleeswaram
105. Tirukkalar
106. Tiruchitremam
107. Tiru Usaattaanam
108. Tiruidumbavanam
109. Kadikkulam
110. Tandalaineeneri
111. Kottur
112. Vanduturai
113. Tirukkollampudur
114. Pereyil
115. Tirukkollikkadu
116. Tenkoor
117. Tirunellikka
118. Tirunatyattankudi
119. Tirukkarayil
120. Kanraappur
121. Valivalam
122. Kaichinam
123. Tirukkolili
124. Tiruvaimur
125. Tirumaraikkadu
126. Tiru Agathiyan Palli
127. Kodikkarai
128. Tiruvidaivai

1. Tirukkonamalai
2. Tirukketheeswaram

1. Aalavaai (Madurai)
2. Aappudaiyaar Kovil
3. Tirupparankunram
4. Tiruvedakam
5. Tirukkodunkunram
6. Tirupputhur
7. Thiruppunavayil
8. Rameswaram
9. Tiruvadanai
10. Tirukkaanapper
11. Tiruppoovanam
12. Thiruchuzhial
13. Thirukutralam
14. Tirunelveli

1. Thiruvanchikulam

Kongu Nadu Nadu Nadu Tondai Nadu Tulu Nadu Vada Nadu

1. Avinaasi
2. Thirumuruganpoondi
3. Tiru Nana Thirunana
4. Kodimadachenkunroor
(Tiruchengode)

5. Venchamaakoodal
6. Paandikkodumudi
7. Karuvoor Aanilai

1. Tirunelvayil Aratturai
2. Pennaagadam
3. Goodalaiyatrur
4. Erukkattampuliyur
5. Tiruttinai Nagar
6. Tiruchopuram
7. Tiruvatikai
8. Tirunaavalur
9. Tirumudukunram
10. Tirunelvennei
11. Tirukkovilur
12. Arankandanallur
13. Tiruvidaiyaru
14. Thiruvennainallur
15. Tirutturaiyur
16. Vatukur
17. Tirumaanikkuzhi
18. Thirupathiripuliyur
19. Tirumundeeswaram
20. Puravaar Panankattur
21. Tiru Aamaathur
22. Tiruvannamalai

1. Kachi Ekambam
2. Kachi Metrali
3. Onakanthan Thali
4. Kachi Anekatangavadam
5. Kachi Nerikkaaraikkadu
6. Kuranganilmuttam
7. Tirumaagaral
8. Tiruvothur
9. Panankattur
10. Tiruvallam
11. Thirumarperu
12. Tiruvooral,Takkolam
13. Ilambayankottur
14. Tiruvirkolam
15. Thiruvalangadu
16. Tiruppaasur
17. Tiruvenpakkam
18. Tirukkallil
19. Sree Kaalahasti
20. Thiruvotriyur
21. Tiruvalithayam
22. Vada Tirumullaivayil
23. Thiruverkadu
24. Tirumayilai
25. Tiruvanmyur
26. Tirukkachoor
27. Tiruvidaichuram
28. Tirukkalunkunram
29. Tiru Acharapakkam
30. Tiruvakkarai
31. Arasili
32. Irumbai Maakalam

1. Gokarnam

1. Tirupparuppatham
(Sree Sailam
- Andhra Pradesh)

2. Indraneelaparvatam
(Nepal)

3. Anekatangavadam
(Gowrikund)

4. Tirukkedaram
(Kedarnath)

5. Tirukkayilaayam
(Mount Kailash)

Pancha Bootha Sthalangal[edit]

This refers to the temples that are the manifestation of the five elements - land, water, air, sky, fire.

Category Temple Location
Land Ekambareswarar Temple Kanchipuram
Fire Arunachaleshwarar Temple Thiruvannamalai
Water Thiruvanaikaval Trichy
Sky Chidambaram Temple Chidambaram
Air Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple Kalahasthi, Andhra Pradesh

Pancha Bhoota stalam Map

Pancha Sabhai Sthalangal[edit]

The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed the Cosmic Dance.

Category Temple Location Element
Rathinachabai Vada aaranyeswarar Temple Thiruvalangadu, Chennai Emerald
Porchabai Natarajar Temple Chidambaram Gold
Vellichabai Meenakshi Amman Temple Madurai Silver
Thamirachabai Nellaiappar Temple Tirunelveli Copper
Chithirachabai Kutralanathar Temple Thirukutralam Art

Pancha Sabhai Map

Ashta Veerattam Sthalangal[edit]

The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed with fury. The eight temples are in Thiruvadhikai, Thirukoyilur, Thirukkadayur, Vazhoovur, Thirukkurakaval, Thiruppaliyalur, Thirukandiyur, Thiruvirkuti.

Temple Location
Tiruvadigai Veerattaaneswarar Temple Tiruvadigai, Panruti
Tirukkovilur Veerateshwarar Temple Tirukoilur
Amirtagateswarar Temple Thirukadaiyur
Vazhuvur Verateswarar Temple Vazhuvoor, Mayiladuthurai
Tirupariyalur
Thirukandeeswarar Temple Thirukkandiyur
Thiruvirkudi

Saptha Vidangam[edit]

The Thyagarajar Temple at Tiruvarur is famous for the ajapa natanam(dance without chanting), that is executed by the deity itself. According to legend, a Chola king named Mucukunta obtained a boon from Indra(a celestial deity) and wished to receive an image of Thyagaraja Swamy(presiding deity, Shiva in the temple) reposing on the chest of reclining Lord Vishnu. Indra tried to misguide the king and had six other images made, but the king chose the right image at Tiruvarur. The other six images were installed in ThiruNallaaru, Nagapattinam, Tirukarayil, Tirukolili, Thiruvaaimur and Tirumaraikadu.[6] All the seven places are villages situated in the river Cauvery delta. All seven Thyagaraja images are said to dance when taken in procession(it is the bearers of the processional deity who actually dance). The temples with dance styles are regarded as Saptha Vidangam(seven dance moves)[7] and the related temples are as under:[8]

Temple Vidangar Temple Dance pose Meaning
Thyagarajar Temple Vidhividangar Ajaba Natanam Dance without chanting, resembling the dance of Sri Thyagaraja resting on Lord Vishnu's chest
Dharbaranyeswarar Temple Nagaravidangar Unmatha natanam Dance of an intoxicated person
Kayarohanaswamy Temple Sundaravidangar Vilathi natanam Dancing like waves of sea
Kannayariamudayar Temple Adhividangar Kukuda natanam Dancing like a cock
Brahmapureeswarar Temple Avanividangar Brunga natanam Dancing like a bee that hovers over a flower
Vaimoornaathar Temple Nallavidangar Kamala natanam Dance like lotus that moves in a breeze
Vedaranyeswarar Temple Bhuvanivividangar Hamsapatha natanam Dancing with the gait of a swan

Saptha Stanam[edit]

The sapthasthanam festival is conducted at Tiruvaiyaru during April every year. Hundreds of people witness the convergence of seven glass palanquins carrying principal deities of respective temples from seven places at Tiruvaiyaru. The palanquins are paraded near the car stand, the crowd witnessed the Poochorithal(flower festival) in which a doll offers flowers to the principal deities in the palanquins. After the Poochorithal, the palanquins left for their respective places.[9] The seven temples are

Temple Place District
Aiyarappar temple Thiruvaiyaru Thanjavur
Apathsahayar Temple Tirupazhanam Thanjavur
Odhanavaneswarar Temple Tiruchotruthurai Thanjavur
Vedapuriswarar Temple Thiruvedhikudi Thanjavur
Kandeeswarar Temple Thirukkandiyur Thanjavur
Puvananathar Temple Thirupanturuthi Thanjavur
Neyyadiappar Temple Tiruneithaanam Thanjavur

Saptha Mangai Stalangals[edit]

The seven temples are

Temple Presiding deity/consort Mangai Location
Chakravageshwarar Temple Chakravageshwarar/Devanayagi Chakramangai Chakkarapalli, Thanjavur
Arimutheeswarar Temple Arimutheeswarar/Gnambikai Harimangai Ariyamangai, Thanjavur
Krithivageswarar temple Krithivageswarar/Alangaravalli Soolamangai Soolamangalam, Thanjavur
Jambugeswarar Temple Jambugeswarar/Akilandeswari Nandimangai Tirupullamangai, Thanjavur
Pasumangai Temple Pasupatiswarar/Palvalainayagi Pasumangai Thirukkandiyur, Thanjavur
Chandramouleeswarar Temple Chandramouleeswarar/Rajarajeswari Thazhamangai Thazhamangai, Thanjavur
Tirupullamangai Temple Alandurainathar/Soundaranayagi Pullamangai Pullamangai, Thanjavur

Aathara Stalam[edit]

Aathara Stalam indicates the places which are considered to be diving impersonification of Tantric chakras associated with human anatomy. Annamalaiyar temple is called the Manipooraga stalam[10] associated with Manipooraga the human anatomical cause for spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness.[11] 4 temples are located in Tamil Nadu,one in Andhra Pradesh,and one at Varanasi.

Tantric Chakra Description Temple Location Symbol
Anthagam
(Sanskrit: आज्ञा, ājňā, [aːɟɲʌ])
Brain directly behind eyebrow Natarajar Temple Chidambaram
Visuthi
(Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha)
Neck region near spine Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple Kalahasthi
Anahata
(Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata)
Central channel behind spine Kashi Vishwanath Temple Varanasi Hrit.jpg
Manipooragam
(Sanskrit: मणिपूर, Maṇipūra)
Spine directly behind the navel Arunachaleshwarar Temple Thiruvannamalai Manipura.png
Swathistanam
(Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, Svādhiṣṭhāna)
One's own abode Thiruvanaikaval Trichy Swadhisthana.png
Moolatharam
(Sanskrit: मूलाधार, Mūlādhāra)
Basal end of the spinal Thyagaraja Swamy Temple Tiruvarur Muladhara.png

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

External[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "A comprehensive description of the 275 Shivastalams glorified by the Tevaram hymns". templenet.com. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  2. ^ "Understanding some aspects of Hinduism". Colombo, Sri Lanka: Daily News. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (subscription required (help)). 
  3. ^ SAK, Durga (1 January 2009). "The Oxford Illustrated Companion to South Indian Classical Music". Journal of the Indian Musicological Society (Indian Musicological Society). Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (subscription required (help)). 
  4. ^ Scharfe, Hartmut (1 October 1999). "The Doctrine of the Three Humors in Traditional Indian Medicine and the Alleged Antiquity of Tamil Siddha Medicine". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ Shulman, David (1 January 1997). "Tevaram: Ayvuttunai (Tevaram: Etudes et glossaire tamouls)". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ Glimpses of the history of Karaikkal.Saroja Sundararajan
  7. ^ The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras: Volumes 33-34 .Music Academy (Madras, India) - 1962
  8. ^ Nityasumaṅgalī: devadasi tradition in South India .P.146. Saskia C. Kersenboom-Story
  9. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/22/stories/2011042255521400.htm.The Hindu
  10. ^ Kamalabaskaran 1994
  11. ^ Spear 2011. p. 121

References[edit]

  • Kamalabaskaran, Iswari (1994). The light of Arunachaleswarar. Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd. 
  • Spear, Heidi (2011). The Everything Guide to Chakra Healing: Use Your Body's Subtle Energies to promote Health, Healing and Happiness. USA: Adams Media. ISBN 1-4405-2649-4.