Paadal Petra Sthalam
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|Paadal Petra Sthalam|
|Paadal Petra Sthalam|
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The Paadal Petra Sthalams are 275 temples that are revered in the verses of Saiva Nayanars in the 6th-9th century CE and are amongst the greatest Shiva temples of the continent. The Divya Desams by comparison are the 108 Vishnu temples glorified in the poems of the contemporary Vaishnava Alvars of Tamil Nadu, India
Thevaram literally means "garland of divine songs and refers to the collection of verses sung praising Shiva, the primary god of the Shaivite sect of Hindu religion, by three Tamil poets known as Saiva Kuruvars - Thirugnana Sambanthar, Tirunavukkarasar (aka Appar) and Sundaramoorthy Nayanar (aka Sundarar). The three are considered the primary three among the sixty three Nayanmars of the Saivite sect of Hinduism. The former two lived during the 7th century AD while the latter around 8th century AD. All songs in Thevaram are believed to be in sets of ten songs, called pathikam in Tamil. Some musical experts consider Thevaram as a divine musical form. There is a common view that Sanskritization of names of the temples are carried out in later period that superseded the names mentioned in Thevaram - some of the common examples are Chidambaram as against Tillai in Thevaram and Kumbakonam as against Kudanthai.
The 275 temples that are mentioned in Thevaram are referred as Paadal Petra Sthalam, meaning the temples that were sung in the verses. On the contrary, Vaippu Sthalam are temples that were mentioned casually in the songs in Thevaram and lacking a mention of those temples. In modern times, the verses of Tevaram are sung daily and during the festive occasions in most Shiva temples in Tamil Nadu by musicians called Odhuvars.
Manikkavacakar is considered the 4th in the line of Saiva Kuravars, whose verses are classified as Thiruvasagam. There is a saying that "Thiruvasagathuku urugar, oru vasagathukum orugar" meaning the person who does not budge for thiruvasagam won't budge for anything else.
Paadal Petra Sthalangal
There are around 275 temples that are revered by the verses of Saiva Nayanars and are amongst the greatest Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu. In Tamil Nadu there are 265 temples, 2 temples in Andhra pradesh, 1 temple in kerala, 1 temple in karnataka, 2 temples in Uttarakhand, 2 temples in Sri Lanka, 1 temple in Nepal, and Tirukayilaayam in Mount Kailash. The list is as shown below.
Pancha Bootha Sthalangal
This refers to the temples that are the manifestation of the five elements - land, water, air, sky, fire.
|Air||Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple||Kalahasthi, Andhra Pradesh|
Pancha Sabhai Sthalangal
|Rathinachabai||Vada aaranyeswarar Temple||Thiruvalangadu, Chennai||Emerald|
|Vellichabai||Meenakshi Amman Temple||Madurai||Silver|
Ashta Veerattam Sthalangal
The temples where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed with fury. The eight temples are in 1. Thiruvadhikai 2. Thirukoyilur 3. Thirukkadayur 4. Vazhoovur 5. Thirukkurakaval ( kurukkai ) 6. Thiruppaliyalur 7. Thirukandiyur 8. Thiruvirkudi.
The Thyagarajar Temple at Tiruvarur is famous for the ajapa natanam (dance without chanting), that is executed by the deity itself. According to legend, a Chola king named Mucukunta obtained a boon from Indra (a celestial deity) and wished to receive an image of Thyagaraja Swamy (presiding deity, Shiva in the temple) reposing on the chest of reclining Lord Vishnu. Indra tried to misguide the king and had six other images made, but the king chose the right image at Tiruvarur. The other six images were installed in ThiruNallaaru, Nagapattinam, Tirukarayil, Tirukolili, Thiruvaaimur and Tirumaraikadu. All the seven places are villages situated in the river Cauvery delta. All seven Thyagaraja images are said to dance when taken in procession(it is the bearers of the processional deity who actually dance). The temples with dance styles are regarded as Saptha Vidangam (seven dance moves) and the related temples are as under:
|Temple||Vidangar Temple||Dance pose||Meaning|
|Thyagarajar Temple, Tiruvarur||Vidhividangar||Ajaba Natanam||Dance without chanting, resembling the dance of Sri Thyagaraja resting on Lord Vishnu's chest|
|Dharbaranyeswarar Temple, Tirunallar||Nagaravidangar||Unmatha natanam||Dance of an intoxicated person|
|Kayarohanaswamy Temple, Nagapattinam||Sundaravidangar||Vilathi natanam||Dancing like waves of sea|
|Kannayariamudayar Temple, Thirukarayil||Adhividangar||Kukuda natanam||Dancing like a cock|
|Brahmapureeswarar Temple, Thirukkuvalai||Avanividangar||Brunga natanam||Dancing like a bee that hovers over a flower|
|Vaimoornaathar Temple, Tiruvaimur||Nallavidangar||Kamala natanam||Dance like lotus that moves in a breeze|
|Vedaranyeswarar Temple, Vedaranyam||Bhuvanivividangar||Hamsapatha natanam||Dancing with the gait of a swan|
The sapthasthanam festival is conducted at Tiruvaiyaru during April every year. Hundreds of people witness the convergence of seven glass palanquins carrying principal deities of respective temples from seven places at Tiruvaiyaru. The palanquins are paraded near the car stand, the crowd witnessed the Poochorithal(flower festival) in which a doll offers flowers to the principal deities in the palanquins. After the Poochorithal, the palanquins left for their respective places. The seven temples are
Saptha Mangai Stalangals
The seven temples are
|Chakravageshwarar Temple||Chakravageshwarar/Devanayagi||Chakramangai||Chakkarapalli, Thanjavur|
|Arimutheeswarar Temple||Arimutheeswarar/Gnambikai||Harimangai||Ariyamangai, Thanjavur|
|Krithivageswarar temple||Krithivageswarar/Alangaravalli||Soolamangai||Soolamangalam, Thanjavur|
|Jambugeswarar Temple||Jambugeswarar/Akilandeswari||Nandimangai||Tirupullamangai, Thanjavur|
|Pasumangai Temple||Pasupatiswarar/Palvalainayagi||Pasumangai||Thirukkandiyur, Thanjavur|
|Chandramouleeswarar Temple||Chandramouleeswarar/Rajarajeswari||Thazhamangai||Thazhamangai, Thanjavur|
|Tirupullamangai Temple||Alandurainathar/Soundaranayagi||Pullamangai||Pullamangai, Thanjavur|
Aathara Stalam indicates the places which are considered to be diving impersonification of Tantric chakras associated with human anatomy. Annamalaiyar temple is called the Manipooraga stalam associated with Manipooraga the human anatomical cause for spiritual ignorance, thirst, jealousy, treachery, shame, fear, disgust, delusion, foolishness and sadness. 4 temples are located in Tamil Nadu, one in Andhra Pradesh, and one at Varanasi.
(Sanskrit: आज्ञा, ājňā, [aːdʒɲaː])
|Brain directly behind eyebrow||Natarajar Temple||Chidambaram|
(Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha)
|Neck region near spine||Sri Kalahastheeswara Swami Temple||Kalahasthi|
(Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata)
|Central channel behind spine||Kashi Vishwanath Temple||Varanasi|
(Sanskrit: मणिपूर, Maṇipūra)
|Spine directly behind the navel||Arunachaleshwarar Temple||Thiruvannamalai|
(Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, Svādhiṣṭhāna)
|One's own abode||Thiruvanaikaval||Trichy|
(Sanskrit: मूलाधार, Mūlādhāra)
|Basal end of the spinal||Thyagaraja Swamy Temple||Tiruvarur|
Rockfort temple, Trichy
Kailash Hills, Kailash
Thiruvasi Temple, Trichy
- Map of padal petra stalam
- Padal petra stalam around Madurai
- Padal petra stalam around Kerala
- Padal petra stalam around Karnataka
- Padal petra stalam around Erode
- Padal petra stalam around Srilanka
- "A comprehensive description of the 275 Shivastalams glorified by the Tevaram hymns". templenet.com. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Understanding some aspects of Hinduism". Colombo, Sri Lanka: Daily News. 24 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (Subscription required (help)).
- SAK, Durga (1 January 2009). "The Oxford Illustrated Companion to South Indian Classical Music". Journal of the Indian Musicological Society. Indian Musicological Society. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (Subscription required (help)).
- Scharfe, Hartmut (1 October 1999). "The Doctrine of the Three Humors in Traditional Indian Medicine and the Alleged Antiquity of Tamil Siddha Medicine". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via Questia Online Library. (Subscription required (help)).
- Shulman, David (1 January 1997). "Tevaram: Ayvuttunai (Tevaram: Etudes et glossaire tamouls)". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015 – via HighBeam. (Subscription required (help)).
- V., Meena (1974). Temples in South India (1st ed.). Kanniyakumari: Harikumar Arts. pp. 33–4.
- Glimpses of the history of Karaikkal.Saroja Sundararajan
- The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras: Volumes 33-34 .Music Academy (Madras, India) - 1962
- Nityasumaṅgalī: devadasi tradition in South India .P.146. Saskia C. Kersenboom-Story
- http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/22/stories/2011042255521400.htm.The Hindu
- Kamalabaskaran 1994
- Spear 2011. p. 121