Agave nectar (more accurately, agave syrup) is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave, including Agave tequilana (blue agave) and Agave salmiana. Agave syrup contains fructose as a carbohydrate providing sweetening properties.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,297 kJ (310 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0.2 g|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.|
To produce agave syrup from the Agave americana and A. tequilana plants, the leaves are cut off the plant after it has been growing for seven to fourteen years. The juice is then extracted from the core of the agave, called the piña. The juice is filtered, then heated to break the complex components (the polysaccharides) into simple sugars. The main polysaccharide is called fructan, a polymer of fructose molecules. This filtered juice is then concentrated to a syrupy liquid, slightly thinner than honey. Its color varies from light- to dark-amber, depending on the degree of processing.
Agave salmiana is processed differently from Agave tequiliana. As the plant develops, it starts to grow a stalk called a quiote. The stalk is cut off before it fully grows, creating a hole in the center of the plant that fills with a liquid called aguamiel. The liquid is collected daily. The liquid is then heated, breaking down its complex components into fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and preventing it from fermenting into pulque.
An alternative method used to process the agave juice without heat is described in a United States patent for a process that uses enzymes derived from the mold Aspergillus niger to convert the inulin-rich extract into fructose. In slightly greater detail, the polyfructose extract obtained from the mashed agave pulp is hydrolyzed via a chemical process patented in 1998, with inulin enzymes (obtained from Aspergillus niger), to produce a hydrolyzed fructose extract. Concentrating the fructose yields the familiar syrup. Agave nectar (syrup) is not listed on the inventory of foods generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
The carbohydrate composition in agave syrup depends on the species from which the syrup was made. In A. tequilana, the syrup contains some 56% to 60% fructose, 20% glucose, and trace amounts of sucrose, whereas in A. salmiana, sucrose is the main sugar. Fructose molecules in A. tequilana syrup chain together to create fructans and fructooligosaccharides, which have sweetening effects.
Agave syrups are sold in light, amber, dark, and raw varieties. Light agave syrup has a mild, almost neutral flavor, and is therefore sometimes used in delicate-tasting dishes and beverages. Amber agave syrup has a medium-intensity caramel flavor and is therefore used in dishes and drinks with stronger flavors. Dark agave syrup has stronger caramel notes and imparts a distinct flavor to dishes, such as some desserts, poultry, meat, and seafood dishes. Both amber and dark agave syrups are sometimes used "straight out of the bottle" as a topping for pancakes, waffles, and French toast. The dark version is unfiltered and therefore contains a higher concentration of the agave plant's minerals.
In a 100 gram (ml) reference amount, agave nectar (as a syrup sweetener) supplies 310 calories (78 calories per tablespoon) and is a moderate source of vitamin C and several B vitamins (table). It is composed of 76% carbohydrates, 23% water, 0.4% fat, and negligible protein.
Glycemic index and calories
Agave nectar has a relatively high sweetness factor because it is composed of 56% fructose, giving an impact on blood sugar comparable to fructose itself, as measured by its glycemic index (GI). Having fructose as its primary sugar, agave syrup (56% fructose) is similar in fructose content to high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose content), the most common sweetener used in manufactured beverages.
- Mellado-Mojica, E; López, M. G (2015). "Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD". Food Chemistry. 167: 349–57. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.111. PMID 25148997.
- Julie R. Thomson (4 May 2017). "So THAT'S Where Tequila Comes From". Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- "Monocarpic Behavior in Agaves". J. C. Raulston Arboretum, North Carolina State University. June 19, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- "Method of producing fructose syrup from agave plants (United States Patent 5846333)". 1998-12-08. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26.
- "Inventory of GRAS Notices: Summary of all GRAS Notices". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Ralf Patzold; Hans Bruckner (2005). "Mass Spectrometric Detection and Formation of D-Amino Acids in Processed Plant Saps, Syrups, and Fruit Juice Concentrates". J Agric Food Chem. 53 (25): 9722–9729. doi:10.1021/jf051433u.
- Johannes, Laura (October 27, 2009). "Looking at Health Claims of Agave Nectar". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- Chomka, Stefan (30 July 2007). "Dorset Cereals". The Grocer. Crawley, England: William Reed Business Media. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Getty, Anna (2010). Anna Getty's Easy Green Organic. Dan Goldberg and Ron Hamad, photographs. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 141. ISBN 0-8118-6668-8. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
- "Fructose intolerance: Which foods to avoid?". Mayo Clinic. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Agave syrup (sweetener; Full report, all nutrients)". USDA National Nutrient Database. 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Glycemic Index Search". Glycemic Index Testing Centre, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders and Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia. 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- "Sugar and Sweeteners: Background". United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2018.