Rail transport in Taiwan
|National railway||Taiwan Railways Administration|
|Major operators||Taiwan High Speed Rail|
|Ridership||287 million (2016)|
|Passenger km||21.5 billion (2016)|
|Total||1,418 km (881 mi)|
|Double track||1,077 km (669 mi)|
|Electrified||1,240 km (770 mi)|
|High-speed||354 km (220 mi)|
|Main||1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
|High-speed||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)||1,065 kilometres (662 mi)|
|1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||513 kilometres (319 mi)|
|Longest tunnel||Xinguanyin Tunnel|
10.3071 kilometres (6.4045 mi)
|Longest bridge||THSR Changhua-Kaohsiung Viaduct|
157.317 kilometres (97.752 mi)
Rail transport in Taiwan consists of 1691.8 km (as of 2015) of railway networks. Though no longer as dominant as it once was, rail transport is an extremely important form of transportation in Taiwan due to high population density, especially along the densely populated western corridor. In 2016, over 1.09 billion passengers traveled by rail in Taiwan, averaging 2.99 million passengers per day.
The railways of Taiwan include conventional rail, rapid transit systems, and high-speed rail, as well as specialized railways for tourists and industry. Taiwan Railways Administration is an associate member and Taiwan High Speed Rail is an active member of the International Union of Railways (UIC), even though Taiwan does not have state membership.
There are two railway systems that provide intercity transportation service in Taiwan:
|Name||Taiwan Railways||Taiwan High Speed Rail|
|Taiwanese||Tâi-oân Thih-lō͘||Tâi-ôan Ko-sok Thih-lō͘|
|Hakka||Thòi-vân Thiet-lu||Thòi-vàn Kaû-suk Thiet-lu|
|Service type||Inter-city rail, Commuter rail||Inter-city rail, High-speed rail|
|Gauge||1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|System length||1,065 km (662 mi)||349.5 km (217 mi)|
The Taiwan Railways is administered by the governmental agency Taiwan Railways Administration. TRA operates both passenger service and the only freight service in the country. The main lines form a loop around the island that connect most of the country's major cities, with small branch lines at various points to the interior. TRA operates both intercity trains throughout Taiwan, and commuter services into the major cities. The Taiwan High Speed Rail is operated by a franchised private company called Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation, it contains passenger services between Nangang, Taipei and Zuoying, Kaohsiung with a route that runs through Western Taiwan.
Urban rail transit systems are managed by local governments. There are three systems in Taiwan and two more under construction:
|Name||Taipei Metro||Kaohsiung MRT||Taoyuan Metro||New Taipei Metro||Taichung Metro|
|Taiwanese||Tâi-pak Chia̍t-ūn||Ko-hiông Chia̍t-ūn||Thô-hn̂g Chia̍t-ūn||Sin-pak Chia̍t-ūn||Tâi-tiong Chia̍t-ūn|
|Hakka||Thòi-pet Chia̍p-yun||Kô-hiùng Chhia̍p-yun||Thò-yèn Chhia̍p-yun||Sîn-pet Chhia̍p-yun||Thòi-chûng Chhia̍p-yun|
|Taipei, New Taipei||Kaohsiung||Taoyuan, Taipei, New Taipei||New Taipei||Taichung|
|Open Date||28 March 1996||9 March 2008||2 March 2017||December 2018||2020|
|No. of lines||5 metro
(2 metro u/c)
|2 metro, 1 light rail||1 metro
(1 metro u/c)
|1 metro u/c, 2 light rail u/c||1 metro u/c|
(Danhai light rail)
|131.2 km (82 mi)||51.4 km (32 mi)||51.03 km (32 mi)||13.99 km (9 mi)
(Danhai light rail)
|16.71 km (10 mi)|
|746.067 million (2017)||64.321 million (2017)||17.346 million (2017)||—||—|
Most of the urban rail transit systems use standard gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), except Taipei Metro Wenhu line, which uses VAL system with 1,880 mm (6 ft 2 in) track gauge. The main line of Taoyuan Metro is called the Taoyuan Airport MRT, which connects Taoyuan International Airport, Taiwan's largest airport, with Taipei and Zhongli, Taoyuan. In addition to the five systems above, there were also plans to built rapid transit systems in municipalities of Tainan and Hsinchu. However, the Ministry of Transportation and Communications declined the proposals in January 2010 for budget issues and deeming it premature. Recently, most plans of new urban rail transit system plans have adopted light rail for budget efficiency.
Industrial and tourist railways
Industrial railways were built mainly in Japanese era for transporting industrial raw materials and products, especially sugarcanes for sugar industry, and lumber for wood industry in Taiwan. After the World War II, these industries declined significantly and these railroads were remodeled as tourist attractions in the beginning of 21st century.
|Name||Taiwan Sugar Railways||Taiwan Forest Railways|
|Taiwanese||Tâi-oân Thn̂g-gia̍p Thih-lō͘||Tâi-ôan Sim-lîm Thih-lō͘|
|Hakka||Thòi-vân Thòng-ngia̍p Thiet-lu||Thòi-vàn Sêm-lìm Thiet-lu|
|Owner||Taiwan Sugar Corporation||Forestry Bureau|
|Gauge||762 mm (2 ft 6 in)||762 mm (2 ft 6 in)|
|No. of Lines||1 industrial line, 5 tourist lines||4 tourist lines|
The Taiwan Sugar Railways is an extensive series of narrow gauge lines mostly in central and southern Taiwan, originally built to haul sugarcane by the sugar companies in Japanese era, but also capable of providing limited passenger service. Regular passenger services discontinued in 1982. In 2003, some short-distance train services resumed. Currently there are six lines in operations. 
|Magongcuo line||馬公厝線||Má-kong-chhù Sòaⁿ||Mâ-kûng-chhṳ̀ Sien||16.1 km (10.0 mi)||Huwei, Yunlin|
|Xihu line||溪湖線||Khe-ô͘ Sòaⁿ||Hâi-fù Sien||3.6 km (2.2 mi)||Xihu, Changhua|
|Zhecheng line||蔗埕線||Chià-tiâⁿ Sòaⁿ||Cha-thàng Sien||2.56 km (1.59 mi)||Liujiao, Chiayi|
|Baweng line||八翁線||Pat-ong Sòaⁿ||Pat-vûng Sien||5.6 km (3.5 mi)||Xinying and Liuying, Tainan|
|Xingang East line||新港東線||Sin-káng Tang Sòaⁿ||Sîn-kóng Tûng Sien||2.7 km (1.7 mi)||Houbi, Tainan|
|Qiaotou line||橋頭線||Kiô-thâu Sòaⁿ||Khiâu-thèu Sien||1.5 km (0.93 mi)||Qiaotou, Kaohsiung|
Only Magongcuo line in Huwei Sugar Refinery is still under industrial use, other five lines have been transformed to heritage railways.
The Forest Railways were built for logging and timber industry, now recommissioned as tourist railway services in high mountains.
|Alishan Forest Railway||阿里山森林鐵路||A-lí-san Sim-lîm Thih-lō͘||Â-lî-sân Sêm-lìm Thiet-lu||86 km (53 mi)||Chiayi City and Chiayi County|
|Taiping Mountain Forest Railway||太平山森林鐵路||Thài-pîng-soaⁿ Sim-lîm Thih-lō͘||Thai-phìn-sân Sêm-lìm Thiet-lu||0 km (0 mi)||Yilan County|
|Luodong Forest Railway||羅東森林鐵路||Lô-tong Sim-lîm Thih-lō͘||Lò-tûng Sêm-lìm Thiet-lu||3.9 km (2.4 mi)||Yilan County|
|Wulai Scenic Train||烏來台車||U-lai Tâi-chhia||Vû-lòi Thòi-chhâ||1.5 km (0.93 mi)||Wulai, New Taipei|
The Alishan Forest Railway is currently the largest tourist railway networks in Taiwan, operated by Taiwan Railways Administration. The Luodong Forest Railway and Taiping Mountain Forest Railway were interconnected to transport the harvested lumber from Taiping Mountain to Luodong, Yilan and transferred to major railway system of Taiwan. Now only a short 3.9 km (2.4 mi) section near Tiansongpi Station are operating. Wulai Scenic Train was originally tracks for rail push trolleys, now runs a light automotive for tourists.
The earliest railway in Taiwan was completed in 1893 under the auspices of Governor Liu Mingchuan during the Qing Era and rebuilt by the Governor-generals during the Japanese Era (see Taiwan Railways Administration§History). Since then, major railways in Taiwan have followed the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge standard. The Taitung Line was built during the Japanese Era with 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge, but since 1982 it has been converted to 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm), while the Alishan Forest Railway and the majority of Taiwan Sugar Railways are still 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) railways. The Taiwan High Speed Rail and all rapid transit systems use standard gauge track.
Because of the Taiwan's extensive rail network (including many now defunct industrial narrow gauge lines which provided passenger service to rural areas), railways in Taiwan often have a romantic connotation, especially amongst the older generation who remember growing up when rail travel was the primary means of transportation between cities in simpler (and less prosperous) times. Many remember leaving their hometowns to attend school in far away cities by train or leaving via train to perform their compulsory military service. This nostalgia has been capitalized upon in recent years through the introduction of various items such as "nostalgia railroad ekiben" (懷舊鐵路便當), claimed to be authentic copies of the box lunches that were once served aboard trains.
- Nine transfer stations doubly counted
- "鐵路重要參考指標統計表". Ministry of Transportation and Communication, ROC (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- TRA+THSR+MRTs only
- "Table 2-1 Passenger Traffic of Railway in Taiwan Area". Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Retrieved 2017-08-01.
- "捷運夢碎！八條輕軌遭退回！公車難經營 捷運路遙遠 台灣大眾運輸 阻礙重重！(MRT Dreams Shattered, Eight Light Rail System Proposals Declined)". Public Television Service. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Taiwan Train Travel". AsiaRooms.com. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- "Places to Visit". Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Nature". Taiwan.com.au. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- 台灣糖業公司 五分車營運資料
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