Map of Redland City in South East Queensland
|Population||149,989 (2015 Est.)|
|• Density||279.257/km2 (723.27/sq mi)|
|Area||537.1 km2 (207.4 sq mi)|
|Region||South East Queensland|
Redland City, better known as the Redlands and formerly known as Redland Shire, is a local government area located in the southeast of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. It is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay covering 537.1 square kilometres (207.4 sq mi). Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, and Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast.
Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires. Despite this status, the City consists of largely suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland; there is no clear city centre.
Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Cleveland, Victoria Point, and Redland Bay. The latter is the City's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil. North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands. The City's boundaries correspond to those of the Division of Bowman.
The area now known as the Redlands was initially inhabited by the Jagera, Turrbal, and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island; Matthew Flinders landed on Coochiemudlo Island in 1799; and Robert Dixon later surveyed and named much of the area.
By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was ultimately not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, and an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane. The area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903. The Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.
On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa (suburbs west of Tingalpa Creek, including Upper Mount Gravatt and Rochedale) became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it (the other part of Tingalpa amalgamated to form the Shire of Albert).
The twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, and is also associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status.
Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba, Cleveland and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City. These are North Stradbroke, Coochiemudlo and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb, Russell and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, and marking the majority of the area's western boundary.
Redland City has many immediately recognisable animals and plants such as koalas, migratory shorebirds, flying foxes and scribbly gum forests. It is also home to over 1,700 other recorded native species, many of which are under threat from population growth and its associated effects such as habitat clearing and fragmentation, road construction, pollution and expanding development. The council area is also home to Venman Bushland National Park, and the Eprapah Scout environment training centre.
In April 2013, the Redland City Council illegally cleared vegetation from public land on the foreshores of Moreton Bay. The Council has been required by the State Government to restore the cleared vegetation and install signage about the restoration. Trees felled included many sheoaks.
The city's koala population has declined significantly in recent years. In 2010, it was estimated that only 2,000 koalas remained, a 65% decline since 1999. Figures from a count in 2012 have not yet been released by the Queensland Government. The Redland City-based Koala Action Group has warned that: "Rampant expansion of urban areas will lead to the loss of the koala populations that are vital to the long-term survival of the species."
The city boundaries include internationally significant coastal wetlands within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site. Tidal flats, mangroves and seagrass beds provide important habitats for fish, crustaceans, and:
- large numbers of the nationally threatened green turtle and the loggerhead turtle
- the internationally vulnerable dugong, a large sea mammal from the order Sirenia which also includes manatee species
- 43 species of shorebirds, including 30 migratory bird species listed by international migratory bird conservation agreements, such as the vulnerable eastern curlew and the grey-tailed tattler, that use this area in their journey through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.
Queensland Rail operates the Cleveland railway line, which connects the Redlands with Brisbane as part of its City network. The line runs parallel with the Brisbane River to its south, passing through Brisbane's Cannon Hill and Wynnum, before crossing Tingalpa Creek to enter Redland City. Northern suburbs of the City are serviced by five stations: Thorneside, Birkdale, Wellington Point, Ormiston, and Cleveland, where the line terminates.
The TransLink (South East Queensland) bus network is prevalent in the Redlands. Bus stations at Capalaba and Victoria Point feature regular city-bound and outbound connections, with direct services to Carindale, Eight Mile Plains, Loganholme, and the Brisbane CBD during peak hour. Upon pending completion, the Eastern Busway is expected to terminate at Capalaba bus station.
There are no controlled-access highways in Redland City. The Gateway Motorway and Pacific Motorway are located further west within the City of Brisbane. Major roads are accessible from these highways, such as Old Cleveland Road, Mount Gravatt-Capalaba Road, and Mount Cotton Road, which enter the Redlands from Chandler, Burbank, and Cornubia, respectively.
Culture and heritage
Redland City has a number of important cultural facilities, including the Redland Art Gallery, Redland Museum, and Redland Performing Arts Centre.
- Multiple historic sites of Cleveland, such as the Cleveland Point Light, Old Cleveland Police Station, Cleveland Pioneer Cemetery, Grand View Hotel, and the historic pine trees near the Point
- The church, public hall, causeway and public reserve in Dunwich, North Stradbroke Island
- Whepstead Manor at Wellington Point
- The Industrial Ruins on Macleay Island
- The Ormiston House Estate and Fellmongery
- Serpentine Creek Road Cemetery in Redland Bay.
|Year (Ending June)||Redland City – % Change in GRP||Queensland – % Change in GRP|
During the year ending in June 2014, an estimated 41,506 jobs were located in Redland City, along with an estimated 74,089 employed residents, meaning 32,035 (or 47.1%) of Redland City’s employed residents who work travel outside of the area to do so.
|Year (Ending June)||Redland City – Employed Residents||Redland City – Local Jobs|
North Stradbroke Island, one of the world's largest sand islands, has been the subject of sand mining operations since 1949. In 2010, Queensland's Labor Government announced a phase-out of the sand mining industry over a 17-year period, with up to 80% of the island to be covered by national park. In April 2011, the government then extended key expired mining leases to allow mining to continue at the main Enterprise sand mine until the end of 2019, while Sibelco was interested in an extension to 2027. 2013 saw the LNP Government pass legislation allowing sand mining on the island for an extra 16 years: from 2019 to 2035. For mining to continue past 2019 at the Enterprise sand mine, the lease owner (currently Sibelco) would have to apply for an extension in 2019, under legislative amendments passed by the Newman Government in November 2013. However, if the amendments are repealed by a future government before 2019, the mine will close on 31 December 2019, the closure date legislated by the government in April 2011.
The circumstances leading up to this legislative amendment have been referred to Queensland's Crime and Misconduct Commission. On 6 June 2014, North Stradbroke Island's traditional owners, the Quandamooka people, initiated a legal challenge saying, on the grounds that the LNP Government's extension of mining contravened the Federal Native Title Act. In May 2016, legislation passed by the Palaszczuk Ministry did confirm that sand mining on North Stradbroke will end by 2019.
Toondah Harbour in Cleveland is the location of the Stradbroke Island Ferry Terminal, used by water taxis and vehicular ferries to provide access to North Stradbroke Island. Cleveland's Toondah Harbour and Redland Bay's Weinam Creek were declared Priority Development Areas (PDAs) under the Economic Development Act 2012 on 21 June 2013. PDA designation allows development to be fast-tracked, but also means that local communities and interest groups have less opportunity to comment on issues of concern.
The Government and Redland City Council have proposed PDA development schemes which have attracted widespread community opposition. On 23 February, approximately 300 people attended a rally to protest against the Government's plans to "carve up" the G.J. Walter Park as part of its Toondah Harbour redevelopment proposal. On 4 March 2014 a petition with 1,211 signatures calling for the Government's Toondah Harbour PDA plan to be withdrawn was tabled in the Queensland Parliament.
On 18 September 2014, the Government and Council announced that Walker Corporation had been selected as preferred developer for both the Toondah Harbour and Weinam Creek priority development areas.
Karen Williams was elected mayor at the 2012 election. She pledged to cap rate rises to inflation, control debt, abolish fees to dump rubbish at local tips, and make the council more transparent and accountable.
Redland City consists of the following suburbs and localities:
- Peel Island
- Cassim Island, near Cleveland: a low-lying area of mangroves with seagrass around it which provides a high value habitat for wading birds and other fauna, named after William Cassim, an early Cleveland hotel keeper.
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2016)|
- 1961— : Ernest Gaden Western Wood (for seven consecutive terms)
Other notable members of the Redland Council include:
- "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014–15". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Queensland State Archives, Search for Agency Details of Redland City Council:http://www.archivessearch.qld.gov.au/Search/AgencyDetails.aspx?AgencyId=1689#bookmarkDescription, Retrieved 7 April 2014
- David Tuffley, 2007, "Redland Bay, Australia: Introduction", Griffith University: http://www.ict.griffith.edu.au/~davidt/redlandbay/intro_red_bay.htm, Retrieved 7 September 2015
- Queensland Places, "Tingalpa", Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland: http://www.queenslandplaces.com.au/tingalpa, Retrieved 19 May 2015
- City of Brisbane Act 1924 (accessed 19 May 2015)
- Queensland Places, "Redland City", Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland: http://www.queenslandplaces.com.au/redland-city, Retrieved 19 May 2015
- Redland City Council, "Redlands City Community Plan Project Proposal", 18 March 2008: http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/AboutCouncil/CommunityPlan/Documents/Community_Plan/Project%20Proposal%20Final%20Version.pdf, Retrieved 19 May 2015
- The Redland Foundation, "About Us": http://www.redlandfoundation.org.au/about/, Retrieved 19 May 2015
- Mary Howells, "Living on the Edge: along Tingalpa Creek a history of Upper Tingalpa, Capalaba and Thorneside", University of Queensland, 2001: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:185263/THE16194.pdf, Retrieved 19 May 2015
- Biodiversity Strategy 2008–2012, Redland City Council, May 2008: http://indigiscapes.redland.qld.gov.au/PlansStrategies/Biodiversity/Pages/default.aspx, Retrieved on 5 February 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Council guilty of illegal tree clearing", Redland City Bulletin, 26 July 2014: http://www.redlandcitybulletin.com.au/story/2441642/updated-council-guilty-of-illegal-tree-clearing/?cs=212, Retrieved 27 July 2014
- Wildlife Bayside,"Council cleared protected coastal vegetation for individual ocean views?": http://wildlifebayside.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/why-has-qld-government-council-cleared-protected-coastal-vegetation-for-individual-ocean-views/, Retrieved 27 July 2014
- Tony Moore, "State Government's go-slow on Koala Coast population figures", Brisbane Times, 9 December 2013: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/state-governments-goslow-on-koala-coast-population-figures-20131208-2yzaa.html#ixzz2vRMYAQmF, Retrieved on 9 March 2014
- KAG comments on Draft EPBC Act Referral Guidelines for the Vulnerable Koala: http://www.koalagroup.asn.au/about-us-20/news-16/item/75-kag-comments-on-draft-epbc-act-referral-guidelines-for-the-vulnerable-koala, Retrieved on 13 March 2014
- Moreton Bay (Ramsar Site) Overview, Australian Government, Department of The Environment : http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/wetlands/ramsardetails.pl?refcode=41 , Retrieved on 5 February 2014
- Migratory waterbirds, Australian Government, Department of The Environment http://www.environment.gov.au/node/14284#flyway, Retrieved 13 February 2014
- BAAM Ecological Consultants and FRC Environmental, "Expert Advice in Ecology (Marine and Terrestrial)and Coastal Processes for Input to the preparation of a Structure Plan and Development Scheme for Toondah Harbour and Weinam Creek Priority Development Areas":, Retrieved 5 May 2014
- James Kelly, "Moreton Bay's grade falls in Healthy Waterways report", ABC News, 23 October 2013: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-10-23/moreton-bays-grade-falls-in-healthy-waterways-report/5040700, Retrieved on 8 March 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Water report gives Redland 'F' for fail", Redland City Bulletin, 22 October 2014: http://www.redlandcitybulletin.com.au/story/2642893/waterway-report-fails-redland-again/?cs=212, Retrieved 22 October 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Fire ants on the march in Redlands", Bayside Bulletin, 20 June 2013: http://www.baysidebulletin.com.au/story/1585809/fire-ants-on-the-march-in-redlands/, Retrieved on 9 March 2014
- "Eastern Busway". TransLink. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Revitalisation of the Coorparoo Junction Precinct". Anissa Farrell, Sourceable. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- The External links section of this article includes a link to a search of the Queensland Heritage Register which gives a complete list of all heritage-listed places in Redland City.
- "Cleveland Lighthouse (former) (entry 600772)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- .Id, Redland City Gross Product: http://economy.id.com.au/redland/gross-product, Retrieved 18 May 2015
- Id, Redland City, Local Jobs: http://economy.id.com.au/redland/local-jobs, Retrieved 18 May 2015
- Id, Redland City, Employed Residents: http://economy.id.com.au/redland/employed-residents, Retrieved 18 May 2015
- Id, Redland City, Residents place of work by occupation - All occupations: http://economy.id.com.au/redland/residents-place-of-work-occupation?, Retrieved 18 May 2015
- Queensland Historical Atlas, Mining: http://www.qhatlas.com.au/content/mining , Retrieved 7 April 2014
- Courtney Trenwith, "Green jobs to replace mining work on Stradbroke: Bligh", Brisbane Times, 21 June 2010:http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/environment/green-jobs-to-replace-mining-work-on-stradbroke-bligh-20100620-yozf.html , Retrieved 7 April 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Straddie Act amended to allow 16 more years of mining", Bayside Bulletin, 21 November 2013: http://www.baysidebulletin.com.au/story/1923238/straddie-act-amended-to-allow-16-more-years-of-mining/ , Retrieved 7 April 2014
- Richard Carew, "The government is lying about Stradbroke Island sand mining", Brisbane times, 15 July 2014: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/the-government-is-lying-about-stradbroke-island-sand-mining-20140715-zt7j0.html#ixzz37V0d1JWF, Retrieved 15 July 2014
- Tony Moore, "Labor refers Sibelco sand mining company to CMC", Brisbane Times, 24 June 2014:http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/labor-refers-sibelco-sand-mining-company-to-cmc-20140624-zsjxa.html, retrieved 29 June 2014
- "Native title dispute goes to court after Queensland mining lease extended", The Guardian, 6 June 2014: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/06/native-title-dispute-court-queensland-mining-lease-extended#start-of-comments, Retrieved 6 June 2014
- Gail Burke (2016-05-26). "North Stradbroke Island sand mining to end by 2019". ABC. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- Trenton Akers (2016-05-26). "Sand mining on North Stradbroke Island to end in 2019". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- "About Us - Mt Cotton Quarries". Mt Cotton Quarries. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "About Us - Karreman Quarries". Karreman Quarries. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Mark Solomons and Mark Willacy (2015-02-25). "Karreman Quarries accused of illegally dumping chemicals and waste oils at Mount Cotton quarry, company denies allegations". ABC News. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- "Dane Karreman, 9, banned from driving 30-tonne front-end loader". news.com.au. 2009-11-02. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
- Economic Development Act 2014 (Qld): https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/ACTS/2012/12AC043.pdf , Retrieved 1 April 2014
- "Future of GJ Walter Park defines Toondah debate", Bayside Bulletin, 24 February 2014, http://www.baysidebulletin.com.au/story/2106953/future-of-gj-walter-park-defines-toondah-debate/?cs=213, Retrieved on 25 February 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Parliament hears petition demanding new Toondah plan", Bayside Bulletin, 6 March 2014: http://www.baysidebulletin.com.au/story/2132334/parliament-hears-petition-demanding-new-toondah-plan/?cs=213, Retrieved on 8 March 2014
- Toondah Harbour Priority Development Area Development Scheme May 2014: http://www.edq.qld.gov.au/resources/plan/pda/development-scheme-toondah-harbour.pdf, Retrieved 1 June 2014
- Toondah Harbour Priority Development Area Development Scheme Submissions Report, May 2014: http://www.edq.qld.gov.au/resources/plan/pda/submissions-report-toondah-harbour.pdf, Retrieved 1 June 2014
- Judith Kerr, "Walker Group to develop Cleveland and Redland bay waterfronts", Redland City Bulletin, 18 September 2014: http://www.redlandcitybulletin.com.au/story/2568438/waterfront-revamps-on-way-for-cleveland-and-redland-bay/, Retrieved on 18 May 2015
- Daniel Hurst, "Redland voters ponder change at the top", Brisbane Times, 26 April 2012: http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/redland-voters-ponder-change-at-the-top-20120425-1xla3.html , Retrieved 21 February 2014
- "Council election wash-up". ABC. 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- Lucy Mae Beers (2016-03-07). "'Red blooded' councillor defends personal sex tapes and pornographic images found on his work mobile and laptop and says he feels 'sl** shamed'". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- "Our Suburbs". Redland City Council. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Redland (C)" (PDF). Queensland Local Government Areas (LGA), 2011. Queensland Government. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Peter Davie et al, "Wild Guide To Moreton Bay", Queensland Museum, 1998, p 376
- Joshua Peter Bell, "Moreton Bay And How To Fathom It", Queensland Newspapers, 1984, p 52
- "Wood, Mr Ernest Gaden Western (Dick)". Re-Member Database. Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Goleby, Mr John Philip". Re-Member Database. Queensland Parliament. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Kidd, Barry (1979), Redlands Illustrated History, B. Kidd, ISBN 978-0-9595110-0-0
- Townsend, Derek (1986), Redlands: The Story of an Australian Shire, WD, ISBN 978-0-947074-00-5
- Redland City Council
- University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Redland City
- Queensland Government Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Results of Search for Queensland Heritage Listed Places in Redland City