Technetium (99mTc) arcitumomab
|Biological half-life||13 ± 4 hours|
|ATC code||V09IA06 (WHO)|
|Molar mass||ca. 50 kg/mol|
Technetium (99mTc) arcitumomab is a drug used for the diagnostic imaging of colorectal cancers, marketed by Immunomedics. It consists of the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody (arcitumomab, trade name CEA-Scan) and a radionuclide, technetium-99m.
Technetium (99mTc) arcitumomab is an immunoconjugate. Arcitumomab is a Fab' fragment of IMMU-4, a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody extracted from the ascites of mice. The enzyme pepsin cleaves the F(ab')2 fragment off the antibody. From this, the Fab' fragment is prepared by mild reduction.
Mechanism of action
Arcitumomab recognizes carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an antigen over-expressed in 95% of colorectal cancers. Consequently, the antibody accumulates in such tumours together with the radioisotope, which emits photons. Via single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution images showing localisation, remission or progression, and metastases of the tumour can be obtained.
Technetium (99mTc) arcitumomab is contraindicated for patients with known allergies or hypersensitivity to mouse proteins, as well as during pregnancy. Women should pause breast feeding for 24 hours after application of the drug.
Adverse effects and overdose
Only mild and transient side effects have been observed, mostly immunological reactions like eosinophilia, itching and fever. Some patients develop human anti-mouse antibodies, so there is the theoretical possibility of anaphylactic reactions. High doses of IMMU-4 (up to 20-fold diagnostic arcitumomab dose) have not led to any serious events. One patient has been reported to develop a grand mal after application.
- "CEA-Scan Summary of Product Characteristics". Immunomedics.
- Guadagni, Fiorella; Kantor, J; Aloe, S; Carone, MD; Spila, A; D'alessandro, R; Abbolito, MR; Cosimelli, M; et al. (15 March 2001). "Detection of Blood-borne Cells in Colorectal Cancer Patients by Nested Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Messenger RNA". Cancer Research. 61 (6): 2523–32. PMID 11289125.
- Behr, T; Becker, W; Hannappel, E; Goldenberg, DM; Wolf, F (1995). "Targeting of liver metastases of colorectal cancer with IgG, F(ab')2, and Fab' anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies labeled with 99mTc: the role of metabolism and kinetics". Cancer Research. 55 (23 Suppl): 5777s–5785s. PMID 7493346.
- Primus, FJ; Newell, KD; Blue, A; Goldenberg, DM (1983). "Immunological heterogeneity of carcinoembryonic antigen: antigenic determinants on carcinoembryonic antigen distinguished by monoclonal antibodies". Cancer Research. 43 (2): 686–92. PMID 6184152.
- Hansen, HJ; Jones, AL; Sharkey, RM; Grebenau, R; Blazejewski, N; Kunz, A; Buckley, MJ; Newman, ES; et al. (1990). "Preclinical evaluation of an "instant" 99mTc-labeling kit for antibody imaging". Cancer Research. 50 (3 Suppl): 794s–798s. PMID 2297726.
- Hughes, K (1995). "Use of radioimmunodetection with CEAScan in planning for resection of recurrent colorectal cancer". Proc Amer Soc Clin Oncol. 14: 544.
- Moffat Jr, FL; Pinsky, CM; Hammershaimb, L; Petrelli, NJ; Patt, YZ; Whaley, FS; Goldenberg, DM (1996). "Clinical utility of external immunoscintigraphy with the IMMU-4 technetium-99m Fab' antibody fragment in patients undergoing surgery for carcinoma of the colon and rectum: results of a pivotal, phase III trial. The Immunomedics Study Group". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 14 (8): 2295–305. PMID 8708720.