|Source||Humanized (from rat)|
|Trade names||Campath, MabCampath, Lemtrada|
|Elimination half-life||~288 hrs|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||145453.8 g/mol g·mol−1|
|(what is this?)|
Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma under the trade names Campath, MabCampath and Campath-1H, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as Lemtrada. It is also used as an anti-rejection agent in some conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation, kidney transplantation and islet cell transplantation.
It is a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD52, a protein present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes are derived. After treatment with alemtuzumab, these CD52-bearing lymphocytes are targeted for destruction.
Alemtuzumab is used as second-line therapy for CLL. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for CLL patients who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy. It has been approved by Health Canada for the same indication, and additionally for CLL patients who have not had any previous therapies.
(Mab)Campath was withdrawn from the markets in the US and Europe in 2012 to prepare for a higher-priced relaunch of Lemtrada aimed at multiple sclerosis.
- 1 Medical uses
- 2 Contraindications
- 3 Adverse effects
- 4 Biochemical properties
- 5 History
- 6 Research and off-label use
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Alemtuzumab is indicated for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) in patients who have been treated with alkylating agents and who have failed fludarabine therapy. It is an unconjugated antibody, thought to work via the activation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
In 2008 early tests at Cambridge University suggest that alemtuzumab might be useful in treating and even reversing the effects of multiple sclerosis. Promising results were reported in 2011 from a phase III trial against interferon beta 1a.
In September 2013 alemtuzumab was approved for first-line use in the EU.
In November 2013, the US FDA issued a comprehensive briefing on alemtuzumab for an agency review meeting. The document highlighted numerous serious safety and efficacy concerns, including substantial doubts about the adequacy of relevant clinical trials. In December 2013, the US FDA indicated that the Lemtrada application is not ready for approval, due to lack of evidence from "adequate and well-controlled studies" that demonstrate that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks. The CEO of Genzyme, David Meeker, strongly disagreed with this decision and indicated that the company would file an appeal.
In November 2014, Alemtuzumab was finally approved by the FDA
Alemtuzumab is contraindicated in patients who have active systemic infections, underlying immunodeficiency (e.g., seropositive for HIV), or known Type I hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reactions to the substance.
In November 2018, the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) issued a Safety Announcement warning about rare but serious instances of stroke and blood vessel wall tears in multiple sclerosis patients who have received Lemtrada (alemtuzumab), mostly occurring within 1 day of initiating treatment and leading in some cases to permanent disability and even death.
In addition to the 13 cases to which the FDA Safety Announcement refers, a further 5 cases of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage have been retrospectively identified from four US multiple sclerosis centres in correspondence published online in February 2019.
On 12 April 2019, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) reported that it has started a review of the multiple sclerosis medicine Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) following new reports of immune-mediated conditions and of problems with the heart and blood vessels with this medicine, including fatal cases. PRAC advised that while the review is ongoing, Lemtrada should only be started in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that is highly active despite treatment with at least two disease-modifying therapies (a type of multiple sclerosis medicine) or where other disease-modifying therapies cannot be used. PRAC further advised that patients being treated with Lemtrada who are benefitting from it may continue treatment in consultation with their doctor.
Very common adverse reactions associated with alemtuzumab infusion in MS patients include upper respiratory tract and urinary tract infections, herpes virus infections, lymphopenia, leucopenia, changes in thyroid function, tachycardia, skin rashes, pruritus, pyrexia, and fatigue. The Summary of Product Characteristics provided in the electronic Medicines Compendium [eMC ] further lists common and uncommon adverse reactions that have been reported for Lemtrada, which include serious opportunistic nocardial infections and cytomegalovirus syndrome.
Cases of multiple sclerosis reactivation/relapse have also been reported
The origins of alemtuzumab date back to Campath-1 which was derived from the rat antibodies raised against human lymphocyte proteins by Herman Waldmann and colleagues in 1983. The name "Campath" derives from the pathology department of Cambridge University.
Initially, Campath-1 was not ideal for therapy because patients could, in theory, react against the foreign rat protein determinants of the antibody. To circumvent this problem, Greg Winter and his colleagues humanised Campath-1, by extracting the hypervariable loops that had specificity for CD52 and grafting them onto a human antibody framework. This became known as Campath-1H and serves as the basis for alemtuzumab.
While alemtuzumab started life as a laboratory tool for understanding the immune system, within a short time it was clinically investigated for use to improve the success of bone marrow transplants and as a treatment for leukaemia, lymphoma, vasculitis, organ transplants, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.
Campath as medication was first approved for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 2001. It is marketed by Genzyme, which acquired the worldwide rights from Bayer AG in 2009. Genzyme was bought by Sanofi in 2011. In August/September 2012 Campath was withdrawn from the markets in the US and Europe. This was done to prevent off-label use of the drug to treat multiple sclerosis and to prepare for a relaunch under the trade name Lemtrada, with a different dosage aimed at multiple sclerosis treatment, this is expected to be much higher-priced.
Bayer reserves the right to co-promote Lemtrada for 5 years, with the option to renew for an additional five years.
Sanofi acquisition and change of license controversy
In February 2011, Sanofi-Aventis, since renamed Sanofi, acquired Genzyme, the manufacturer of alemtuzumab. The acquisition was delayed by a dispute between the two companies regarding the value of alemtuzumab. The dispute was settled by the issuance of Contingent Value Rights, a type of stock warrant which pays a dividend only if alemtuzumab reaches certain sales targets. The contingent value rights (CVR) trade on the NASDAQ-GM market with the ticker symbol GCVRZ.
In August 2012, Genzyme surrendered the licence for all presentations of alemtuzumab, pending regulatory approval to re-introduce it as a treatment for multiple sclerosis. Concerns that Genzyme would later bring to market the same product at a much higher price proved correct.
Research and off-label use
A 2009 retrospective study of alemtuzumab (10 mg IV weekly) in 20 patients (no controls) with severe steroid-resistant acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) demonstrated improvement. Overall response rate was 70%, with complete response in 35%. In this study, the median survival was 280 days. Important complications following this treatment included cytomegalovirus reactivation, bacterial infection, and invasive aspergillosis infection.
- McKee, Selina (21 August 2012). "Sanofi withdraws Campath in US and EU". Pharma Times Online. Pharma Times.
- "About Campath". Genzyme. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14.
- Andy Coghlan (23 October 2008). "Drug reboots immune system to reverse MS". New Scientist News Service.
- "Alemtuzumab (BLA 103948\5139) Background Package" (PDF). Advisory Committees. United States: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 13 November 2013.
- "Genzyme Receives Complete Response Letter from FDA on Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) Application". BusinessWire. 30 December 2013.
- FDA approves Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis 
- Azevedo CJ; Kutz C; Dix A; Boster A; Sanossian N; Kaplan J (2019). "Intracerebral haemorrhage during alemtuzumab administration". The Lancet. Neurology. 18 (4): 329–331. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30076-6. PMID 30777657.
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- Clerico M; De Mercanti S; Artusi CA; Durelli L; Naismith RT (2017). "Active CMV infection in two patients with multiple sclerosis treated with alemtuzumab". Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 23 (6): 874–876. doi:10.1177/1352458516688350. PMID 28290755.
- Brownlee WJ; Chataway J (2017). "Opportunistic infections after alemtuzumab: new cases of norcardial infection and cytomegalovirus syndrome". Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 23 (6): 876–877. doi:10.1177/1352458517693440. PMID 28290753.
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- Wehrum T; Beume L-A; Stich O; Mader I; Mäurer M; Czaplinski A; Weiller C; Rauer S (2018). "Activation of disease during therapy with alemtuzumab in 3 patients with multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 90 (7): e601–e605. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004950. PMID 29352101.
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- Ruxrungtham, K; Sirivichayakul, S; Buranapraditkun, S; Krause, W (2016). "Alemtuzumab-induced elimination of HIV-1-infected immune cells". Journal of virus eradication. 2 (1): 12–8. PMC 4946689. PMID 27482429.
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- "The life story of a biotechnology drug: Alemtuzumab". What is Biotechnology?.
- Whalen, Jeanne; Spencer, Mimosa (17 February 2011). "Sanofi Buys Genzyme for over $20 billion". The Wall Street Journal.(subscription required)
- Hussein, Jasmin (Genzyme) (9 August 2012). "Discontinuation of licensed supplies of alemtuzumab (Mabcampath)" (pdf). United Kingdom: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
- "Multiple sclerosis: New drug 'most effective'". BBC News. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Schnitzler, Marc; Hasskarl, Jens; Egger, Matthias; Bertz, Hartmut; Finke, Jürgen (2009). "Successful Treatment of Severe Acute Intestinal Graft-versus-Host Resistant to Systemic and Topical Steroids with Alemtuzumab". Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 15 (8): 910–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.04.002. PMID 19589480.