Bidar

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Bidar district. For the village in Iran, see Bidar, Iran.
Bidar
ಬೀದರ
بیدر
city
Entrance to the Bidar Fort
Entrance to the Bidar Fort
Nickname(s): Crown city of karnataka
Bidar is located in Karnataka
Bidar
Bidar
Coordinates: 17°54′54″N 77°31′08″E / 17.915°N 77.519°E / 17.915; 77.519Coordinates: 17°54′54″N 77°31′08″E / 17.915°N 77.519°E / 17.915; 77.519
Country India
State Karnataka
Region Bayaluseeme
District Bidar
Government
 • Deputy Commissioner Dr. PC Jaffer IAS
Area
 • Total 43 km2 (17 sq mi)
Elevation 614 m (2,014 ft)
Population
 • Total 211,944
 • Density 4,900/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 585 401
Telephone code 91 8482
Vehicle registration KA38
Website www.bidarcity.gov.in

Bidar is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the north-eastern part of Karnataka. It is the headquarters of the Bidar District which shares its border with Maharashtra . It is the northernmost city of Karnataka. It is also called as crown of Karnataka. It is a rapidly urbanizing city, and the administrative center of the Bidar district. The walls and bastions of the fortified city are surrounded by a triple moat, and the fort itself is enclosed by seven large gateways. Although its origins can be traced back to the Rashtrakuta Empire (753–983 A.D.), it became historically significant when Bahamani sultan Ahmad Shah relocated the capital of his kingdom to Bidar in 1422, and used the prevailing Persian style to construct the palace and design the urban morphology of Bidar. The “karez” water system, a complex system of aqueducts used for agricultural irrigation, can also be attributed to Persian influence.[1] Bidar city is known for its Bidri handicraft products, and its rich history. Manjira River is one of the main rivers supplying drinking water to Bidar .

Recently Bidar was ranked 22nd among the[2] cleanest cities in India, and 5th cleanest in Karnataka. It is connected with NH9 and NH218 and whole city is integrated with 4 lane road.

History[edit]

The History of the city goes back to thirds century B.C. when it was of the great Mauryan Empire. After the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Kadambas and Chalukyas of Badami and later Rashtrakutas reigned over Bidar territory. Chalukyas of Kalyana and Kalachuris also regained the area. For a short period after Kalyani Chalukyas the area of Bidar was under the sevunas of Devgiri and Kakatiyas of Warangal.

Delhi rulers first headed by Allauddin Khilji and later Muhammed-bin-Tughluq took control of entire Deccan including Bidar. About the middle of the 14th Century the Officers of Sultan stationed in Deccan rebelled and this resulted in the establishment of Bahamani Dynasty in 1347 A.D. at Gulbarga. There were frequent warfare between the Bahamnis and Vijaynagar Kingdom.[3]

The history of the present fort at Bidar is attributed to the Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah the first sultan of the Bahmani dynasty to 1427 when he shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile and fruit bearing land. Earliest recorded history of its existence as a small and strong fort is also traced to the first Muslim invasion of the region is traced to Prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, whereafter it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.[4] With the establishment of the Bahmani dyanasty (1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Alla-Ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422–1486), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom. The old Fort was rebuilt and beautiful madrasas, mosques, palaces and gardens were raised. Mahmmad Gawan who became the Prime Minister in 1466 was a notable figure in the history of Bidar. Bidar remained under the Barid Shahi dynasty until it was captured by the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb in 1656 A.D. In 1724, Bidar became a part of the Asaf Jahi Kingdom of the Nizams. It was annexed by the Bijapur Sultanate in 1619–20 but the Mughal viceroy of Aurangzeb took it in 1657 and thus became a part the Mughal Empire in 1686.[5] Third son of Asaf jah l ( Nizam l ) Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan, Salabat Jang ruled from Bidar fort from 1751 to 1762 till his Brother Mir Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah III Imprisoned him in this fort, and was killed in Bidar fort in 16 September 1763. Mohammedabad old name of Bidar is also on his name.

Thus, Bahmanis ruled over Gulbaraga from 1347 to 1424 and from Bidar from 1424 till the extinction of the kingdom and its disintegration into five independent and warring kingdoms of Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar and Berar. After India's independence, in 1956 when Bidar became part of Mysore (now Karnataka) state.[5][6][7]

Geography and climate[edit]

Bidar is located at 17°54′N 77°33′E / 17.9°N 77.55°E / 17.9; 77.55,[8] lies at a central position in Deccan, a plateau at an elevation of 2300 ft from the sea level. It has common boundaries with Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, with the districts of Nizamabad and Medak in Andhra Pradesh on the East and the districts of Nanded and Osmanabad in Maharashtra on the west. On the south lies the district of Gulbarga of Karnataka.[9]

It is a charming city- one of its charms being a very bracing climate practically throughout the district and for the greater part of the year. April and may In Bidar are hot, but even during this hot weather, the heat is often broken by sharp and sudden thunder showers. By early June the south-west monsoon sets in with its pleasant coolness and the weather is back to its bracing glory. The cold weather is never too cold and the rainfall is never excessive though its excessive variation is often the cause, symptom and malaise of severe droughts. One other aspect of its charm is that it is full of history- every village and town being replete with monuments, legends, stories of valour, romance of beautiful princesses, long forgotten battles, feuding military adventurers and even of social reform movements that shook the very foundation and structure of medieval Hinduism.

The winter season is from December to middle of February and the temperature begins to decrease from the end of November, December is the coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 27.3 C and mean daily minimum of 16.4 C. From the middle of the February, both day and night temperatures begin to rise rapidly. May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 38.8 C and mean daily minimum of 25.9 C. With the withdrawal of southwest monsoon in the first week of October, there is slight increase in day temperature but night temperature decreases steadily. After October, both day and night temperatures decreases progressively. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Bidar was on 8-5-1931(43.3 degree C) and the lowest minimum was on 5-1-1901(2.9 degree C,the lowest temperature ever recorded in Karnataka).[10]

Present day Bidar covers an expanse of 5448 square kilometers of land and lies between 17°35′ and 18°25′ North latitudes and 76°42′ and 77°39′ east longitudes. Maharashtra on the west. On the south lies the district of Gulbarga of Karnataka. This central position in the Deccan had for long imparted to Bidar, the pre-eminent position in the history of the Deccan although today it presents a picture of centuries of neglect and ruin.[10] It was also known as Mohamad-e-Bidar and under the influence of Hindus it became as Bidar.

Climate data for Bidar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
31.8
(89.2)
34.6
(94.3)
36.4
(97.5)
37.5
(99.5)
33.4
(92.1)
30.5
(86.9)
29.0
(84.2)
30.1
(86.2)
29.0
(84.2)
27.7
(81.9)
27.8
(82)
31.37
(88.46)
Average low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.9
(60.6)
18.9
(66)
23.0
(73.4)
25.5
(77.9)
23.9
(75)
22.0
(71.6)
21.2
(70.2)
21.5
(70.7)
19.0
(66.2)
16.9
(62.4)
12.9
(55.2)
19.56
(67.2)
Rainfall mm (inches) 12.6
(0.496)
17.1
(0.673)
23.0
(0.906)
22.0
(0.866)
42.2
(1.661)
114.1
(4.492)
180.1
(7.091)
245.5
(9.665)
136.0
(5.354)
102.6
(4.039)
39.2
(1.543)
3.5
(0.138)
937.9
(36.924)
[citation needed]

Tourism[edit]

Bidar has lots of historical monuments from the Bahmani era. The structure of the great Mahmud Gawan Arabic University is reminiscent of the rich architecture of Bahmani era. The Bidar Fort situated next to the city is one of the biggest forts in India. While the city is rich in heritage, a lack of integrated conservation and maintenance, pollution, and development encroach on historic sites. For these reasons, the city was included on World Monuments Fund’s 2014 World Monuments Watch[11] in the hope that it will spur official action to document and analyze the condition of the city’s heritage. resulting in policy development and conservation interventions that will support Bidar’s rich heritage, as well as a robust and sustainable tourist industry.[12]

  • Bidar Fort,Bidar Fort is considered as one of the most formidable forts of country. Bidar city was distinctly planned and built. The main citadel complex housed the royal places. Mahals and Mosque. Adjoining to this on the southern side, the city was built for the people. Both the citadel complex and city had separate forts for protection the plan of the Bidar city fortification is pentagonal. There are five gateways for entry into the city fort. It is main citadel complex fort which is stronger.

It is built on the brink of the plateau. Engineers and architecture of various countries were employed on its design and construction.[13]

  • Rangeen Mahal, Situated in the fort, near Gumbad Darwaza, is unique because of its decoration with colored tiles and other art work. Wood carving done here is not only precious but also unique. The walls of Mahal are adorned with Mother-of-Pearl of the finest quality in laid in jet-black stone.

Floral patterns and calligraphic text are also depicted here. Stone carving, stucco art are other attractions of this monument. It was rebuilt during Barid Shahi Period. The design of this monument represents the blend of the both Hindu and Muslim architecture. There are rooms in the basement of the Rangin Mahal.[14]

  • Tarkash Mahal, This is said to have been built for Turkish wife of the Sultan. From the remains of the decorative work found in the ornamentation of the walls, it can be said that the Mahal was build or extended by the Barid Shahi Sultans who had kept large harem with ladies from different nationalities.The rooms were decorated with stucco work.[15]
  • Gagan Mahal, This was originally built by the Bahamani kings and some alterations and additions were made by the Barid Shahi rulers. It has two courts. The outer court was used by the male staff and guards. The inner court also, there are rooms on either side of the covered passage for the accommodation of the guards. The main building of the palace was for the use of the sultan and his harem.[16]
  • Takht Mahal, The Royal Palace was built by Ahemd shah. It was the Royal Residence. The place was fully decorated with colored titles and stone carvings part of which can be seen even today. It had two side royal pavilions with lofty arches and a spacious hall at the back of which was the sultan's room.

The Building had stately dimensions and exquisite surface decoration. The coronations of several Bahamanis and Barid Shahi Sultans were held here. From the royal pavilion which is situated behind throne palace one can view the valley and low land below.

  • Madarsa of Mahmud Gawan, The Madarasa was founded by Khwaja Mahmud Gawan, functioned like a residential University. It was built and maintained on the lines of Madarasa of Khurasan. The imposing and spacious building of the institution is considered as an architectural gem and an important landmark of Bidar. The structure is rectangular in shape and is built in area of 4624 Sq. mtrs. The building is attractively decorated with blue colored titles, the fragments of which can be seen even today. Of the two towers only one is intact. The height of the tower is 131 ft. on the front facade Quaranic Verses are written. The library that existed on the other wing is now destroyed. The Madarasa was a three storied building housing a Mosque, A library, lecturer halls, professor's quarters, students cubicles facing open courtyard. The students were taught Arabic, Persian languages, theology, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics etc., They were given free boarding and lodging facilities besides free education.

The teaching staff also lived with students. The building suffered much damage due to explosion of gunpowder in 1695, it still retains much of the original architectural features. The Madarasa of Mohamed Gawan is the only one of its kind in India. The tomb of Mohamed Gawan situated on a wide platform to the south of Bidar town is simple structure with stone tablet speaking about a "martyr without fault" and his "unjust execution".[17]

  • Chaubara, A tall tower, facing in four directions. This is an old cylindrical tower of 22mtrs, height is situated in the centre of Bidar town. It was used as a watchtower, commanding a fine view of the entire plateau from the top. A winding staircase of eight steps leads to the top of the tower.[18]
  • Solah Khamba Mosque (Solah Sutoon Ki Masjid)

The Solah Khamba Mosque was built by Qubil Sultani between 1423 and 1424. The mosque derives it’s name from the 16 pillars that are lined in the front of the structure. Popularly known as the Zanana Masjid, this mosque is about 90 metres long and 24 metres wide. Behind the southern wall of this mosque, there is a large well. Characterised by columns, arches and domes, this mosque is one of the largest in India.[19]

  • Dev Dev Vana (Botanical Garden)
  • Barid Shahi Garden
  • Blackbuck resort bidar[20]

Located 18 km from the city of Bidar in north Karnataka, the Blackbuck resort is concealed behind a barren facade. Tranquillity is the calling of this place which finds a sweet spot between the Honnikeri Reserve Forest and the Vilaspur Lake. Free roaming blackbucks abound in the surrounding grasslands, giving the resort its name. You can savour the unique experience of trailing blackbucks on foot and watch them disappear into thickets. It's not just the Blackbucks; even peacocks that make a sudden appearance can spring a surprise or two.

  • Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Sahib[21]

Gurudwara Nanak Jhira Saheb is known to be one of Holiest Place For Sikh Devotees in India and is believed that Saint Guru Nanak visited the place during famine in this region.[22]

  • Papnash Shiva Temple, According to local legend, this temple and idol was installed by Lord Rama on his way back to Ayodhya from Lanka. The original temple was lost and at the ruins of the ancient temple, a new one was later built. This temple is located in a beautiful valley. There is a large pond at the foot of the temple which is constantly fed by a natural spring.[23]
  • Narasimha Jhira Cave Temple

The Narasimha Jhira Cave Temple is known for its beautiful architecture and is considered to be very sacred. The temple in situated in a cave where the water runs up to 300 metres. This temple is situated under the Manichoola hill range and it opens at eight in the morning. Situated in Bidar in North Karnataka, this temple lies a kilometre away from Bidar city. You have to wade through waist deep water to reach the feet of the deity.[24]

  • Dargah Hazrat Shamsuddin Quadri (Multani Basha RA)
  • Drgah Hazrat Khaja Abul Faiz
  • Siddharoodh Math[25]
  • Bahmani Tombs
  • Barid Shahi Tombs
  • Chaukhandi of Hazrat Khalil Ullah

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Bidar has connectivity with Bengaluru, Pune, Hyderabad, Sainagar Shirdi,Aurangabad and Mumbai (according to railway budget 2014-15)

Construction of the Gulbarga-Bidar link is progressing. It is expected to be operational by the end of 2015.[27][28]

Road[edit]

Bidar has good bus services, both from Govt and private Travels namely, NEKRTC, Pavit, VRL, SRS etc. to capital city Banglore and Mumbai.

Education Institutions[edit]

Swaminarayan Gurukul International School Bidar outer view1
  • Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University[29]
  • Bidar Institute Of Medical Sciences (BRIMS)[30]
  • Shree Swaminarayan Gurukul International School[31]
  • SB Patil Dental College & Hospital [32]
  • Shanthinikethan Instt. Of Physiotherapy
  • Guru Nank Dev College Of Engineering
  • ORCHID Public School, Shah Gunj, Bidar
  • Al-Ameen education trust bidar
  • Gawan Educational Institutes, Bidar
  • Shaheen public school and college Bidar [33]
  • Wisdom Public Schools & Colleges, Bidar
  • Noor Educational Trust, Bidar
  • Mahammed Gawan library
  • Gurayya Bacha School Bidar
  • Air Force School Bidar
  • Seventh Day Adventist High School
  • B.V.V. Sangh's National School,Bidar
  • Saint Joseph's School, Bidar
  • Saraswathi Vidya Mandir
  • Government Boys and Girls School
  • Siddharoodha Public School
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bidar
  • National High School, Bidar
  • Sri Datta Giri Maharaj Public School
  • Naveen Public School, Rampure Colony, Bidar
  • Karnatak Public School, Bidar
  • Kidzee Pre-School, Bidar
  • Little Angel School, Bidar
  • Cambridge Public School, Bidar
  • Lingaraj Appa Engineering College, chitta, Bidar
  • Red Rose Public School Bidar

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional reports of Census India, a population of Bidar in 2011 is 211,944; of which male and female are 109,435 and 102,509 respectively. The average literacy rate of Bidar city is 87.65 percent of which male and female literacy was 92.88 and 82.08 percent respectively. Total children (0-6) in Bidar city are 25,077 as per figure from a Census India report on 2011. There were 13,103 boys while 11,974 are girls. The child sex ratio of girls is 914 per 1000 boys.\

People in Bidar city are a mix of Aryan and Dravidian stock due to long due to long lasting influence of Persians Bahamanis and Barid Shah-i Dynasties ruling over the city in the past.

Kannada is the official language and along with Dakhni Urdu is the most spoken language and Hindi, Marathi, are the other languages spoken by significant numbers of the population .

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.wmf.org/project/historic-city-bidar
  2. ^ "India's cleanest: Where does your city stand?". News.rediff.com. 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  3. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/history.html
  4. ^ http://kannadasiri.kar.nic.in/heritage/heritage_areas.htm
  5. ^ a b "Geography and travel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  6. ^ Sherwani, Haroon Khan (1969). "Cultural trends in medieval India: architecture, painting, literature & language". Gulbarga Fort (Asia Pub. House). pp. 14–16. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  7. ^ "Gulbarga Fort". British Library On Line gallery. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  8. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Bidar". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  9. ^ http://www.fiftyplustravels.com/?p=422
  10. ^ a b "Bidar District Website". Bidar.nic.in. 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  11. ^ "HISTORIC CITY OF BIDAR | World Monuments Fund". Wmf.org. 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  12. ^ Rishikesh Bahadur Desai (2013-10-10). "Bidar only South Indian monument to figure in latest World Monuments Fund list". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  13. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/fort.html
  14. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/rangeenMahal.html
  15. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/TarkashMahal.html
  16. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/GaganMahal.html
  17. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/MadarsaMahmudGawan.html
  18. ^ http://www.bidartourism.com/Chaubara.html
  19. ^ http://www.holidayiq.com/Solah-Khamba-Mosque-Bidar-Sightseeing-649-757.html
  20. ^ "blackbuckresort.com". blackbuckresort.com. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  21. ^ "gnjbidar.com". gnjbidar.com. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  22. ^ http://www.hoparoundindia.com/karnataka/bidar-attractions/gurudwara-nanak-jhira-saheb.aspx
  23. ^ http://www.karnataka.com/bidar/papnash-shiva-temple/
  24. ^ http://www.karnataka.com/bidar/narasimha-hira-cave-temple/
  25. ^ "Bidar Math". Aroodhmathbidar.org. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  26. ^ "manikprabhu.org". manikprabhu.org. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  27. ^ "Railway bridge across Bennethora to be complete in two years". The Hindu, 24 July 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "Bidar-Gulbarga rail service". Infrastructure Today, January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  29. ^ http://www.kvafsu.kar.nic.in/
  30. ^ "brims-bidar.in". brims-bidar.in. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  31. ^ "Shree Swaminarayan Gurukul International School". Gurukul.org. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  32. ^ http://sbpatildentalcollege.com/
  33. ^ http://shaheenpucollege.com. Retrieved 2013-12-19.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]