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Gateway to Bidar Fort
|Talukas||Bidar, Bhalki, Aurad, Basavakalyan, Humnabad Chitguppa|
|• Total||5,448 km2 (2,103 sq mi)|
|Elevation||615 m (2,018 ft)|
|• Density||276/km2 (710/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||1.05 ♂/♀|
|Distance from Hyderabad||120 kilometres (75 mi)|
|Distance from Bengaluru||700 kilometres (430 mi)|
|Precipitation||847 millimetres (33.3 in)|
Bidar is a district of Karnataka state in southern India. The historic city of Bidar is the administrative centre of the district. The district is located in the northeastern corner of the state, near the borders with Andhra Pradesh to the east and Maharashtra to the north and west. Gulbarga district lies to the south.
Kalyani (today called Basavakalyan after Basaveshwara) in Bidar district was the capital of Western Chalukyas, who were also called Kalyani Chalukyas after their capital. The Kalachuris continued with Kalyani as their capital.
The Bahmani capital was shifted from Kalburgi or Kalubaruge(pronounced as Gulbarga and subsequently renamed Ahsanabad by the Muslim newcomers) to Bidar (renamed Muhammadabad by the Bahmanis) in 1425. Bidar remained the capital until the Sultanate's breakup after 1518. It then became the center of the Barid Shahis, one of the five independent sultanates known as the Deccan sultanates. These were the successor states to the Bahmani kingdom.
The Bidar Sultanate was absorbed by the Bijapur Sultanate to the west in 1619, which was in turn included into their Deccan province by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb during his viceroyship of Deccan in 1656. After the death of Aurangazeb, Asaf Jah I, the Mughal Subehdar of the Deccan province, became independent and assumed the title Nizam-ul-mulk, with the whole of the province under the Nizam's sovereign control. This status remained unchanged until Operation Polo, when the Nizam's territory was merged to the Republic of India.
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The entire district forms a part of the Deccan Plateau and is made up mostly of solidified lava. The northern part of the district is characterized by expanses of level and treeless surface punctuated here and there by flat and undulating hillocks, black soils and basaltic rocks. The southern half of the district is a high plateau about 715 m above mean sea level and are well drained. The average elevation of the district is between 580 to 610 m above mean sea level. Alluvial deposit is normally found along the banks of the Manjra river and its main tributaries.
The district is entirely covered by the Deccan trap flows of the tertiary period. The Deccan trap is composed of horizontal flows of basaltic lava. They generally form flat-topped hillocks and terrace-like features. The physical characteristics of individual flows show considerable variations. Some flows are hard and massive while others are weathered, soft and friable. This character has resulted in terraced landscape, suddenly ending in escarpments. The traps are seen generally 618 m above mean sea level. These are jointed and show the characteristics of spherical weathering leaving massive hard cores. Columnar jointing is predominantly developed in these rocks, besides horizontal joints, which impart to the rocks bedded appearance. The top layers of the Deccan trap in parts of Bidar and Humnabad taluk are altered to reddish vesicular laterite, forming and extensive undulating plateau.
The minerals found in the area are Bauxite, Kaolin and Red ochre. A deposit of highly siliceous bauxite clay has been located about three kilometers south of Basavakalyan. Similar deposits are noticed near Alwal and Kamthana Villages of Bidar taluk. A large deposit of Kaolin is located near Kamthana village. Red ochre deposits are found near Sirsi and Aurad Village.
Weather and climate
Most of north Karnataka, including Bijapur, Gulbarga and Bidar are dry areas. The summer season in Bidar starts in the first week of March and lasts until mid-June. This is followed by southwest monsoon which continues till late September, and from September to end of January is winter.
May is the hottest month with average daily maximum temperature of 38.8 °C while December is the coldest with average daily minimum of 16.4 °C, The highest temperature recorded at Bidar was 43.3 °C on May 8, 1931, and the lowest 3.9 °C on January 5, 1901.
The average annual precipitation at Bidar is 847 mm with most of the rainfall received during the monsoon season. The variation in rainfall from year to year is large and the district is prone to drought.
The important rivers in the district are:
The district has two river basins, the Godavari and the Krishna. The Godavari basin extends to over 4,411 km² of which Manjra covers up to 1,989 km² and Karanja up to 2,422 km². Manjra is the main river of the district and it is a tributary of Godavari. Karanja is also a tributary of Manjra.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2011)|
The climate of this district is characterized by general dryness throughout the year, except during the southwest monsoon. The summer season is from the middle of February to the first week of June. This is followed by southwest monsoon season, which continues till the end of September. The months of October and November constitute the post-monsoon or retreating monsoon season.
The winter season is from December to middle of February and the temperature begins to decrease from the end of November, December is the coldest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 27.3 C and mean daily minimum of 16.4 C. From the middle of the February, both day and night temperatures begin to rise rapidly. May is the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature of 38.8 C and mean daily minimum of 25.9 C. With the withdrawal of southwest monsoon in the first week of October, there is slight increase in day temperature but night temperature decreases steadily. After October, both day and night temperatures decreases progressively. The highest maximum temperature recorded at Bidar was on 8-5-1931(43.3 degree C) and the lowest minimum was on 5-1-1901(3.9 degree C).
The average annual rainfall at Bidar is 885.8mm. About 81% of annual rainfall is received during the period from June to September. Maximum rainfall is recorded in the month of September. The variation in rainfall from year to year is large and the district is drought-prone. The average numbers of rainy days in the district are 52.
The relative humidity is high during the southwest monsoon, being between 65% to 75%. Summer is the driest part of the year, when the relative humidity in the afternoon is between 30% and 40%.
Winds are generally moderate in strength with some increase in force during the latter half of the summer season and during the monsoon. During the southwest monsoon season, winds mainly blow between the southwest and northeast directions. In the post monsoon season, winds blow predominantly between north and east directions. During the winter season winds are variable in directions
Bidar Forest division is the northern most division of Karnataka encompassing the whole of Bidar district and 31 villages of the adjoining Gulbarga district.
Forest areas of Bidar division are classified as Reserve forests, Protected forests and Unclassed forests.
Bidar Forest division is having 43,592 ha. of Forest area including Reserve Forests, Protected forests and Unclassified forests. This area is about 8.5% of total geographical extent of the district
River Systems and Drainage
The district falls under two distinct river basins, the Godavari basin and the Krishna basin. The Godavari basin extends over 4,411 square kilometers of which Manjra river basin cover 1989 square kilometers and Karanja river basin covers 2422 square kilometers. The Krishna basin covers 585 square kilometers of which Mullamari river basin covers 249 square kilometers and Gandarinala river basin covers 336 square kilometers. The main river of the district is Manjra River, which is a tributary of the Godavari River. The Karanja River itself is tributary of Manjra River. These rivers and their rivulets are not navigable.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Bidar one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the five districts in Karnataka currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
According to the 2011 census Bidar district has a population of 1,700,018, roughly equal to the nation of The Gambia or the US state of Nebraska. This gives it a ranking of 289th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 312 inhabitants per square kilometre (810 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.16%. Bidar has a sex ratio of 952 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 71.01%.
Agriculture is the main occupation in rural parts of the district. Greengram, bengalgram, blackgram, paddy, groundnut, wheat, redgram, sugarcane and chillies are other agricultural crops and jowar remains the major crop. now the trend is changing towards sunflower and most of the rabi crop will be sunflower
Legislative Assembly seats
In the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, Bidar district is represented through eight members elected from the following assembly segments:
In the Indian Parliament, (Lok Sabha), the district it is represented by a single member.
- Bidar district official website
- Bidar district official website
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Gambia, The 1,797,860 July 2011 est."
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Nebraska 1,826,341"
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