Bidar district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Bidar.
Bidar district
ಬೀದರ್ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ
district
Nickname(s): Crown of Karnataka
Location in Karnataka, India
Location in Karnataka, India
Country  India
State Karnataka
Division Kalaburagi
Headquarters Bidar
Talukas Aurad, Basavakalyan, Bhalki, Bidar, Humnabad
Government
 • Deputy Commissioner PC Jaffer, IAS
Area
 • Total 5,448 km2 (2,103 sq mi)
Elevation 615 m (2,018 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,700,018
 • Density 310/km2 (810/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Vehicle registration KA-38, KA-39, KA-56
Total No. of Villages 699
Precipitation 847 millimetres (33.3 in)
Website bidar.nic.in


Bidar district is located in India
Bidar district
Bidar District - Its location on India Map


The Bidar district is the northernmost part of the Karnataka state in India. Geographically, it resembles the Crown of the State occupying its northeastern tip. It is bounded by Nizamabad and Medak districts of Telangana state on the eastern side, Latur and Osmanabad districts of Maharashtra state on the western side, Nanded district of Maharashtra state on the northern side and Gulbarga district on southern side.

The Bidar district is constituted by five talukas viz. Aurad, Basavakalyan, Bhalki, Bidar and Humnabad with Bidar being the headquarters of the district.

History[edit]

The district had a glorious past. It was ruled by the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Kakatiyas, Khiljis, Bahamanis, Baridshahis, Mughals and the Hyderabad Nizam. The treasure of culture, fine arts and architecture nurtured by successive rulers has contributed to its richness. The great revolution by Shivasharanas in the 12thCentury, encompassing social, literacy and religious fields emerged on this land.

Early and medieval history[edit]

The first Rashtrakuta capital was Mayurkhandi (Morkhandi) in the present day Bidar district. The regal capital was later moved to Manyakheta (Malkhed) in the present day Kalaburagi district by Amoghavarsha I.[1]

Kalyani (today called Basavakalyan after Basaveshwara) in Bidar district was the capital of Western Chalukyas, who were also called Kalyani Chalukyas after their capital. The Kalachuris continued with Kalyani as their capital.

Later, Bidar was ruled in succession by the vassals to Sevuna Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Allauddin Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq.

The generals of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq who were nominated as viceroys of the newly conquered Deccan region broke up and formed the Bahmani Sultanate under Allauddin Hasan Gangu Bahman Shah.

The Bahmani capital was shifted from Kalburgi or Kalubaruge (pronounced as Gulbarga and subsequently renamed Ahsanabad by the Muslim newcomers) to Bidar (renamed Muhammadabad by the Bahmanis) in 1425. Bidar remained the capital until the Sultanate's breakup after 1518. It then became the center of the Barid Shahis, one of the five independent sultanates known as the Deccan sultanates. These were the successor states to the Bahmani kingdom.

The Bidar Sultanate was absorbed by the Bijapur Sultanate to the west in 1619, which was in turn included into their Deccan province by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb during his viceroyship of Deccan in 1656. After the death of Aurangazeb, Asaf Jah I, the Mughal Subehdar of the Deccan province, became independent and assumed the title Nizam-ul-mulk, with the whole of the province under the Nizam's sovereign control.

Modern History[edit]

The district was a part of the Hyderabad state before it was liberated on 17 September 1948 during Operation Polo by Indian Armed Forces under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel. With the reorganization of states in 1956 along linguistic lines, Bidar was deemed a Kannada speaking area, and became a part of unified Mysore state which later was renamed Karnataka.

Initially it had only four talukas, Basavakalyan taluka was brought into existence in 1965.

Bidar, Kalaburagi, Yadgir, Raichur and Koppal are collectively referred to as Hyderabad Karnataka. Bellary, though ceded to the British in 1800 AD, is also grouped together with these areas.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

The district extends from latitude 17.35'N to 18.25'N and from the longitudes 76.42'E to 77.39'E.[2] Physiographically, the district can be divided into two regions. They are northern low lands and southern high lands. The southern high lands are popularly known as Bidar plateau, which is made up of laterite. The ground altitudes are varying from 420 to 684 m above MSL. Bidar plateau has an elevation range from 640 to 684m above MSL. The ground surface is flat, gently sloping forming broad valleys and flat topped hills. Flat topped hills with Step like sides exhibit the terraced landscape. The southern half of the district is a high plateau about 715 m above mean sea level and are well drained.

Soil[edit]

The two important types of soils noticed in the district are black soils and lateritic soils.

  • Black Soils: Major parts of the district are made up of black soils derived from Deccan traps. These are deep black in colour and their texture varies from loam to clay. Lime concentration in this soil is high resulting in poor infiltration capacities. Their infiltration characteristics are poor to moderate. This type of soils covers mainly in areas lying below 610 m contour and along the valley portions.[3]
  • Lateritric Soils: A Latertic soil is confined to the central portion of the district. Latertic soils are pale to bright red in colour and clay to clayey loam in nature. This soil has moderate to good infiltration characteristics. This type of soils covers mainly in areas lying above 610m contour.[3]

The entire district forms a part of the Deccan Plateau and is made up mostly of solidified lava. The northern part of the district is characterized by expanses of level and treeless surface punctuated here and there by flat and undulating hillocks, black soils and basaltic rocks. Alluvial deposit is normally found along the banks of the Manjra river and its main tributaries.

The district is entirely covered by the Deccan trap flows of the tertiary period. The Deccan trap is composed of horizontal flows of basaltic lava. They generally form flat-topped hillocks and terrace-like features. The physical characteristics of individual flows show considerable variations. Some flows are hard and massive while others are weathered, soft and friable. This character has resulted in terraced landscape, suddenly ending in escarpments. The traps are seen generally 618 m above mean sea level. These are jointed and show the characteristics of spherical weathering leaving massive hard cores. Columnar jointing is predominantly developed in these rocks, besides horizontal joints, which impart to the rocks bedded appearance. The top layers of the Deccan trap in parts of Bidar and Humnabad taluk are altered to reddish vesicular laterite, forming and extensive undulating plateau.

Minerals[edit]

The minerals found in the area are Bauxite, Kaolin and Red ochre. A deposit of highly siliceous bauxite clay has been located about three kilometers south of Basavakalyan. Similar deposits are noticed near Alwal and Kamthana Villages of Bidar taluk. A large deposit of Kaolin is located near Kamthana village. Red ochre deposits are found near Sirsi and Aurad Village.

Weather and climate[edit]

The district experiences semi-arid climate with extreme summer. The dust storms and severe heat waves are common in the district between April and May. Coldest months are December and January. The temperature varies in the district between 20 °C and 42 °C The summer season in Bidar starts in the first week of March and lasts until mid-June. This is followed by southwest monsoon which continues till late September, and from September to end of January is winter.

May is the hottest month with average daily maximum temperature of 38.8 °C while December is the coldest with average daily minimum of 16.4 °C, The highest temperature recorded at Bidar was 43.3 °C on 8 May 1931, and the lowest 3.9 °C on 5 January 1901.[4]

The average annual precipitation at Bidar is 847 mm with most of the rainfall received during the monsoon season. The variation in rainfall from year to year is large and the district is prone to drought.[5]

River Systems and Drainage[edit]

The important rivers in the district are:

  • Manjra
  • Karanja (River)
  • Chulki Nala
  • Mullamari
  • Gandrinala

The district has two river basins, the Godavari and the Krishna. Major parts of the district is covered by Godavari basin, drained by its two major tributaries the Manjra and the Karanja rivers. The Godavari basin extends to over 4,411 km² of which Manjra covers up to 1,989 km² and Karanja up to 2,422 km². The Krishna basin covers 585 km² of which Mullamari river basin covers 249 km² and Gandarinala river basin covers 336 km² The Manjra river is perennial river flows over a distance of 155 km in the central part of the district and flows in eastern direction with a meandering course. The Karanja river flows in northwestern direction for 74 km with Karanja reservoir being major water source. The river Mullamari takes its origin near Matala village of Basavakalyan taluk flows from west to east for a length of 38 km and then flows into Kalaburgi district and joins the river Kagna. The Kagna river is one of the main tributary of Bhima river. Besides, there are several streams, which are of ephemeral in nature. The drainage pattern in the district varies from sub-dendritic to dendritic and some streams have a sub parallel drainage to the main river.[3]

These rivers and their rivulets are not navigable.

Location of the Bidar district with respect to the other districts in Karnataka

Rain[edit]

The average annual rainfall at Bidar is 885.8mm. About 81% of annual rainfall is received during the period from June to September. Maximum rainfall is recorded in the month of September. The variation in rainfall from year to year is large and the district is drought-prone. The average numbers of rainy days in the district are 52.

The relative humidity is high during the southwest monsoon, being between 65% to 75%. Summer is the driest part of the year, when the relative humidity in the afternoon is between 30% and 40%.

Winds are generally moderate in strength with some increase in force during the latter half of the summer season and during the monsoon. During the southwest monsoon season, winds mainly blow between the southwest and northeast directions. In the post monsoon season, winds blow predominantly between north and east directions. During the winter season winds are variable in directions

Forests[edit]

Bidar Forest division is the northern most division of Karnataka encompassing the whole of Bidar district and 31 villages of the adjoining Gulbarga district.

Forest areas of Bidar division are classified as Reserve forests, Protected forests and Unclassed forests.

Bidar Forest division is having 43,592 ha. of Forest area including Reserve Forests, Protected forests and Unclassified forests. This area is about 8.5% of total geographical extent of the district

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Bidar district has a population of 1,700,018,[6] roughly equal to the nation of The Gambia[7] or the US state of Nebraska.[8] This gives it a ranking of 289th in India (out of a total of 640).[6] The district has a population density of 312 inhabitants per square kilometre (810/sq mi) .[6] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.16%.[6] Bidar has a sex ratio of 952 females for every 1000 males,[6] and a literacy rate of 71.01%.[6]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is the main occupation in rural parts of the district. Greengram, bengalgram, blackgram, paddy, groundnut, wheat, redgram, sugarcane and chillies are other agricultural crops and jowar remains the major crop. Now the trend is changing towards sunflower and most of the rabi crop will be sunflower

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Bidar one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[9] It is one of the five districts in Karnataka currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[9]

Government[edit]

Administration[edit]

The district has five talukas, Bidar, Humnabad, Bhalki, Aurad, and Basavakalyana.

Legislative Assembly seats[edit]

In the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, Bidar district is represented through six members elected from the following assembly segments:

In the Indian Parliament, (Lok Sabha), the district it is represented by a single member.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Travel Blog". Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  2. ^ "A BASELINE SURVEY OF MINORITY CONCENTRATION DISTRICTS OF INDIA - Bidar (Karnataka)". Retrieved 22 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c Ground Water Information Booklet - Bidar District, Karnataka. Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India. July 2008. 
  4. ^ Bidar district official website
  5. ^ Bidar district official website
  6. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  7. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Gambia, The 1,797,860 July 2011 est. 
  8. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Nebraska 1,826,341 
  9. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 

External links[edit]