|Previous NCCAM domains|
Naturopathy, or naturopathic medicine, is a pseudoscientific form of alternative medicine based on a belief in vitalism, which posits that a special energy called "vital energy" or "vital force" guides bodily processes such as metabolism, reproduction, growth, and adaptation. Naturopathy favors a holistic approach with non-invasive treatment and generally avoids the use of surgery and drugs. Practitioners of naturopathy often prefer methods of treatment that are not compatible with evidence-based medicine, and in doing so, reject the tenets of biomedicine and modern science.
The term "naturopathy" is derived from Latin and Greek, and literally translates as "nature disease". Modern naturopathy grew out of the Natural Cure movement of Europe. The term was coined in 1895 by John Scheel and popularized by Benedict Lust, the "father of U.S. naturopathy". Beginning in the 1970s, there was a revival of interest in the United States and Canada, in conjunction with the holistic health movement. Today, naturopathy is primarily practiced in the United States and Canada. The scope of practice varies widely between jurisdictions, and naturopaths in unregulated jurisdictions may use the Naturopathic Doctor designation or other titles regardless of level of education.
Naturopathic practitioners in the United States can be divided into three categories: traditional naturopaths; naturopathic physicians; and other health care providers that provide naturopathic services. Naturopathic physicians employ the principles of naturopathy within the context of conventional medical practices. Naturopathy comprises many different treatment modalities, including nutritional and herbal medicine, lifestyle advice, counseling, flower essence, homeopathy and remedial massage.
Much of the ideology and methodological underpinnings of naturopathy are in conflict with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine. Many naturopaths have opposed vaccination based in part on the early views that shaped the profession. According to the American Cancer Society, "scientific evidence does not support claims that naturopathic medicine can cure cancer or any other disease, since virtually no studies on naturopathy as a whole have been published."
Some see the ancient Greek "Father of Medicine", Hippocrates, as the first advocate of naturopathic medicine, before the term existed. The modern practice of naturopathy has its roots in the Nature Cure movement of Europe during the 19th century. In Scotland, Thomas Allinson started advocating his "Hygienic Medicine" in the 1880s, promoting a natural diet and exercise with avoidance of tobacco and overwork.
The term naturopathy was coined in 1895 by John Scheel, and purchased by Benedict Lust, the "father of U.S. naturopathy". Lust had been schooled in hydrotherapy and other natural health practices in Germany by Father Sebastian Kneipp; Kneipp sent Lust to the United States to spread his drugless methods. Lust defined naturopathy as a broad discipline rather than a particular method, and included such techniques as hydrotherapy, herbal medicine, and homeopathy, as well as eliminating overeating, tea, coffee, and alcohol. He described the body in spiritual and vitalistic terms with "absolute reliance upon the cosmic forces of man's nature".
In 1901, Lust founded the American School of Naturopathy in New York. In 1902 the original North American Kneipp Societies were discontinued and renamed "Naturopathic Societies". In September 1919 the Naturopathic Society of America was dissolved and Benedict Lust founded the American Naturopathic Association to supplant it. Naturopaths became licensed under naturopathic or drugless practitioner laws in 25 states in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Naturopathy was adopted by many chiropractors, and several schools offered both Doctor of Naturopathy (ND) and Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) degrees. Estimates of the number of naturopathic schools active in the United States during this period vary from about one to two dozen.
After a period of rapid growth, naturopathy went into decline for several decades after the 1930s. In 1910 the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching published the Flexner Report, which criticized many aspects of medical education, especially quality and lack of scientific rigour. The advent of penicillin and other "miracle drugs" and the consequent popularity of modern medicine also contributed to naturopathy's decline. In the 1940s and 1950s, a broadening in scope of practice laws led many chiropractic schools to drop their ND degrees, though many chiropractors continued to practice naturopathy. From 1940 to 1963, the American Medical Association campaigned against heterodox medical systems. By 1958 practice of naturopathy was licensed in only five states. In 1968 the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare issued a report on naturopathy concluding that naturopathy was not grounded in medical science and that naturopathic education was inadequate to prepare graduates to make appropriate diagnosis and provide treatment; the report recommends against expanding Medicare coverage to include naturopathic treatments. In 1977 an Australian committee of inquiry reached similar conclusions; it did not recommend licensure for naturopaths. As of 2009, fifteen U.S. states, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands and the District of Columbia licensed naturopathic doctors, and the state of Washington requires insurance companies to offer reimbursement for services provided by naturopathic physicians. South Carolina and Tennessee prohibit the practice of naturopathy.
Beginning in the 1970s, interest waxed in the United States and Canada in conjunction with the holistic health movement. Today, Naturopathy is practiced primarily in the United States and Canada.
Naturopathy is based on vitalism, which posits that a special energy called vital energy or vital force guides bodily processes such as metabolism, reproduction, growth, and adaptation. Diagnosis and treatment focus on alternative therapies which naturopaths claim promote the body's natural ability to heal. Naturopaths focus on a holistic approach, often completely avoiding the use of surgery and drugs. Naturopaths aim to prevent illness through stress reduction and changes to diet and lifestyle, often rejecting the methods of evidence based medicine. Naturopaths often recommend exposure to naturally occurring substances, such as sunshine, herbs and certain foods, as well as activities they describe as natural, such as exercise, meditation and relaxation. Naturopaths claim that these natural treatments help restore the body's innate ability to heal itself without the adverse effects of conventional medicine. However, "natural" methods and chemicals are not necessarily safer or more effective than "artificial" or "synthetic" ones, and any treatment capable of eliciting an effect may also have deleterious side effects.
Naturopathy lacks an adequate scientific basis, and it is rejected by the medical community. Some methods rely on immaterial "vital energy fields", the existence of which has not been proven, and there is concern that naturopathy as a field tends towards isolation from general scientific discourse. Naturopathy is criticized for its reliance on and its association with unproven, disproven, and other controversial alternative medical treatments, and for its vitalistic underpinnings. According to the American Cancer Society, "scientific evidence does not support claims that naturopathic medicine can cure cancer or any other disease, since virtually no studies on naturopathy as a whole have been published."
A consultation typically begins with a lengthy patient interview focusing on lifestyle, medical history, emotional tone, and physical features, as well as physical examination. Many naturopaths present themselves as primary care providers, and some may prescribe drugs, perform minor surgery, and integrate other conventional medical approaches with their naturopathic practice. However, traditional naturopaths focus exclusively on lifestyle changes, not diagnosing or treating disease. Naturopaths do not generally recommend vaccines and antibiotics, based in part on the early views that shaped the profession, and they may provide alternative remedies even in cases where evidence-based medicine has been shown effective.
The particular modalities used by an individual naturopath varies with training and scope of practice. These include: Acupuncture, applied kinesiology, botanical medicine, brainwave entrainment, chelation therapy for atherosclerosis, colonic enemas, color therapy, cranial osteopathy, hair analysis, homeopathy, iridology, live blood analysis, nature cures—i.e. a range of therapies based upon exposure to natural elements such as sunshine, fresh air, heat, or cold, nutrition (examples include vegetarian and wholefood diet, fasting, and abstention from alcohol and sugar, ozone therapy, physical medicine (e.g., naturopathic, osseous, and soft tissue manipulative therapy, sports medicine, exercise, and hydrotherapy), Psychological counseling (e.g., meditation, relaxation, and other methods of stress management), public health measures and hygiene, reflexology, rolfing, and traditional Chinese medicine.
A 2004 survey determined the most commonly prescribed naturopathic therapeutics in Washington State and Connecticut were botanical medicines, vitamins, minerals, homeopathy, and allergy treatments.
Certain naturopathic treatments offered by traditional naturopaths, such as homeopathy, rolfing, and iridology, are widely considered pseudoscience or quackery. Stephen Barrett of QuackWatch and the National Council Against Health Fraud has stated that Naturopathy is "simplistic and that its practices are riddled with quackery". "Non-scientific health care practitioners, including naturopaths, use unscientific methods and deception on a public who, lacking in-depth health care knowledge, must rely upon the assurance of providers. Quackery not only harms people, it undermines the ability to conduct scientific research and should be opposed by scientists", says William T. Jarvis.
Many forms of alternative medicine, including naturopathy, homeopathy, and chiropractic are based on beliefs opposed to vaccination and have practitioners who voice their opposition. The reasons for this opposition are based, in part, on the early views which shaped the foundation of each profession. A survey of a cross section of students of a major complementary and alternative medicine college in Canada reported that students in the later years of the program opposed vaccination more strongly than newer students.
A University of Washington study investigated insurance claim histories for alternative medicine use in relation to the receipt of vaccinations against preventable illnesses, grouped into children aged 1–2 years and 1–17 years. Both groups were significantly less likely to receive a number of their vaccinations if they visited a naturopath. The study found a significant association between visits to naturopaths with a reduced receipt of pediatric vaccinations and with increased infection by vaccine-preventable diseases.
Naturopathic doctors are licensed in 17 US states and 5 Canadian provinces. In jurisdictions where Naturopathic doctor (ND or NMD) or a similar term is a protected designation, naturopathic doctors must pass the Naturopathic Physicians Licensing Examinations administered by the North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners (NABNE) after graduating from a college accredited by the CNME. Residency programs are offered at four of these colleges. NDs are not required to engage in residency training, except in the state of Utah.
In 2005, the Massachusetts Medical Society opposed licensure in that commonwealth based on concerns that NDs are not required to participate in residency, and are trained in inappropriate or harmful treatments. The Massachusetts Special Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medical Practitioners rejected their concerns and recommended licensure.
Many naturopaths present themselves as primary care providers. Doctor of Naturopathy (ND) training includes basic medical diagnostic tests and procedures such as medical imaging and blood tests, as well as vitalism and pseudoscientific modalities such as homeopathy.
Kimball C. Atwood IV writes, in the journal Medscape General Medicine, "Naturopathic physicians now claim to be primary care physicians proficient in the practice of both "conventional" and "natural" medicine. Their training, however, amounts to a small fraction of that of medical doctors who practice primary care. An examination of their literature, moreover, reveals that it is replete with pseudoscientific, ineffective, unethical, and potentially dangerous practices". In another article, Atwood writes that "Physicians who consider naturopaths to be their colleagues thus find themselves in opposition to one of the fundamental ethical precepts of modern medicine. If naturopaths are not to be judged "nonscientific practitioners", the term has no useful meaning". 
According to Arnold S. Relman, the Textbook of Natural Medicine is inadequate as a teaching tool, as it omits to mention or treat in detail many common ailments, improperly emphasizes treatments "not likely to be effective" over those that are, and promotes unproven herbal remedies at the expense of pharmaceuticals. He concludes that "the risks to many sick patients seeking care from the average naturopathic practitioner would far outweigh any possible benefits".
Texas has begun establishing practice guidelines for MDs who integrate alternative and complementary medicine into their practice. Continuing education in naturopathic modalities for health care professionals varies greatly but includes offerings for many professions, including physicians, physical therapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists, dentists, researchers, veterinarians, physician assistants, and nurses.
Traditional naturopaths are represented in the United States by the American Naturopathic Association (ANA), representing about 1,800 practitioners  and the American Naturopathic Medical Association (ANMA).[self-published source?]
The level of naturopathic training varies among traditional naturopaths in the United States. Traditional naturopaths may complete non-degree certificate programs or undergraduate degree programs and generally refer to themselves as Naturopathic Consultants. These programs are often online "degrees" and offer no biomedical education as well as no clinical training. Those completing a Doctor of Naturopathy (ND) degree from an ANMCB approved school can become a Board Certified Naturopathic Doctor.[self-published source?][self-published source?] This board certification is in no way the same as holding an ND license and holds no weight in states that regulate the practice of naturopathic medicine.
Traditional naturopathic practitioners surveyed in Australia perceive evidence based medicine to be an ideologic assault on their beliefs in vitalistic and holistic principles. They advocate the integrity of natural medicine practice. Some naturopaths have begun to adapt modern scientific principles into clinical practice.
Naturopathy is practiced in many countries, primarily the United States and Canada, and is subject to different standards of regulation and levels of acceptance. The scope of practice varies widely between jurisdictions, and naturopaths in some unregulated jurisdictions may use the Naturopathic Doctor designation or other titles regardless of level of education. The practice of naturopathy is illegal in two states.
In five Canadian provinces, seventeen U.S. states, and the District of Columbia, naturopathic doctors who are trained at an accredited school of naturopathic medicine in North America, are entitled to use the designation ND or NMD. Elsewhere, the designations "naturopath", "naturopathic doctor", and "doctor of natural medicine" are generally unprotected or prohibited.
In North America, each jurisdiction that regulates naturopathy defines a local scope of practice for naturopathic doctors that can vary considerably. Some regions permit minor surgery, access to prescription drugs, spinal manipulations, obstetrics and gynecology and other regions exclude these from the naturopathic scope of practice or prohibit the practice of naturopathy entirely.
Several Canadian provinces license naturopathic doctors: British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. British Columbia has regulated naturopathic medicine since 1936 and together with Ontario (since 2009) are the only two Canadian provinces that allow certified NDs to prescribe pharmaceuticals and perform minor surgeries.
The province of Quebec does not directly regulate naturopathy. The Quebec Ministry of Education has prohibited schools from offering doctoral programs in the subject, and there are no universities with a naturopath program. Therefore, studies must be done out of province. Furthermore, in Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec (CMQ) has exclusive rights to perform certain activities including but not limited to: ordering diagnostic examinations, prescribing medication and other substances and clinically monitoring the condition of patients whose state of health presents risks. This severely restrains the scope of practice for a naturopathic doctor.
In Quebec, group benefits insurance is mandatory if offered by the employer, and coverage for a naturopathic doctor is typically included in these policies. As a result of the limitations (scope of practice, title, education) in Quebec concerning naturopathic doctors, the term naturotherapy has been accepted by some insurance carriers.[not in citation given][verification needed]
Medavie Blue Cross is an insurance provider, and listed ten associations it accepted as naturopathic providers for compensation and thirty it refuses to pay in a contract document with Syndicat des employés de métiers d'Hydro-Québec published on March 20, 2013.
- U.S. jurisdictions that currently regulate or license naturopathy include: Alaska, Arizona, California (see California Bureau of Naturopathic Medicine), Connecticut, Colorado, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oregon, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Utah, Vermont, and Washington. Additionally, Florida and Virginia license the practice of naturopathy under a grandfather clause.
- U.S. jurisdictions that permit access to prescription drugs: Arizona, California, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington.
- U.S. jurisdictions that permit minor surgery: Arizona, District of Columbia, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Vermont, and Washington.
- U.S. states which specifically prohibit the practice of naturopathy: South Carolina, and Tennessee.
Currently the industry is self-regulated. There is no protection of title, meaning that technically anyone can practice as a naturopath.
In 1977 a committee reviewed all colleges of naturopathy in Australia and found that, although the syllabuses of many colleges were reasonable in their coverage of basic biomedical sciences on paper, the actual instruction bore little relationship to the documented course. In no case was any practical work of consequence available. The lectures which were attended by the committee varied from the dictation of textbook material to a slow, but reasonably methodical, exposition of the terminology of medical sciences, at a level of dictionary definitions, without the benefit of depth or the understanding of mechanisms or the broader significance of the concepts. The committee did not see any significant teaching of the various therapeutic approaches favoured by naturopaths. People reported to be particularly interested in homoeopathy, Bach's floral remedies or mineral salts were interviewed, but no systematic courses in the choice and use of these therapies were seen in the various colleges. The committee were left with the impression that the choice of therapeutic regime was based on the general whim of the naturopath and, since the suggested applications in the various textbooks and dispensations overlap to an enormous extent, no specific indications are or can be taught.
In India there is a 5½-year degree course offering a "Bachelor of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences" (BNYS) degree. Also there are two post graduation programs Called MD(Naturopathy) and MD(Yoga-Clinical) which can be done after completing the BNYS program. The first college of naturopathy was started in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh by B. Venkatrao which offered a Diploma in Naturopathy (ND). There are a total of seventeen naturopathy colleges in India.[self-published source?]
Naturopathy and Yoga, as an Indian system of medicine, falls under the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.[not in citation given]
The National Institute of Naturopathy in Pune was established on December 22, 1986. It encourages facilities for standardization and propagation of the existing knowledge and its application through research in naturopathy throughout India. This institute has a governing body, with the Union Minister for Health as its president.[not in citation given]
- "What is Naturopathy?". College of Naturopathic Medicine website. UK.
- Jarvis, William T. (January 30, 2001) [copyright 1997]. "NCAHF Fact Sheet on Naturopathy". National Council Against Health Fraud. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- Brown, P.S. (April 1, 1988). "Nineteenth-century American health reformers and the early nature cure movement in Britain". Medical History 32 (2): 174–194. doi:10.1017/S0025727300047980. PMC 1139856. PMID 3287059.
- Langley, Stephen. "History of Naturopathy". College of Naturopathic Medicine website. UK.
- "How it all began". Allinson Flour website. Silver Spoon, British Sugar, Associated British Foods.
- Beard, John A.S. (May 3, 2008). "A system of hygienic medicine (1886) and The advantages of wholemeal bread (1889)". BMJ. Views & Reviews: Medical Classics 336 (336): 1023. doi:10.1136/bmj.39562.446528.59.
- "Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-97)". American Medical Association. 1997. Lay summary – 1997 Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association:Summaries and Recommendations of the Council on Scientific Affairs (1997).
- Baer, Hans A. (September 2001). "The sociopolitical status of U.S. naturopathy at the dawn of the 21st century". Medical Anthropology Quarterly 15 (3): 329–46. doi:10.1525/maq.2001.15.3.329. PMID 11693035.
- Barrett, Stephen (December 23, 2003). "A close look at naturopathy". QuackWatch. Archived from the original on 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Boughton, Barbara; Frey, Rebecca J. (2005). "Naturopathic Medicine". Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine (Online ed.). Gale.
- Lust, Benedict cited in: Whorton, James C. (2002). Nature Cures : The History of Alternative Medicine in America: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 9780195349788. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- Beyerstein, Barry L.; Downie, Susan (May 12, 2004). "Naturopathy: A Critical Analysis". NaturoWatch. QuackWatch. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- "Naturopathic Medicine". American Cancer Society. November 1, 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "HEW Report on Naturopathy (1968)". QuackWatch. August 30, 1999. Retrieved 2013-09-03. Citing: Cohen, Wilbur J. (1969). Independent Practitioners Under Medicare: A Report to the Congress. United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. OCLC 3000280.
- "Naturopathy: Report of the Australian Committee of Inquiry (1977)". NaturoWatch. QuackWatch. December 25, 2003. Retrieved 2013-09-03. Citing: Webb, Edwin C.; et al. (1977). Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 064292287X.
- "Licensed States & Licensing Authorities". American Association of Naturopathic Physicians website. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30.
- "Washington Administrative Code: Title 284, Chapter 43, Section 205: Every category of health providers". Washington State Legislature. August 28, 1999 (effective).
- Minott, Rod (July 3, 1996). "Insuring Alternatives". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. Online NewsHour transcript. PBS.
- "Title 40, Chapter 31, Sections 10 & 20". South Carolina Code of Laws (Unannotated), Current through the end of the 2007 Regular Session. South Carolina Legislative Council. Archived from the original on 2009-01-12.
- State of Tennessee (2013), 63.6.205 Practice of naturopathy, "Title 63 Professions of the Healing Arts, Chapter 6 Medicine and Surgery, Part 2 General Provisions", Tennessee Code Annotated (LexisNexis), retrieved 2013-09-07
- Board of Trustees, American Medical Association (November 2006). "2. Licensure of Naturopaths". Reports of the Board of Trustees. American Medical Association. pp. 25–28. Retrieved 2009-03-19.
- Romeyke, Tobias; Stummer, Harald (May 2011). "A study of costs and length of stay of inpatient naturopathy – evidence from Germany". Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 17 (2): 90–5. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.09.001. PMID 21457898.
- Carroll, Robert T. (February 23, 2009). "Naturopathy". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- Sarris, Jerome; Wardle, Jon (2010). Clinical Naturopathy: An evidence-based guide to practice. Sydney: Churchill Livingstone / Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 32–36. ISBN 9780729579261. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Pizzorno, Joseph E. (1999). "Naturopathy: Practice Issues". In Carolyn C.; Gordon, Rena J. Encyclopedia of Complementary Health Practice. Springer Publishing. pp. 57–59. ISBN 9780826117229. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- Carroll, Robert (November 26, 2012). "Natural". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "NCAHF Position Paper on Over the Counter Herbal Remedies (1995)". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1995. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue; Grant, Airdre; Howden, Ian et al. (April 2006). "Evidence-based medicine and naturopathy". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12 (3): 323–8. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.12.323. PMID 16646733.
- Herbert, Victor; Barrett, Stephen (1994). The Vitamin Pushers: How the "Health Food" Industry is Selling America a Bill of Goods. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 9780879759094.
- Barrett, Stephen; Raso, Jack (1993). Mystical Diets: Paranormal, Spiritual, and Occult Nutrition Practices. Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0879757612.
- McKnight, Peter (March 7, 2009). "Naturopathy's main article of faith cannot be validated; Reliance on vital forces leaves its practises based on beliefs without scientific backing". Vancouver Sun (final ed.). p. C5. Retrieved 2009-03-21.[dead link]
- Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). Trick or Treatment : The Undeniable Facts About Alternative Medicine. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393066614. OCLC 181139440.
- "Handbook of Accreditation for Naturopathic Medicine Programs". Council on Naturopathic Medical Education. 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Downey, Lois; Tyree, Patrick T.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Lafferty, William E. (2009). "Pediatric vaccination and vaccine-preventable disease acquisition: associations with care by complementary and alternative medicine providers". Maternal and Child Health Journal 14 (6): 922–30. doi:10.1007/s10995-009-0519-5. PMC 2924961. PMID 19760163.
- Skolnick, Andrew A. (November 18, 2004). "Voice of Reason: Licensing Naturopaths May Be Hazardous to Your Health". LiveScience. TechMediaNetwork. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- Hough, Holly J.; Dower, Catherine; O’Neil, Edward H. (September 2001). Profile of a Profession: Naturopathic Practice. Center for the Health Professions, University of California, San Francisco. p. 54. Archived from the original on 2008-10-02.
- Atwood IV, Kimball. C. (March 26, 2004). "Naturopathy, pseudoscience, and medicine: Myths and fallacies vs truth". Medscape General Medicine 6 (1): 33. PMC 1140750. PMID 15208545.
- Boon, Heather S.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Erro, Janet; Sherman, Karen J. et al. (2004). "Practice patterns of naturopathic physicians: Results from a random survey of licensed practitioners in two U.S. States". BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine 20 (4): 14. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-4-14. PMC 529271. PMID 15496231.
- Young, Jacqueline (2007). "Chapters 8 & 13". Complementary Medicine for Dummies. Chichester, England: Wiley. ISBN 9780470026250. OCLC 174043853.
- National Science Board (January 15, 2002). "Chapter 7 Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding, Section: Belief in Alternative Medicine". Science and Engineering Indicators - 2002. Arlington, VA: Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Science Foundation.
- Wahlberg, Ayo (December 2007). "A quackery with a difference—new medical pluralism and the problem of 'dangerous practitioners' in the United Kingdom". Social Science & Medicine 65 (11): 2307–16. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.024. PMID 17719708.
- Barrett, Stephen (March 28, 2008). "Iridology is Nonsense". QuackWatch. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- Jarvis, William T. (August 1992). "Quackery: A national scandal". Clinical chemistry 38 (8B Pt 2): 1574–86. PMID 1643742.
- Ernst, Edzard (2001). "Rise in popularity of complementary and alternative medicine: reasons and consequences for vaccination". Vaccine 20 (Suppl. 1, 5th European Conference on Vaccinology: A Safe Future with Vaccination): S90–3. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00290-0. PMID 11587822.
- Busse, Jason W.; Wilson, Kumanan; Campbell, James B. (2008). "Attitudes towards vaccination among chiropractic and naturopathic students". Vaccine 26 (49): 6237–42. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.020. PMID 18674581.
- "Naturopathy: An Introduction". NCCAM Pub. No. D372. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services. March 2012 [Created April 2007]. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Iowa Board of Medicine (February 7, 2002). "A Policy Statement on Naturopathy". Iowa Department of Public Health, State of Iowa. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- The Platform of the American Naturopathic Association as drawn up by the Golden Jubilee Congress. July 27th – August 2nd, 1947
- Naturopathy Work Group. "Traditional Naturopathy Working Session Summary September 23 and October 1, 2008". Minnesota Department of Health. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Revised Code of Washington: Title 18, Chapter 18.36A: Naturopathy". Washington State Legislature. January 1, 1988 (effective). Retrieved 2009-09-22.
- "Naturopathic Doctor Licensure". Retrieved February 20 2014.
- "About Us". North American Board of Naturopathic Examiners website. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "Academic Degree Programs: Naturopathic Medicine Degree Program". Bastyr University website. Archived from the original on 2010-01-28. Retrieved 2009-09-22.
- "Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine Residency Program". National College of Natural Medicine website. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "Residencies". Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine website. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2009-09-22.
- "Residency Programs at Bridgeport". University of Bridgeport. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- Division of Occupational and Professional Licensing, Utah Department of Commerce, State of Utah (February 17, 2012). "Application for Licensure: Naturopathic Physician". p. 1. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Massachusetts Medical Society Testifies in Opposition to Licensing Naturopaths". Massachusetts Medical Society. May 11, 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- The Special Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medical Practitioners (January 2002). "Majority Report of the Special Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medical Practitioners: A Report to the Legislature". Massachusetts: The Special Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medical Practitioners. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Atwood, Kimball C., IV (2003). "Naturopathy: A critical appraisal". Medscape General Medicine 5 (4): 39. PMID 14745386.(registration required)
- Relman, Arnold S. (April 10, 2002 (revised)) [January 9, 2001]. "Textbook of Natural Medicine". QuackWatch. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- "Practice Guidelines for the Provision of Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Texas Administrative Code, Title 22, Part 9, Chapter 200, Rule 200.3,. Secretary of State, Texas. November 22, 1998 (effective).
- Swartout, Kristy A., ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Associations. Thomson Gale. pp. 1777–1778. ISBN 9780787682866. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
- "American Naturopathic Medical Association". American Naturopathic Medical Associaton website.[self-published source]
- "American Naturopathic Medical Certification Board". American Naturopathic Medical Certification Board website. Retrieved 2010-03-12.[self-published source]
- Wendel, Paul (1951). Standardized Naturopathy. Brooklyn, NY: Wendel. OCLC 6617124.[self-published source]
- Smith Michael J.; Logan, Alan C. (January 2002). "Naturopathy". Medical Clinics of North America 86 (1): 173–84. doi:10.1016/S0025-7125(03)00079-8. PMID 11795088.
- Office of Policy, Research and Regulatory Reform, Department of Regulatory Agencies, State of Colorado (January 4, 2008). "2008 Sunrise Review: Naturopathic Physicians". pp. 18–19. Archived from the original on 2008-10-02.
- "Questions: Education and Regulation". Canadian Association of Naturopathic Doctors website. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- "B.C. gives naturopaths right to prescribe drugs". CBC News. April 10, 2009.
- "Illegal practice of medicine". Collège des médecins du Québec website. 2009.
- "Welcome". Association des Naturothérapeutes du Québec website.
- "Naturopathie - Présentation". PasseportSanté.net website (in French).
- "Description of Represented Therapies". Alliance Québécoise des Thérapeutes Naturels website.[self-published source]
- "Régime D’assurance Maladie et Hospitalisation et Santé D’hydro-Québec" (in French). Syndicat des employés de métiers d'Hydro-Québec. March 20, 2013.
- "Ley para Reglamentar el Ejercicio de la Medicina Naturopática en Puerto Rico [Law to Regulate the Practice of Naturopathic Medicine in Puerto Rico]" (in Spanish). December 30, 1997. Archived from the original on 2008-10-02.
- No author given (nd). "BNYS (list of colleges with university affiliation / government recognition)". Hosted on the National Institute of Naturopathy website (Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India). Retrieved 2013-09-08. [self-published source]
- "Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) website, (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India)".
- "National Institute of Naturopathy website (Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India)".
- Bevanger, Lars (January 18, 2012). "UK universities drop alternative medicine degree programs". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
- Naturopathy at DMOZ
- Council on Naturopathic Medical Education
- World General Federation of Natural Medicine Societies (WGFNMS)