Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine
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Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND or in Arizona "Naturopathic Medical Doctor" or NMD), in 17 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces refers exclusively to a medical degree granted by an accredited naturopathic medical school.[not in citation given] While these degrees may be held by people outside of these states and provinces, in most other jurisdictions, the terms are unprotected and may be used by anyone, regardless of educational level. Practitioners who hold such a degree may also legally use the title 'doctor' in certain jurisdictions, but not in others. Equivalent professional titles may be reserved for ND/NMDs in other jurisdictions (Naturopathic Doctor, Naturopathic Physician, Naturopath), or there may be no legally protected title. This article discusses the accredited North American degree.
Those holding the accredited North America degrees generally practice as primary care providers of naturopathic medicine. Naturopathic medicine employs complementary and alternative medical therapies which claim to help improve the body's intrinsic ability to heal and maintain itself (a belief known as vitalism). Practitioners of naturopathic medicine prefer to use natural remedies such as botanical tinctures / medicinal herbs and foods rather than synthetic drugs. Naturopathic medical practice includes many different modalities. Practitioners emphasize a holistic approach to patient care, and may recommend that patients use conventional medicine alongside their treatments.
History of the naturopathic degree
19th century: the nature doctor and drugless therapy
The lineage of the naturopathic medical tradition is traced back to the hydrotherapy tradition of Eastern Europe, and particularly the influence of Vincenz Priessnitz. As the treatments of these practitioners grew to encompass diet and lifestyle counseling, and botanical medicine, Bavarian physician Lorenz Gleich (1798–1865) first advocated the use of the term “naturarzt”, or nature doctor.
This tradition first became well known globally in the late 19th century through the successes of Bavarian priest Sebastian Kneipp. Kneipp influenced Benedict Lust to open the American School of Naturopathy in New York City, in 1901, the first naturopathic school in the world. Lust also founded the American Naturopathic Association, the first naturopathic professional organization. Other early American schools granting the ND degree were the Naturopathic College of California and the Lindlahr College of Nature Cure and Osteopathy, which also granted a DDT (Doctor of Drugless Therapy) degree.
Many chiropractic schools began offering ND programs in addition to the chiropractic degree. There were as many as a dozen or two institutions granting the ND in the 1920s and 1930s, and during their heyday, naturopaths were licensed to practice under naturopathic or drugless practitioner laws in 25 states.
Decline after 1945
After Lust’s death in 1945, the profession splintered philosophically and regionally, and the American Naturopathic Association itself fractionated into 6 different professional organizations (one of which kept the ANA name). During the 1940s and 1950s, chiropractic schools started dropping their ND programs. From 1940 to 1963, the American Medical Association (AMA) lobbied effectively against heterodox medical systems, including naturopathy, and Tennessee and Texas legislated against the practice of naturopathy.
A 1927 AMA study listed 12 naturopathic schools with fewer than 200 students among them. During the 1920s and 1930s, about half the states passed laws under which naturopaths and/or "drugless healers" could practice. However, as modern medicine developed, many of these laws were repealed and all but a few correspondence schools ceased operations. The doctor of naturopathy (ND) degree was still available at several chiropractic colleges, but in 1955, Western States Chiropractic College, the last remaining institution granting the ND degree, ended its naturopathic program. The National College of Naturopathic Medicine (NCNM) was founded in 1956 in Portland, Oregon, but, until the mid-1970s, had very few students. From 1960 through 1968, the average enrollment was eight and the total number of graduates was 16.
In response to Western States ending their ND program, Portland ND Frank Spaulding toured the United States in 1955 and raised pledges totaling $100,000 (in monthly installments) from naturopaths to start a naturopathic college, which was chartered in 1956 as the National College of Naturopathic Medicine (NCNM). The NCNM operated in Seattle, WA until the mid-1970s where they had very few students.
Today, in North America, the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND or NMD) degree is available from seven accredited full-time schools of naturopathic medicine.[not in citation given] The accrediting agency for naturopathic medical schools, the Council on Naturopathic Medical Education (CNME) was first recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education in 1987. The CNME lost this recognition in 2001 for failing to enforce its standards on the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, then in the preaccreditation stage; CNME applied for and regained recognition in 2003.
The naturopathic medical curriculum at the full-time CNME accredited schools follows a pattern similar to that of allopathic and osteopathic medical schools: two years of basic science courses and two or more years of clinical work.[verification needed] However, they are not required to complete a residency program to become board certified as medical physicians are. Prerequisite college of three years is required for admission. Approximately 950 students were enrolled in the six accredited schools in 2007. While naturopathic medical schools have seen some progress in recognition, they still face criticism from other medical professionals. Bases of criticism include the absence of extensive post-graduate training, and concerns surrounding the teaching of material not generally accepted by the scientific community or supported by scientific evidence.
Professional titles used in North America
Although all graduates from accredited naturopathic medical schools may use the academic title "Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine" there is no standardized professional title in use in North America. Jurisdictions that regulate the practice of naturopathic medicine legally require the use of various professional titles. Naturopathic medicine and approved titles are regulated in the following US states:
- Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine: Arizona, New Hampshire, Oregon (also Naturopathic Physician), Utah (also Naturopathic Physician), Washington (also Naturopathic Physician), Minnesota (also Naturopathic Doctor)
- Naturopathic Doctor:Alaska, California, Colorado, Kansas, Maine
- Naturopathic Physician: Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana,[not in citation given] Vermont.
- Naturopath: North Dakota
Provisions in the licensing laws for Minnesota and California[verification needed] specifically protect the rights of Traditional Naturopaths to practice Naturopathy. Language in the Idaho Licensing acts exclude those practices normally engaged in by Traditional Naturopaths.[not in citation given] In Puerto Rico the title "Doctor in Naturopathy (Doctor en Naturopatia) applies.
These titles apply in Canadian provinces:
- Doctor of Naturopathy: Manitoba
- Naturopathic Physician: Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, British Columbia
- Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine: Ontario, British Columbia
Naturopathic diploma in the United Kingdom
|This section's factual accuracy is disputed. (January 2009)|
In the United Kingdom the naturopathic diploma is granted to a healthcare professional (medical doctor, osteopath, chiropractor, nurse) who has completed a two-year post-graduate naturopathic diploma, or to a graduate of the colleges that grant the naturopathic diploma, as recognised by the General Council & Register of Naturopaths (GCRN).[not in citation given] Currently, these are the British College of Osteopathic Medicine, the College of Osteopaths Educational Trust and the University of Westminster School of Integrated Health under the auspices of the BSc Health Science (Naturopathy) course. Additionally, there are occasional opportunities for naturopathic degree-level students to sit a post graduate examination set by the GCRN if they have attended a non-accredited college but have evidence of additional studying and clinical practice. Naturopaths are registered by the General Council and Register of Naturopaths. and once registered are entitled to call themselves naturopaths, naturopathic physicians, naturopathic practitioners or naturopathic doctors. However, naturopaths in the UK do not perform minor surgery or have prescribing rights.
Registered naturopathic practitioners are also entitled to become members of the British Naturopathic Association (BNA).
- List of naturopathic medical schools in North America
- Association of Accredited Naturopathic Medical Colleges
- House of Delegates, American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (2011 (amended)) [1989 (adopted)]. "House of Delegates Position Paper: Definition of Naturopathic Medicine". American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- Sarris, Jerome; Wardle, Jon (2010). Clinical Naturopathy: An evidence-based guide to practice. Sydney: Churchill Livingstone / Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 32–36. ISBN 9780729579261. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "Naturopathic Medicine". Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine & Health Sciences website. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- Kirchfeld, Friedhelm; Boyle, Wade (1994). Nature Doctors: Pioneers in Naturopathic Medicine. Medicina Biologica. ISBN 0-9623518-5-7.
- Baer, Hans A. (2004). Toward an Integrative Medicine. AltaMira, Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 35–8. ISBN 0-7591-0302-X.
- "84 Students with Natural Medicine Degrees Graduate from NCNM". NCNM News. National College of Naturopathic Medicine. Summer 2005. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- "Naturopathic Medicine". American Cancer Society. 2008-11-01 (revised). Archived from the original on 2009-07-04. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Barrett, Stephen (2003-06-13). "Naturopathic Accreditation Agency Loses Federal Recognition - But Reapproval Seems Likely". QuackWatch. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
- "Handbook of Accreditation for Naturopathic Medicine Programs". Council on Naturopathic Medical Education. 2007.
- Office of Policy, Research and Regulatory Reform, Department of Regulatory Agencies, State of Colorado (January 4, 2008). "2008 Sunrise Review: Naturopathic Physicians". Archived from the original on 2008-10-02.
- Minnesota State Legislature (2012). "2012 Minnesota Statutes, Chapter 147E. Registered Naturopathic Doctors". The Office of the Revisor of Statutes, State of Minnesota. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
- Legislative Assembly of Ontario (2007-06-04 (Royal Assent rec'd)). "Naturopathy Act, 2007: Statutes of Ontario 2007, Chapter 10, Schedule P". ServiceOntario e-Laws, Ministry of the Attorney General, Province of Ontario. Retrieved 2013-09-12 (currency date 2013-09-09).
- Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (2009-04-09 (current to)) [2008-10-17 (effective)]. "Health Professions Act (RSBC 1996, Chapter 183): Naturopathic Physicians Regulation (BC Reg. 282/2008)". Statutes and Regulations of British Columbia (internet version). Queens Printer: The Province of British Columbia. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. "The Naturopathic Act (Continuing Consolidation of the Statutes of Manitoba, Chapter N80)". Manitoba Laws (online version). Province of Manitoba. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- "The Naturopathy Act (Saskatchewan)".
- Nova Scotia House of Assembly (2008-07-02 (effective)). "Naturopathic Doctors Act, Chapter 5 of the Acts of 2008". Nova Scotia Statutes (online version). Office of the Legislative Council, Nova Scotia House of Assembly. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Hoffman-Grundl, Lisa; Davis, Michelle; Owen, Debra F. (1999). "Naturopathic Sunrise Review Final Report" (.doc). Washington State Department of Health. Archived from the original on 2006-09-36.
- "Naturopathic Physician Training". Oregon Association of Naturopathic Physicians website. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Boon, Heather S.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Erro, Janet; Sherman, Karen J. et al. (2004). "Practice patterns of naturopathic physicians: Results from a random survey of licensed practitioners in two US States". BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine 4 (14). PMC 529271.
- "Chapter 685 - Naturopaths". Oregon Revised Statutes. Board of Naturopathic Medicine, State of Oregon. 2011. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- "North Dakota Century Code, Chapter 43, Title 58, Naturopaths, Article 03, License required - Title restrictions". nd.gov. Legislative Branch, State of North Dakota. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- WAIS Document Retrieval[dead link]
- Idaho Legislature. "Title 54: Professions, Vocations and Businesses, Chapter 51: Naturopathic Physicians Licensing Act, Section 54-5106: Exemptions". Idaho Code. Legislative Services Office, State of Idaho. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- "Year:1997-law #208".
- "Ley 208".
- "General Council & Register of Naturopaths". British College of Osteopathic Medicine website. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- "Study, Integrated Health". University of Westminister website.
- "Naturopathy Diploma". College of Osteopaths website.
- "Requirements for Registration". General Council and Register of Naturopaths website.