Fish (food)

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Fish and chips with lemon and sauces

Fish is consumed as a food by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. In culinary and fishery contexts, the term fish also includes shellfish, such as molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms.

Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.

Terminology[edit]

English does not distinguish between fish as an animal and the food prepared from it, as it does with pig versus pork or cow versus beef.[1] Some other languages do, as in the Spanish peces versus pescado. The German speisefisch means fish as a food or fish suitable for eating. English also has the term seafood, which covers fish as well as other marine life used as food.

The modern English word for fish comes from the Old English word fisc (plural: fiscas) which was pronounced as it is today.

Species[edit]

Over 32,000 species of fish have been described,[2] making them the most diverse group of vertebrates. However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by humans.

Common species of fish used for food [3]
Mild flavour Moderate flavour Full flavour
Delicate
texture
basa, flounder, hake, scup, smelt, rainbow trout, hardshell clam, blue crab, peekytoe crab, spanner crab, cuttlefish, eastern oyster, Pacific oyster anchovy, herring, lingcod, moi, orange roughy, Atlantic ocean perch, Lake Victoria perch, yellow perch, European oyster, sea urchin Atlantic mackerel
Medium
texture
black sea bass, European sea bass, hybrid striped bass, bream, cod, drum, haddock, hoki, Alaska pollock, rockfish, pink salmon, snapper, tilapia, turbot, walleye, lake whitefish, wolffish, hardshell clam, surf clam, cockle, Jonah crab, snow crab, crayfish, bay scallop, Chinese white shrimp sablefish, Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, skate, dungeness crab, king crab, blue mussel, greenshell mussel, pink shrimp escolar, chinook salmon, chum salmon, American shad
Firm
texture
arctic char, carp, catfish, dory, grouper, halibut, monkfish, pompano, Dover sole, sturgeon, tilefish, wahoo, yellowtail, Abalone, conch, stone crab, American lobster, spiny lobster, octopus, black tiger shrimp, freshwater shrimp, gulf shrimp, Pacific white shrimp, squid barramundi, cusk, dogfish, kingklip, mahimahi, opah, mako shark, swordfish, albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, geoduck clam, squat lobster, sea scallop, rock shrimp barracuda, Chilean sea bass, cobia, croaker, eel, blue marlin, mullet, sockeye salmon, bluefin tuna

Nutritional value[edit]

Comparison of high-value nutrients in fish types Whitefish
Alaska pollock[4]
Oily fish
Atlantic herring[5]
Halibut fillet (a whitefish) on top of a salmon fillet (an oily fish)
Energy (kcal) 111 203
Protein (g) 23 23
Fat (g) 1 12
Cholesterol (mg) 86 77
Vitamin B-12 (µg) 4 13
Phosphorus (mg) 267 303
Selenium (µg) 44 47
Omega-3 (mg) 509 2014


"Fish provides a good source of high quality protein and contains many vitamins and minerals. It may be classed as either whitefish, oily or shellfish. Whitefish, such as haddock and seer, contain very little fat (usually less than 1%) whereas oily fish, such as sardines, contain between 10-25%. The latter, as a result of its high fat content, contain a range of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and essential fatty acids, all of which are vital for the healthy functioning of the body."[6]

Health benefits[edit]

Research over the past few decades has shown that the nutrients and minerals in fish, and particularly the omega 3 fatty acids found in pelagic fishes, are heart-friendly and can make improvements in brain development and reproduction. This has highlighted the role for fish in the functionality of the human body.[7]

Health hazards[edit]

Fish is the most common food to obstruct the airway and cause choking. Choking on fish was responsible for about reported 4,500 accidents in the UK in 1998.[8]

Allergens[edit]

A seafood allergy is a hypersensitivity to an allergen which can be present in fish, particularly in shellfish. This can result in an overreaction of the immune system and lead to severe physical symptoms.[9] Most people who have a food allergy also have a seafood allergy.[10] Allergic reactions can result from ingesting seafood, or by breathing in vapours from preparing or cooking seafood.[11] The most severe seafood allergy reaction is anaphylaxis, an emergency requiring immediate attention. It is treated with epinephrine.[12]

Specially prepared dish of the poisonous blowfish fugu, Japan

Biotoxins[edit]

Some species of fish, notably the puffer fugu used for sushi, and some kinds of shellfish, can result in serious poisoning if not prepared properly. These fish always contain these poisons as a defense against predators; it is not present due to environmental circumstances. Particularly, fugu has a lethal dose of tetrodotoxin in its internal organs and must be prepared by a licensed fugu chef who has passed the national examination in Japan. Ciguatera poisoning can occur from eating larger fish from warm tropical waters, such as sea bass, grouper, and red snapper.[13] Scombroid poisoning can result from eating large oily fish which have sat around for too long before being refrigerated or frozen. This includes scombroids such as tuna and mackerel, but can also include non-scombroids such as mahi-mahi and amberjack.[13] The poison is odourless and tasteless.[14]

A lot of fish eat algae and other organisms that contain biotoxins (defensive substances against predators). Biotoxins accumulated in fish/shellfish include brevetoxins, okadaic acid, saxitoxins, ciguatoxin and domoic acid. Except for ciguatoxine, high levels of these toxins are only found in shellfish. Both domoic acid and ciguatoxine can be deadly to humans; the others will only cause diarrhea, dizzyness and a (temporary) feeling of claustrophobia.[15][16]

Shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae, such as dinoflagellates and diatoms, and cyanobacteria. There are four syndromes called shellfish poisoning which can result in humans, sea mammals, and birds from the ingestion of toxic shellfish. These are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs, such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops.[17] Fish, like anchovies can also concentrate toxins such as domoic acid.[18] If suspected, medical attention should be sought.

fish and shellfish poisoning
poisoning type symptoms duration toxin antidote sources
fish Ciguatera Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, usually followed by headaches, muscle aches, paresthesia, numbness, ataxia, vertigo, and hallucinations. weeks to years ciguatoxin and similar: maitotoxin, scaritoxin and palytoxin none known [14][19]
Scombroid
food
poisoning
Skin flushing, throbbing headache, oral burning, abdominal cramps, nausea, diarrhea, palpitations, sense of unease, and, rarely, collapse or loss of vision. Symptoms occur usually within 10–30 minutes of ingesting spoiled fish. usually four to six hours histamine, possibly others Oral anti-histamines [19][20]
Haff disease Rhabdomyolysis, that is, a swelling and breakdown of skeletal muscle (with a risk of acute kidney failure) within 24 hours after consuming fish a toxic cause is suspected but has not been proven none known [21]
Ichthyo-
allyeinotoxism
Vivid auditory and visual hallucinations similar in some aspects to LSD. can last for several days [22]
shellfish Amnesic Permanent short-term memory loss and brain damage fatal in severe cases domoic acid, which acts as a neurotoxin none known [19]
Diarrheal diarrhea and possibly nausea, vomiting and cramps. symptoms usually set in within half an hour and last about a day okadaic acid, which inhibits intestinal cellular de-phosphorylation. [23]
Neurotoxic Vomiting and nausea and a variety of neurological symptoms such as slurred speech. Not fatal though it may require hospitalization. Brevetoxins or brevetoxin analogs [24][25]
Paralytic Includes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and tingling or burning sensations. Other symptoms also possible. occasionally fatal principal toxin saxitoxin [26]

The toxins responsible for most shellfish and fish poisonings, including ciguatera and scombroid poisoning, are heat-resistant to the point where conventional cooking methods do not eliminate them.[14]

Mercury and other toxic metals[edit]

Fish products have been shown to contain varying amounts of heavy or toxic metals. Toxicity is a function of solubility, and insoluble compounds often exhibit negligible toxicity. Organometallic forms such as dimethyl mercury and tetraethyl lead can be extremely toxic.

mercury/omega-3 levels[27]
omega-3 ↓ low mercury
< 0.04 ppm
medium mercury
0.04–0.40 ppm
high mercury
> 0.40 ppm
high
> 1.0%
salmon
sardine
Atlantic mackerel
flatfish
halibut
herring
Spanish mackerel
swordfish
tilefish
medium
0.4–1.0%
pollock hoki
tuna
king mackerel
shark
low
< 0.4%
catfish
shrimp
cod
snapper
tuna canned light
grouper
orange roughy

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the risk from mercury by eating fish and shellfish is not a health concern for most people.[34] However, certain seafood contains sufficient mercury to harm an unborn baby or young child's developing nervous system. The FDA makes three recommendations for child-bearing women and young children:

  1. Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury.
  2. Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. Four of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white tuna") has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.
  3. Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. If no advice is available, eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don't consume any other fish during that week.

These recommendations are also advised when feeding fish and shellfish to young children, but in smaller portions.[34]

Mislabeling[edit]

A recent found that one-third of the seafood sold in the U.S. had been mislabeled. The non-profit organization Oceana had collected more than 1,200 seafood samples during 2010 and 2012. With a rate of 87 percent, snapper had been the most frequently mislabeled fish type – followed by tuna with 57 percent.[35] Through substituting one seafood species by another can harm consumers’ health. Potentially harmful toxins may enter the food supply chain and lead to foodborne illnesses.[36]

Persistent organic pollutants[edit]

If fish and shellfish inhabit polluted waters, they can accumulate other toxic chemicals, particularly fat-soluble pollutants containing chlorine or bromine, dioxins or PCBs.[37] Fish that is to be eaten should be caught in unpolluted water. Some organisations such as SeafoodWatch, RIKILT, Environmental Defense Fund, IMARES provide information on species that do not accumulate much toxins/metals.[38][39][40][41]

Parasites[edit]

Differential symptoms of parasite infections by raw fish. All have gastrointestinal, but otherwise distinct, symptoms.[42][43][44][45]

Parasites in fish are a natural occurrence and common. Though not a health concern in thoroughly cooked fish, parasites are a concern when consumers eat raw or lightly preserved fish such as sashimi, sushi, ceviche, and gravlax. The popularity of such raw fish dishes makes it important for consumers to be aware of this risk. Raw fish should be frozen to an internal temperature of −20°C (−4°F) for at least 7 days to kill parasites. It is important to be aware that home freezers may not be cold enough to kill parasites.[46][47]

Traditionally, fish that live all or part of their lives in fresh water were considered unsuitable for sashimi due to the possibility of parasites (see Sashimi article). Parasitic infections from freshwater fish are a serious problem in some parts of the world, particularly Southeast Asia[citation needed]. Fish that spend part of their life cycle in brackish or freshwater, like salmon are a particular problem. A study in Seattle, Washington showed that 100% of wild salmon had roundworm larvae capable of infecting people. In the same study farm raised salmon did not have any roundworm larvae.[48]

Parasite infection by raw fish is rare in the developed world (fewer than 40 cases per year in the U.S.[citation needed]), and involves mainly three kinds of parasites: Clonorchis sinensis (a trematode/fluke), Anisakis (a nematode/roundworm) and Diphyllobothrium (a cestode/tapeworm). Infection risk of anisakis is particularly higher in fishes which may live in a river such as salmon (sake) in Salmonidae or mackerel (saba). Such parasite infections can generally be avoided by boiling, burning, preserving in salt or vinegar, or freezing overnight. In Japan it is common to eat raw salmon and ikura, but these foods are frozen overnight prior to eating to prevent infections from parasites, particularly anisakis.

Fish, meat and vegetarians[edit]

Hawaiian cuisine: Seared ahi and wasabi beurre blanc sauce
Nutritional content of fish compared to meat
110 grams (4 oz or .25 lb)
Source calories protein carbs fat
fish 110–140 20–25 g 0 g 1–5 g
chicken breast 160 28 g 0 g 7 g
lamb 250 30 g 0 g 14 g
steak (beef top round) 210 36 g 0 g 7 g
steak (beef T-bone) 450 25 g 0 g 35 g

Meat is animal flesh that is used as food.[49] Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat, but it may also describe other edible organs and tissues.[49] The term "meat" is used by the meat packing industry in a more restrictive sense—the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish and poultry.

Vegetarians don't eat fish, and consider that fish is meat, since it is the flesh of an animal. Vegans or strict vegetarians refrain from consuming any animal products, not only meat and fish but, in contrast to ovo-lacto vegetarians, eggs, dairy products and all other animal-derived substances.

However, pescetarians eat fish and other seafood, but not mammals and birds. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term "pescetarian" to 1993 and defines it to mean: "one whose diet includes fish but no meat."[50] Pescatarians may consume fish based solely upon the idea that the fish are not factory farmed as land animals are (i.e., their problem is with the capitalist-industrial production of meat, not with the consumption of animal foods themselves).[51] However, this is an incorrect assumption, as fish are often raised in artificial environments, with the same types of cramped, unnatural, and often unsanitary conditions that land animals are raised in.[52] Some eat fish with the justification that fish have less sophisticated nervous systems than land-dwelling animals. Others may choose to consume only wild fish based upon the lack of confinement, while choosing to not consume fish that have been farmed.

A 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for pescetarians (fish eaters) to be 0.82, vegetarians to be 0.84, occasional meat eaters to be 0.84. Regular meat eaters and vegans shared the highest mortality ratio of 1.00. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts".[53]

In religion[edit]

Roast fish

Religious rites and rituals regarding food also tend to classify the birds of the air and the fish of the sea separately from land-bound mammals. Sea-bound mammals are often treated as fish under religious laws - as in Jewish dietary law, which forbids the eating of whale, dolphin, porpoise, and orca because they are not "fish with fins and scales"; nor, as mammals, do they chew their cud and have cloven hooves, as required by Leviticus 11:9-12. Jewish (kosher) practice treat fish differently from other animal foods. The distinction between fish and "meat" is codified by the Jewish dietary law of kashrut, regarding the mixing of milk and meat, which does not forbid the mixing of milk and fish. Modern Jewish legal practice (halakha) on kashrut classifies the flesh of both mammals and birds as "meat"; fish are considered to be parve, neither meat nor a dairy food. (The preceding portion refers only to the halakha of Ashkenazi Jews Sephardic Jews do not mix fish with dairy)

Seasonal religious prohibitions against eating meat do not usually include fish. For example, non-fish meat was forbidden during Lent and on all Fridays of the year in pre-Vatican II Roman Catholicism, but fish was permitted (as were eggs). (See Fasting in Catholicism.) In Eastern Orthodoxy, fish is permitted on some fast days when other meat is forbidden, but stricter fast days also prohibit fish with spines, while permitting invertebrate seafood such as shrimp and oysters, considering them "fish without blood."[citation needed]

Some Buddhists and Hindus (Brahmins of West Bengal, Odisha and Saraswat Brahmins of the Konkan) abjure meat that is not fish. Muslim (halal) practice also treats fish differently from other animal foods, as it can be eaten.

Taboos on eating fish[edit]

Among the Somali people, most clans have a taboo against the consumption of fish, and do not intermarry with the few occupational clans that do eat it.[54][55]

There are taboos on eating fish among many upland pastoralists and agriculturalists (and even some coastal peoples) inhabiting parts of southeastern Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, and northern Tanzania. This is sometimes referred to as the "Cushitic fish-taboo", as Cushitic speakers are believed to have been responsible for the introduction of fish avoidance to East Africa, though not all Cushitic groups avoid fish. The zone of the fish taboo roughly coincides with the area where Cushitic languages are spoken, and as a general rule, speakers of Nilo-Saharan and Semitic languages do not have this taboo, and indeed many are watermen.[55][56] The few Bantu and Nilotic groups in East Africa that do practice fish avoidance also reside in areas where Cushites appear to have lived in earlier times. Within East Africa, the fish taboo is found no further than Tanzania. This is attributed to the local presence of the tsetse fly and in areas beyond, which likely acted as a barrier to further southern migrations by wandering pastoralists, the principal fish-avoiders. Zambia and Mozambique's Bantus were therefore spared subjugation by pastoral groups, and they consequently nearly all consume fish.[55]

There is also another center of fish avoidance in Southern Africa, among mainly Bantu speakers. It is not clear whether this disinclination developed independently or whether it was introduced. It is certain, however, that no avoidance of fish occurs among southern Africa's earliest inhabitants, the Khoisan. Nevertheless, since the Bantu of southern Africa also share various cultural traits with the pastoralists further north in East Africa, it is believed that, at an unknown date, the taboo against the consumption of fish was similarly introduced from East Africa by cattle-herding peoples who somehow managed to get their livestock past the aforementioned tsetse fly endemic regions.[55]

Certain species of fish are also forbidden in Judaism such as the freshwater eel (Anguillidae) and all species of catfish. Although they live in water, they appear to have no fins or scales (except under a microscope) (see Leviticus 11:10-13[57]). Sunni Muslim laws are more flexible in this and catfish and shark are generally seen as halal as they are special types of fish. Eel is generally considered permissible in the four Sunni madh'hab, but the Ja'fari jurisprudence followed by most Shia Muslims forbids it.[58][59][60]

Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navaho, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl.[61]

Preparation[edit]

Fish can be prepared in a variety of ways. It can be uncooked (raw) (cf. sashimi). It can be cured by marinating (cf. escabeche), pickling (cf. pickled herring), or smoking (cf. smoked salmon). Or it can be cooked by baking, frying (cf. fish and chips), grilling, poaching (cf. court-bouillon), or steaming. Many of the preservation techniques used in different cultures have since become unnecessary but are still performed for their resulting taste and texture when consumed.

Dishes[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ cf. culinary names
  2. ^ FishBase: June 2012 update. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  3. ^ Peterson, James and editors of Seafood Business (2009) Seafood Handbook: The Comprehensive Guide to Sourcing, Buying and Preparation John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470404164.
  4. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (September 2011). "Nutrient data for 15067, Fish, pollock, walleye, cooked, dry heat". USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  5. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (September 2011). "Nutrient data for 15040, Fish, herring, Atlantic, cooked, dry heat". USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Fellows P and Hampton A (Eds.) (1992) Fish and fish products Chapter 11 in: Small-scale food processing - A guide for appropriate equipment Intermediate Technology Publications, FAO, Rome. ISBN 1 85339 108 5.
  7. ^ "Nutritional Aspects of Fish." Irish Sea Fisheries Board
  8. ^ "Accident Statistics : 1998 - Home and leisure accident report Summary of 1998 data p.16 Department of Trade and Industry (UK)" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  9. ^ National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005 http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/allergystat.htm
  10. ^ "Allergy Facts and Figures," Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&sub=20&cont=518
  11. ^ "Seafood* (Fish, Crustaceans and Shellfish) - One of the nine most common food allergens". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2009-06-12. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  12. ^ National Report of the Expert Panel on Food Allergy Research, NIH-NIAID 2003 http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/about/organization/dait/PDF/june30_2003.pdf
  13. ^ a b Poisoning - fish and shellfish US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  14. ^ a b c Swift A, Swift T (1993). "Ciguatera". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 31 (1): 1–29. doi:10.3109/15563659309000371. PMID 8433404. 
  15. ^ EOS magazine, July–August 2010
  16. ^ Natuurlijke toxinen in voedingsmiddelen
  17. ^ Silver, Mary Wilcox (2006), "Protecting Ourselves from Shellfish Poisoning", American Scientist 94 (4): 316–325 
  18. ^ Domoic Acid Poisoning Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  19. ^ a b c Clark RF, Williams SR, Nordt SP, Manoguerra AS (1999). "A review of selected seafood poisonings". Undersea Hyperb Med 26 (3): 175–84. PMID 10485519. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  20. ^ Guss DA (1998). "Scombroid fish poisoning: successful treatment with cimetidine". Undersea Hyperb Med 25 (2): 123–5. PMID 9670438. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  21. ^ Buchholz U, Mouzin E, Dickey R, Moolenaar R, Sass N, Mascola L (2000). "Haff disease: from the Baltic Sea to the U.S. shore". Emerging Infectious Diseases 6 (2): 192–5. doi:10.3201/eid0602.000215. PMC 2640861. PMID 10756156. 
  22. ^ de Haro, L.; Pommier, P. (2006). "Hallucinatory fish poisoning (ichthyoallyeinotoxism): two case reports from the Western Mediterranean and literature review.". Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia) 44 (2): 185–8. doi:10.1080/15563650500514590. PMID 16615678. 
  23. ^ Dawson, JF; Holmes CF (Oct 1999). "Molecular mechanisms underlying inhibition of protein phosphatases by marine toxins.". Front Biosc 4: D646–58. PMID 10502549. 
  24. ^ Watkins, S. M.; Reich, A.; Fleming, L. E.; Hammond, R. (2008). "Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (PDF). Marine Drugs 6 (3): 431–455. doi:10.3390/md20080021. PMC 2579735. PMID 19005578. 
  25. ^ Landsberg, J. H. (2002). "The Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms". Reviews in Fisheries Science 10 (2): 113–390. doi:10.1080/20026491051695. 
  26. ^ Clark RF, Williams SR, Nordt SP, Manoguerra AS (1999). "A review of selected seafood poisonings". Undersea Hyperb Med 26 (3): 175–84. PMID 10485519. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  27. ^ Smith KL and Guentzel JL (2010) "Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits" Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60 (9): 1615–1618. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.06.045,
  28. ^ The mercury levels in the table, unless otherwise indicated, are taken from: Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish (1990-2010) U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed 8 January 2012.
  29. ^ "Fish, Levels of Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids". American Heart Association. Retrieved October 6, 2010. 
  30. ^ Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; William S. Harris, Lawrence J. Appel (2002). "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation 106 (21): 2747–2757. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000038493.65177.94. PMID 12438303. 
  31. ^ a b Trophic levels and maximum ages are, unless otherwise indicated, taken from the relevant species pages on Rainer Froese and Daniel Pauly (Eds) (2012) FishBase January 2012 version. Where a group has more than one species, the average of the principal commercial species is used
  32. ^ Collins MA, Brickle P, Brown J and Belchier M (2010) "The Patagonian toothfish: biology, ecology and fishery" In: M Lesser (Ed.) Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 58, pp. 229–289, Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-381015-1.
  33. ^ "A bouillabaisse of fascinating facts about fish". NOAA: National Marine Fisheries Service. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  34. ^ a b "What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish". Cfsan.fda.gov. 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  35. ^ [1] Oceana Study on Seafood Fraud, Retrieved 04/21/2013
  36. ^ Detecting Seafood Fraud SGS Consumer Bulletin, Retrieved 04/24/2013
  37. ^ PCBs in Fish and Shellfish Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  38. ^ "RIKILT". RIKILT. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  39. ^ "EDF Health Alerts about fish". Edf.org. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  40. ^ "IMARES". IMARES. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  41. ^ "SeaFoodWatch". Montereybayaquarium.org. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  42. ^ For Chlonorchiasis: Public Health Agency of Canada > Clonorchis sinensis - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  43. ^ For Anisakiasis: WrongDiagnosis: Symptoms of Anisakiasis Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  44. ^ For Diphyllobothrium: MedlinePlus > Diphyllobothriasis Updated by: Arnold L. Lentnek, MD. Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  45. ^ For symptoms of diphyllobothrium due to vitamin B12-deficiency University of Maryland Medical Center > Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia Retrieved on April 14, 2009
  46. ^ "''Parasites in Marine Fishes'' University of California Food Science & Technology Department Sea Grant Extension Program". Seafood.ucdavis.edu. 1990-08-07. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  47. ^ Vaughn M. Sushi and Sashimi Safety
  48. ^ Deardorff, TL; ML Kent (1989-07-01). "Prevalence of larval Anisakis simplex in pen-reared and wild-caught salmon (Salmonidae) from Puget Sound, Washington" (abstract). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25 (3): 416–419. PMID 2761015. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  49. ^ a b Lawrie, 1.
  50. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. "pescatarian." [Online] Merriam Webster, Inc. Available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pescatarian [Accessed 17 July 2009]
  51. ^ VegDining.com
  52. ^ "Factory Farming". Farm Sanctuary. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  53. ^ Timothy J Key, Gary E Fraser, Margaret Thorogood, Paul N Appleby, Valerie Beral, Gillian Reeves, Michael L Burr, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rainer Frentzel-Beyme, Jan W Kuzma, Jim Mann and Klim McPherson (September 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (3): 516S–524S. PMID 10479225. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  54. ^ Frederick J. Simoons, Northwest Ethiopia: peoples and economy?, (University of Wisconsin Press: 1960), p.158
  55. ^ a b c d Frederick J. Simoons, Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present, 1994, p. 261-265, ISBN 0-299-14254-X Google Books
  56. ^ J. E. G. Sutton, "The Aquatic Civilization of Middle Africa" The Journal of African History 15:4 (1974), p. 542. at JSTOR(subscription required)
  57. ^ Leviticus 11:10-13
  58. ^ "Sea Food in the Four Madhahib". Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  59. ^ "Is Catfish Halal?". Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  60. ^ "Is Shark Meat Halal?". Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  61. ^ Washington Matthews, "Ichthyophobia" The Journal of American Folklore 11:41 (April–June, 1898), pp. 105-112 at JSTOR(subscription required)

References[edit]

External links[edit]