|Region||Gallura, northeastern Sardinia|
Official language in
|Regulated by||No official regulation|
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance idiom spoken in the northeastern part of Sardinia. Its categorisation is quite controversial: it is often considered a variety of Corsican, or even a transitional language between Corsican and Sardinian.
Gallurese takes its name from the subregion of Gallura.
Grammatical structure, pronunciation and many terms reflect a certain closeness to Corsican, showing many similarities with the southern Corsican dialects of Sartene and Porto-Vecchio, with which it shared some mutual influences. A substantial part of Gallurese vocabulary comes from the Logudorese variety of Sardinian, which was probably spoken in this area in the Middle Ages.
Typical constitutional elements of Gallurese
- the plural form of nouns in -i (ghjanni or polti 'doors') like in Corsican and Italian, and not in -s like in Sardinian (jannas, portas), French, Spanish, Catalan, etc.
- Latin 'll' has become -dd- (like casteddu, beddu 'castle', 'beautiful'), the same as in Sardinian, southern Corsican and Sicilian (but castellu, bellu in northern Corsican);
- -r- modified to -l- (poltu 'port', while portu in Corsican and Sardinian);
- -chj- and -ghj- sounds (ghjesgia 'church', occhji 'eyes'), like in Corsican, while Sardinian is cresia, ogros.
- articles lu, la, li, like in former Corsican dialects (u, a, i in modern Corsican, su, sa, sos, sas in Sardinian);
Relation to Corsican language
Gallurese is classified by some linguists as a dialect of Corsican, and by others as a dialect of Sardinian. In any case, a great deal of similarity exists between Southern Corsican dialects and Gallurese, while there is relatively more distance from the neighbouring Sardinian varieties.
Sample of text
|Gallurese||Southern Corsican||Logudorese Sardinian||Standard Italian||English translation|
Tu sei nata par incantu
Sei bedda chi dugna cori
E socu vecchju canutu
Cantu campu decu fà
La Patrona di Gaddura
Tu sè nata par incantu
Sè bedda chi ugna cori
E socu vecchju canutu
Quantu campu devu fà
A' Patrona di Gaddura
Tue ses naschida pro incantu
Ses bella gai chi donzi coro
E seo betzu e canu
Pro cantu bivo appo a depper fàghere
Sa patrona de Gallura
Tu sei nata per incanto
Sei tanto bella che ogni cuore
Io sono vecchio e canuto
Quanto campi devo fare
La patrona di Gallura
You were born from bliss
You are so pretty that each heart
I am old and bald
No matter how long should I walk
The Patron of Gallura
Hypothesis on the development of Gallurese
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2011)|
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (August 2011)|
||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states the Wikipedia editor's particular feelings about a topic, rather than the opinions of experts. (April 2009)|
The split between Gallurese and Sardinian varieties could perhaps stem from the age of Giudicati, and possibly from the different (direct rather indirect) political control of the Republic of Pisa over Sardinia.
It could be interesting to investigate if the Tuscan ingredients of Gallurese effectively came from this domination, because in this case, a Tuscan influence would have presumedly affected a Sardinian version, resulting in a modified Sardinian version (then it still could be a Sardinian version). It would consequently be classified as a Sardinian language for a genetical reason.
In this hypothesis we were considering Sardinian as if Corsican could modify it, but the contrary could be possible, as well, and there could also be a possible Sardinian influence on Corsican. It could also be that Corsican had been influenced by Sardinian. Or it could eventually be that they both were influenced by the same factors,[clarification needed] received in their own territories separately and with different actions, finally producing not so distant results. External influences could consent this hypothesis: Sardinia had a wider population, and in its history has been more subject to foreign influences than Corsica.[dubious ] Invasions and taxes would probably have caused an eventual movement in the direction of the minor island, less probably the other way, even if the establishment of a few groups of Corsicans in Sardinia is known.[clarification needed] Also, the little distance between Corsica and Tyrrhenic islands would let suppose more frequent practical contacts, while in Sardinia these contacts were more decisive on a point of local administration.[clarification needed]
Similarities do exist also with Maremma, in southern Tuscany-northern Lazio, with which there were no relationships. All this would tend to suggest that a common evolution had interested the areas. Some authors like Maxia believe that, in analogy among themselves, all the coastal areas of Tyrrhenian Sea should have lived an evolutive moment perhaps at the same time. But the point is not obviously the similarity, because it would not be sufficient to a classification.[clarification needed] Current central logudorese Sardinian is not similar, in phonetics, to medieval logudorese Sardinian, although no one would ever deny that it is the same languages.
- Gallurese at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gallurese Sardinian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Blasco Ferrer 1984: 180–186, 200
- Contini 1987: 1°, 500–503
- Dettori 2002
- Loporcaro 2009: 159–167
- Autonomous Region of Sardinia (1997-10-15). "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26" (in Italian). pp. Art. 2, paragraph 4. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- "Accademia della lingua gallurese".
- cfr. Pittau
- Walther von WARTBURG "La fragmentation linguistique de la Romania", Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck, 1967.