Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

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Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County Courthouse - IMG 7712.JPG
Seal of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Seal
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Lancaster County
Location in the state of Pennsylvania
Map of the United States highlighting Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location in the U.S.
Founded May 10, 1729
Seat Lancaster
Largest city Lancaster
Area
 • Total 984 sq mi (2,549 km2)
 • Land 949 sq mi (2,458 km2)
 • Water 35 sq mi (91 km2), 3.53%
Population
 • (2010) 519,445
 • Density 547/sq mi (211.3/km²)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website www.co.lancaster.pa.us

Lancaster County local /ˈlæŋkɨstər/, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[1] As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445.[2] Its county seat is Lancaster.

Lancaster County forms the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area, the 99th largest of 361 MSAs in the United States.[3]

The County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with the Amish community there being a major attraction. The term Pennsylvania Dutch comes from Pennsylvania German language, derived from the German Deutsch ('German'), Dutch Duits ('German'), Diets ('Dutch'): they are the descendants of Germans (Deutsche) who immigrated in the 18th and 19th centuries for the freedom of religion offered by William Penn,[4] and were attracted by the rich soil and mild climate of the area.[5] Freedom from poverty and political uncertainty also was a major factor. Also attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution with significant numbers of English, Welsh and Scots-Irish[6] settled this area in 1710.[7]

History[edit]

The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter,[8] and John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691.[9] Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that anyone actually settled in Lancaster County before 1710.[10]

Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it became the fourth county in the state.[11] Lancaster County was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, one of the early settlers.[12] Six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks (1752), Cumberland (1750), Dauphin (1785), Lebanon (1813), Northumberland (1772), and York (1749).[11] Many other counties were in turn formed from these six.

Indigenous peoples[edit]

Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, and established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Susquehannock, Gawanese, Lenape (or Delaware), and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families.[13]

Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name came from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". (The Lenape spoke an Algonquian language.)[14] The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village,Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga ("Roof-place" or "town"), anglicized as "Conestoga." [15] Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra ("Place-crawfish"), where present-day Chickisalunga developed, and Gasch'guch'sa ("Great-fall-in-river"), now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County).[16]

Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade. They were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were totally absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south-bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county. They helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Maryland and Virginia (and later, Pennsylvania). By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, and naming children after their favorite neighbors.[17]

The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, and burning all the house and stores. Officials sheltered the fourteen survivors of the tribe in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, and massacred the remaining Conestoga. The lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice.[18]

Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute[edit]

The Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute: The conflict occurred in the Conejohela Valley with the northern apex just north of the mid-river Coejohela Flats islands, south of Wrightsville, Pennsylvania. These were inundated after the Safe Harbor Dam flooded the upper Coejoheala under Lake Clarke.

Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River. Lord Baltimore believed that his grant[19] to Maryland extended to the 40th parallel.[20] This was about halfway between present-day Lancaster and the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania. This line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland.

New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730 the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and officially begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting on behalf of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania (at the time this was not named, but it was first called "Wright's Ferry", as noted on map). Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands. He had believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, and that his demesne and grant extended to forty degrees north. If he allowed Pennsylvanians to settle his lands without reacting, their squatting would constitute a counter claim.

Cresap established a second ferry in the upper Conejohela downriver from John Wright's, and near Peach Bottom. He demanded that settlers either move out or pay Maryland for the right-bank lands. Settlers believed they already had rights to these under Pennsylvania grants. Cresap drove off settlers by vandalizing farms and killing livestock; he pushed out settlers from southern York and Lancaster counties. He gave the abandoned lands to his followers. If a follower was arrested by Lancaster authorities, the Marylanders broke him out of the lockup.

Lord Baltimore negotiated a compromise in 1733, but Cresap ignored it and continued his raids. A deputy was sent to arrest him in 1734, and Cresap killed him at the door. The Pennsylvania governor demanded that Maryland arrest Cresap for murder; the Maryland governor instead commissioned him as a captain in the militia. In 1736, Cresap was finally arrested; he was jailed until 1737 when the King intervened. In 1750, a court decided that, by failing to develop the land with settlers, Lord Baltimore had forfeited his rights to a twenty-mile (32 km) swath of land.[20] In 1767, a new Pennsylvania-Maryland border was officially established by the Mason-Dixon line.

Diversity of settlers[edit]

The names of the original Lancaster County townships reflect the diverse national origins of settlers in the new county:[21] two had Welsh names (Caernarvon and Lampeter), three had Native American names (Cocalico, Conestoga and Peshtank or Paxton), six were English (Warwick, Lancaster, Martic, Sadsbury, Salisbury and Hempfield); four were Irish (Donegal, Drumore, Derry, and Leacock), reflecting mostly Scots-Irish from northern Ireland or Ulster; Manheim was German, Lebanon came from the Bible, a basis of all the European cultures; and Earl was a translation of the German surname of Graf or Groff.[22]

Lithograph of Thaddeus Stevens

19th-century statesmen[edit]

Lancaster County's native son James Buchanan, a Democrat, was elected as the 15th President of the United States in 1856,[23] the only Pennsylvanian to hold the presidency. His home Wheatland is now operated as a house museum in Lancaster.[24]

Thaddeus Stevens, the noted Radical Republican, served Lancaster County in the United States House of Representatives from 1849–1853 and from 1859 until his death in 1868.[25] Stevens left a $50,000 bequest to start an orphanage.[26] This property eventually was developed as the state-owned Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology. Both men are buried in Lancaster.[27]

Slavery and the Christiana incident[edit]

Pennsylvania abolished slavery in 1780, with gradual implementation.[28] The existing 6000 slaves in Pennsylvania remained slaves, and the registered children of those slaves were enslaved until their 28th birthday. The last slave child registered in Pennsylvania was Haley, born in 1811, who became a freedman no later than 1839.[29] Pennsylvania was fully a free state when the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed by Congress as part of the Compromise of 1850. It regarded slaves brought voluntarily to the state by their masters as free, and did not pay compensation if the slave chose to take freedom in the state.

Immediately north of the Mason-Dixon line, Lancaster County became an important site for fugitive slaves traveling along the Underground Railroad in the antebellum years. Many of the people of German descent opposed slavery and cooperated with aiding fugitive slaves. Charles Spotts found 17 stations.[30] They included hiding places with trap doors, hidden vaults, an underground cave, and one with a brick tunnel leading to Octoraro Creek.

Edward Gorsuch was not known to beat his slaves. As a wealthy Maryland wheat farmer, he had manumitted several slaves in their 20s. He allowed his slaves to work for cash elsewhere during the slow season. He learned that some of his wheat was missing, sold to a local farmer by his slaves, and he thought a former slave was responsible for this dishonesty. As he had a bad temper, slaves Noah Buley, Nelson Ford, George Ford, and Joshua Hammond became afraid. They fled across the state border to the farm of William Parker, a mulatto free man who lived in Christiana, Pennsylvania. Parker, 29, was an abolitionist and member of the Lancaster Black Self-Protection Society. He was known to use violence to defend himself and the fugitive slaves who sought refuge in the area.

Gorsuch obtained four warrants and organized four parties, which set out separately with federal marshals to recover his property - the four slaves. He was killed and others were wounded. While Gorsuch was legally entitled to recover his slaves under the Fugitive Slave Act, it is not clear who precipitated the violence. The incident was variously called the "Christiana Riot", "Christiana Resistance", the "Christiana Outrage", and the "Christiana Tragedy". The Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society helped provide defense for the suspects charged in the case.

The event frightened slaveholders, as black men fought back and they, not white, prevailed. Many feared this would inspire enslaved African Americans to participate in more slave rebellions. The case was prosecuted in Philadelphia US District Court under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which required citizens to cooperate in the capture and return of fugitive slaves. The disturbance caused regional and racial tensions to flair up more. In the North, it added to the push to abolish slavery.[31]

In September 1851, the grand jury returned a "true bill" (indictment) against 38 suspects, who were held in Moyamensing Prison in Philadelphia to await trial. Judge John K. Kane of the US District Court ruled that the men could be tried for treason.

The only person tried was Castner Hanway, a white man. It is not clear that Hanway had any responsibility for the violent events. He was reported as one of the first on the scene where Gorsuch and others of his party were attacked. Hanway and his horse provided cover for Dickerson, Gorsuch and Dr. Pearce, who were wounded.

Hanway was tried in federal court in Philadelphia on November 15, 1851 for liberating slaves taken into custody by U.S. Marshal Kline; for resisting arrest, for conspiracy, and for treason. The jury returned a Not Guilty verdict in 15 minutes. Among the five defense lawyers, recruited by the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society, was US Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. [32]

Religious history[edit]

The oldest surviving dwelling of European settlers in the county[33] is that of Mennonite Bishop Hans Herr, built in 1719. In 1989, Donald Kraybill counted 37 distinct religious bodies/organizations, with 289 congregations and 41,600 baptized members, among the plain sects who are descendants of the Anabaptist Mennonite immigrants to Lancaster County.[34] The Mennonite Central Committee in Akron supports relief in disasters[35] and provides manpower and material to local organizations for their direction in relief efforts.[36]

The town of Lititz was originally planned as a closed community, founded early in the 1740s by members of the Moravian Church. The town eventually grew and welcomed its neighbors. The Moravian Church established Linden Hall School for Girls in 1746; it is one of the earliest educational institutions in continuous operation in the United States.[37]

In addition to the Ephrata Cloister, the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) trace their beginnings to a 1767 meeting[38] at the Isaac Long barn, near the hamlet of Oregon, in West Lampeter Township.[39] The EUB, a German Methodist church, merged in 1968 with the traditionally English Methodist Episcopal Church to become the United Methodist Church.[40]

The first Jewish resident was Isaac Miranda[citation needed], from the Sephardic Jewish community of London, who owned property before the town and county were organized in 1730. Ten years later several Jewish families had settled in the town; on February 3, 1747, a deed to Isaac Nunus Ricus (Henriques) and Joseph Simon was recorded, conveying 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) of land "in trust for the society of Jews settled in and about Lancaster," to be used as a place of burial. Today, this cemetery is still in use by;[41] it is considered the fourth-oldest Jewish cemetery in the United States.

In the early 21st century, Lancaster County is home to three synagogues, the Orthodox Degel Israel, the Conservative Beth El, and the Reform Shaarai Shomayim. In 2003 Rabbi Elazar Green & Shira Green founded the Chabad Jewish Enrichment Center, a branch of the Chabad Lubavitch movement, that focuses on serving the Jewish students of Franklin and Marshall College, as well serving the general community with specific religious services. The larger community enjoys a Jewish Community Center which hosts a preschool, and a catering hall. The Lancaster Mikvah Association runs a mikveh on Degel Israel's property. Central PA Kosher Stand is operated at Dutch Wonderland, a seasonal amusement park.

This area was also settled by French Huguenots, who had fled to England and then the colonies in the late 1600s and early 1700s to escape religious persecution from Catholics in France. Among the first residents of this group was Isaac LeFèvre, who with a group of other Huguenots settled in the area of the Pequea Creek.

Inventions[edit]

A Pennsylvania Dutch Fraktur baptismal certificate from 1788

Government and politics[edit]

Political party affiliation[edit]

Republicans control the vast majority of state, county and municipal elected offices in Lancaster County.[48] Republican also hold a plurality of registered voters in the county.

In September 2008, the Democratic Party reached the benchmark of 100,000 registered voters for the first time in the county's history.[48][49] The party had just 82,171 registered Democrats in 2004.[48] As of 2008, the ratio of Republicans to Democrats in Lancaster County now stands at 1.8 Republicans to 1 Democrat, down from a 3-1 advantage for the Republicans in the late 1990s.[48]

Presidential Election results in Lancaster County
Democrats   Republicans
Registration Votes   Registration Votes
1980 40505 29.86% 30026 27.30%   95124 70.14% 79963 72.70%
1984 47235 29.31% 31308 24.01% 113906 70.69% 99090 75.99%
1988 41919 26.91% 38982 28.67%   113843 73.09% 96979 71.33%
1992 47206 28.03% 44255 33.35%   121190 71.97% 88447 66.65%
1996 56036 28.27% 49120 34.59%   142170 71.73% 92875 65.41%
2000 67932 29.01% 54968 32.17%   166272 70.99% 115900 67.83%
2004 74328 33.59%   145591 65.80%
2008 99586 43.44%   126568 55.21%
Source: The Committee of Seventy[50]

Elected officials[edit]

United States Senate[edit]

Senator Party
Bob Casey Democratic
Pat Toomey Republican

United States House of Representatives[edit]

District Representative Party
7 Pat Meehan Republican
16 Joe Pitts Republican

Pennsylvania State Senate[51][edit]

District Representative Party
13 Lloyd Smucker Republican
36 Michael Brubaker Republican
48 Mike Folmer Republican

Pennsylvania House of Representatives[52][edit]

District Representative Party
37 Mindy Fee Republican
41 Ryan Aument Republican
43 Keith Greiner Republican
96 Mike Sturla Democratic
97 Steven Mentzer Republican
98 David Hickernell Republican
99 Gordon Denlinger Republican
100 Brian Cutler Republican

Commissioners[edit]

Office Holder Party
County Commissioner Scott Martin Republican
County Commissioner Dennis Stuckey Republican
County Commissioner Craig Lehman Democratic

Row Officers[53][edit]

Office Holder Party
Clerk of Courts Josh Parsons Republican
Controller Kathryn B. Kunkel (acting) Republican
Coroner Dr. Stephen Diamantoni, M.D. Republican
District Attorney Craig Stedman, Esq. Republican
Jury Commissioner Debbie Frantz Democratic
Jury Commissioner Kathleen Harrison Republican
Prothonotary Katherine Wood-Jacobs Republican
Recorder of Deeds Bonnie Bowman Republican
Register of Wills Mary Ann Gerber Republican
Sheriff Mark Reese Republican
Treasurer Craig Ebersole Republican

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 984 square miles (2,548.5 km2), of which 949 square miles (2,457.9 km2) of which is land and 35 square miles (90.6 km2) (3.53%) is water.[54]

Watersheds[edit]

Almost all of Lancaster County is in the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, via the Susquehanna River watershed (the exception is a small unnamed tributary of the West Branch of Brandywine Creek that rises in eastern Salisbury Township and is part of the Delaware River watershed).[55] The major streams in the county (with percent area drained) are: Conestoga River and Little Conestoga Creek (31.42%); Pequea Creek (15.02%); Chiques Creek (or Chickies Creek, 12.07%); Cocalico Creek (11.25%); Octoraro Creek (10.74%); and Conowingo Creek (3.73%).[56]

Protected areas[edit]

Lancaster County is home to Susquehannock State Park, located on 224 acres (91 ha) overlooking the Susquehanna River in Drumore Township.[57] One of the three tracts comprising William Penn State Forest, the 10-acre (4.0 ha) Cornwall fire tower site, is located in northern Penn Township near the Lebanon County border. The site, with its 1923 fire tower, was acquired by the state in January, 1935.[58]

There are also six Pennsylvania State Game Lands for hunting, trapping, and fishing located in Lancaster County. They are numbers (with location and area): 46 (near Hopeland, 5,035 acres (2,038 ha)), 52 (near Morgantown, 1,447 acres (586 ha)), 136 (near Kirkwood, 91 acres (37 ha)), 156 (near Poplar Grove, 4,537 acres (1,836 ha)), 220 (near Reinholds, 96 acres (39 ha)), and 288 (near Martic Forge, 89 acres (36 ha)).[59]

The southern border of Lancaster county has some protected serpentine barrens, a rare ecosystem where toxic metals in the soil inhibit the growth of plants and lead to the formation of natural grassland and savanna. These barrens include the New Texas Serpentine Barrens, privately owned land managed by The Nature Conservancy,[60] and Rock Springs Nature Preserve, a publicly accessible preserve with hiking trails owned and managed by the Lancaster County Conservancy.[61]

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania also leads the nation in farmland preservation. Organizations like the Lancaster Farmland Trust, the Lancaster County Agricultural Preservation Board, and multiple municipalities work in partnership with landowners to preserve their farms and way of life for future generations by placing a conservation easement on their property. A conservation easement restricts real estate development, commercial and industrial uses, and certain other activities on the land that are mutually agreed upon by the grantees and the property owner. After giving up their development rights, landowners continue to manage and own their properties and may receive significant income tax breaks. The conservation easement ensures that the land will remain available for agricultural use forever. Lancaster Farmland Trust is a private, non-profit organization that works closely with the vast Amish and Plain-Sect communities of Lancaster County to ensure their farms will retain their agricultural value. Together, with the Lancaster County Agricultural Preserve Board, the County is approaching a milestone of 100,000 acres of preserved farmland in the county---a first in the nation.[62]

Seismicity[edit]

The area falls along the general track of the Appalachian Mountains along the east coast of the North America. As such, residual seismic activity from ancient faulting occasionally produces minor earthquakes of magnitude 3 to 4. For example, on December 27, 2008, shortly after midnight, Lancaster County had a 3.3 magnitude earthquake which was widely felt in the Susquehanna Valley but caused no damage to structures.[63]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Lancaster County is bounded to the north by Lebanon County, to the northeast by Berks County, and to the east by Chester County (the southeastern boundary with Chester County is formed by Octoraro Creek). To the south are Cecil and Harford Counties, Maryland (across the Mason-Dixon line).[64] To the west is York County (the boundary is the western shore of the Susquehanna River). To the northwest is Dauphin County (the boundary is formed by Conewago Creek).[65]


Transportation[edit]

Lying on the natural route from Philadelphia to the western part of Pennsylvania, Lancaster County has given rise to many improvements in transportation, among them the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, later part of the Lincoln Highway, in 1794,[66] a canal in 1820 and the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad in 1834.[67]

Highways[edit]

Lancaster County's highways include the Pennsylvania Turnpike (or Interstate 76), U.S. Route 30 (or the Lincoln Highway), U.S. Route 222, and U.S. Route 322. Pennsylvania State Routes in the county include: 10, 23, 41, 72, 230, 241, 272, 283, 324, 340, 372, 441, 462, 472, 501, 625, 741, 743, 772, 896, 897, and 999.[65]

Current railroads[edit]

As of 2006, passenger service in Lancaster County is provided by Amtrak, whose Keystone Corridor passes through the county, with stops at Lancaster, Mount Joy and Elizabethtown. A station is planned at Paradise to provide connecting service with the Strasburg Railroad, which runs passenger excursions from nearby Leaman Place to Strasburg.

The principal freight operator in the county is Norfolk Southern Railway (NS). The NS main line follows the Susquehanna River (with trackage rights for Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR)), and leaves the county by crossing the river on Shocks Mills Bridge near Marietta. NS also has trackage rights over the Keystone Corridor, to which it is connected by the Royalton Branch, which runs north along the river from the main line at Marietta, and the Columbia Branch, which runs from the Corridor at Dillerville to the main line at Columbia. Two other NS branches originate on the Corridor: the Lititz Secondary, which runs from Dillerville to Manheim and ends at Lititz, and the New Holland Industrial, which leaves the Corridor around the east end of Lancaster to run east to New Holland and ends at East Earl.

Several shortlines also operate in the county. With the exception of the Strasburg Railroad, all are freight railroads. The East Penn Railroad (ESPN) operates on a spur off the NS branch to Manheim, and on a longer line in the northeast corner of Lancaster County into Berks County. Landisville Terminal and Transfer Company (LNTV) operates on a spur off the Amtrak line at Landisville. The Tyburn Railroad operates some trackage around Dillerville. Most recently, the Columbia and Reading Railway (CORY) began operating on 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of track in Columbia in January 2010.[68]

Airport[edit]

Lancaster Airport is the only airport in the county with scheduled service, though Smoketown Airport also serves general aviation.

Flora and fauna[edit]

The bog turtle was first discovered and identified by science in Lancaster County by botanist Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg. Muhlenberg discovered the turtle species accidentally while he was conducting a survey of the flora in Lancaster County.[69] The species was named Muhlenberg's tortoise in 1801, but renamed bog turtle, its present common name, in 1956.[69]

Metropolitan Statistical Area[edit]

The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Lancaster County as the Lancaster, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.[70] The United States Census Bureau ranked the Lancaster, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 101st most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 100th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012.[71][72]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 36,081
1800 43,403 20.3%
1810 53,927 24.2%
1820 68,336 26.7%
1830 76,631 12.1%
1840 84,203 9.9%
1850 98,944 17.5%
1860 116,314 17.6%
1870 121,340 4.3%
1880 139,447 14.9%
1890 149,095 6.9%
1900 159,241 6.8%
1910 167,029 4.9%
1920 173,797 4.1%
1930 196,882 13.3%
1940 212,504 7.9%
1950 234,717 10.5%
1960 278,359 18.6%
1970 319,693 14.8%
1980 362,346 13.3%
1990 422,822 16.7%
2000 470,658 11.3%
2010 519,445 10.4%
Est. 2012 526,823 1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[73]
2012 Estimate[2]
Growth rate of Lancaster County population (dark blue) lagged the growth rate of the U.S. population (magenta) until the second half of the 20th century. Chart shows population growth as a percentage of the previous decennial census.
Lancaster County Demographics[74]
2004 County State U.S.
White 93.6% 86.2% 80.4%
African American 3.4% 10.5% 12.8%
Native American 0.2% 0.2% 1.0%
Asian 1.6% 2.2% 4.2%
Pacific Islander 0.1% 0.0% 0.2%
Two or more races 1.1% 0.9% 1.5%
Hispanic/Latino of any race 6.5% 3.8% 14.1%

As of the census[75] of 2000, there were 470,658 people, 172,560 households, and 124,070 families residing in the county. The population density was 496 people per square mile (191/km²). There were 179,990 housing units at an average density of 190 per square mile (73/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 91.46% White, 2.76% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.90% from other races, and 1.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.68% of the population.

There were 172,560 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.90% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.10% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the county the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, and 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.60 males.

5.58% of the population and 8.37% of the children aged 5–17 reported speaking Pennsylvania German, German, or Dutch at home, while a further 4.97% of the population spoke Spanish.[76] 39.8% were of German, 11.8% United States or American, 7.2% Irish and 5.7% English ancestry according to the United States Census, 2000. According to official Census Bureau estimates, the county's population had grown to 490,562 by 2005.[74]

It is estimated that around 30,000 Amish people live in Lancaster county, which is around 6.37% of the total population.

Religion[edit]

Unaffiliated: 51%
Catholic: 9%
Anabaptist: 8%
Methodist: 6%
Lutheran: 5%
Brethren: 2%
United Church of Christ: 2%
Presbyterian: 2%
Independent Churches: 1%
Holiness Churches: 1%
Other: 13%
Overall 28% of the population in Lancaster County is either Protestant or Protestant reformed

[77]

Dialect[edit]

Some inhabitants of Lancaster County speak with a Pennsylvania Dutch influenced dialect.[78] This dialect is most commonly used in the Lancaster, Lebanon, York, and Harrisburg areas, and incorporates influences from the Pennsylvania Dutch to include not only dialect but also in nomenclature. But the main difference and what people take notice of from outside the area is the Pennsylvania Dutch English that people from Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg use.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

In 2004, the county had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $30,790, only 93% of the national average. This reflects a growth of 4.5% from the prior year, versus a 5.0% growth for the nation as a whole.[3] Despite the lower income, the county poverty rate in 2003 was just 8.3% compared to a national rate of 12.5%. In 2004, federal spending in Lancaster County was $4,199 per resident, versus a national average of $7,232.[74]

In 2005, Lancaster County was 10th of all counties in Pennsylvania with 17.7% of its workforce employed in manufacturing; the state averages 13.7%, and the leader, Crawford County, has only 25.1%.[79]

Lancaster County lags in information workers, despite being the corporate headquarters of MapQuest.[80] It ranks 31st in the state with only 1.3% of the workforce; the state as a whole employs 2.1% in information technology.[81]

The county ranks 11th in the state in managerial and financial workers, despite having only 12.5% of the workforce in those occupations (versus the state average of 12.8%). The state leaders are Chester County with 20.5% and Montgomery County with 18.5%.[82]

With only 17.3% working in the professions, Lancaster County is 31st in Pennsylvania, compared to a state average of 21.5%. Centre County leads with 31.8%, undoubtedly due to Penn State's giant footprint in an otherwise rural county, but the upscale Philadelphia suburbs of Montgomery County give them 27.2%.[83]

Lancaster County ranks even lower, 34th, in service workers, with 13.3% of the workforce, compared to a state average of 15.8%. Philadelphia County, leads with 20.5%.[84]

Lancaster County has an unemployment rate of 7.8% as of August 2010. This is a rise from a rate of 7.6% the previous year.[85]

There are 11,000 companies in Lancaster County.[86] The county's largest manufacturing and distributing employers at the end of 2003 were Acme Markets, Alumax Mill Products, Anvil International, Armstrong World Industries, Bollman Hat, CNH Global, Conestoga Wood Specialties, Dart Container, High Industries, Lancaster Laboratories, Pepperidge Farm, R R Donnelley & Sons, The Hershey Company, Tyco Electronics, Tyson Foods, Warner-Lambert, and Yellow Transportation.[87]

Auntie Anne's, Clipper Magazine, Lancaster Farming, MapQuest, Turkey Hill Dairy, Clair Brothers, and Wilbur Chocolate Company are Lancaster County-based organizations with an economic footprint of regional or national significance.

Herley Industries is a local producer of microwave and millimeter wave products for the defense and aerospace industries.

A typical Lancaster County farm with a horse-drawn farm implement and a corn field behind
A typical field of grain

Agriculture[edit]

With some of the most fertile non-irrigated soil in the U.S., Lancaster County has a strong farming industry.[88][89] Lancaster County's 5293 farms, generating $800 million in food, feed and fiber, are responsible for nearly a fifth of the state's agricultural output.[90] Chester County, with its high-value mushroom farms, is second, with $375 million.[91]

Livestock-raising is responsible for $710 million of that $800 million, with dairy accounting for $266 million, poultry and eggs accounting for $258 million. Cattle and swine each account for about $90 million.[90]

Amish dairy farms

Agriculture is likely to remain an important part of Lancaster County: almost exactly half of Lancaster County's land – 320,000 acres (130,000 ha) – is zoned for agriculture, and of those, 276,000 acres (112,000 ha) are "effective agricultural zoning", requiring at least 20 acres (8.1 ha) per residence.[92]

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a significant industry in Lancaster County, employing 47,000.[93]

"I brake for Shoofly Pie" is the state tourism slogan.[94]

In the 1860s, articles in the Atlantic Monthly and Lippincott’s Magazine started tourism in Lancaster County right after the Civil War, but it didn't really take off until the 1920s, when the Lincoln Highway was built. A New York Times travel article in 1952 brought 25,000 visitors, and the 1955 Broadway musical Plain and Fancy brought even more, but tourism tapered off, after the 1974 gas rationing and the Three Mile Island incident led to five years of stagnation.[93]

The Central Market in Lancaster, a popular tourist attraction

Local tourism officials viewed it as deus ex machina when Hollywood stepped in to rescue their industry. Harrison Ford, in the popular 1985 movie Witness, played John Book, a Philadelphia detective who in turn played "Plain" in order to protect Samuel Lapp, an Old Order Amish boy who has witnessed a murder. Predictably, John Book falls in love with Rachel Lapp, the boy's widowed mother; the movie is less a thriller than a romance about the difficulties faced by an English man in love with a Plain widow.[95] The film was nominated for eight Oscars, and won two.[96] However, the real winner was Lancaster County tourism, as movie-goers found themselves intrigued by the Plain.

Once again, especially after the 9/11 attacks, tourism in Lancaster County has shifted. Instead of families arriving for a 3–4 day stay for a general visit, now tourists arrive for a specific event, whether it be the rhubarb festival, the "maize maze", to see Thomas the Tank Engine, for Sertoma's annual "World's Largest Chicken Barbecue" or for the latest show at Sight & Sound Theatres.[93] The tourism industry is discouraged by this change, but not despondent:

"In four years of working here on the Strasburg Rail Road, I’ve only had one complaint, she said that the ride is too short. People love Lancaster County. They’ll keep coming back." – Betty McCormack[93]
One of the 29 covered bridges in Lancaster County.

The county also promotes tourist visits to the county's numerous historic and picturesque covered bridges by publishing driving tours of the bridges.[97] At over 200 bridges still in existence, Pennsylvania has more covered bridges than anywhere else in the world, and at 29 covered bridges, Lancaster County has the largest share.[98]

The Lancaster County Convention Center Authority [9] is building a controversial $170 million[99] convention center in downtown Lancaster on the site of the former Watt & Shand building. The project's supporters believe it would promote the revitalization of the city's center. Its opponents, however, feel it poses an unacceptable risk to taxpayers.[100]

Other tourist attractions include the American Music Theatre, Dutch Wonderland, Ephrata Cloister, Ephrata Fair, Hans Herr House, Landis Valley Museum, Pennsylvania Dutch Country, Pennsylvania Renaissance Faire (one of the largest Renaissance fairs in the world[101]), Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, Rock Ford plantation, Robert Fulton Birthplace, Sight & Sound Theatres, Strasburg Railroad, Wilbur Chocolate, Wheatland (James Buchanan House) and Sturgis Pretzel House. There are many tours of this historic area including the Downtown Lancaster Walking Tour.[102]

Municipalities[edit]

Map of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania with Municipal Labels showing Cities and Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue).

The following cities, boroughs, and townships are located in Lancaster County:

City[edit]

Boroughs[edit]

Christiana, Pennsylvania is the least populated borough in Lancaster County, as of 2010.[103] Ephrata is the most populous.

Townships[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the United States Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law.

Other communities[edit]

Many communities are neither incorporated nor treated as census-designated places.

Education[edit]

The colleges of Lancaster County are Elizabethtown College, Franklin & Marshall College, Harrisburg Area Community College, Lancaster Bible College, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania College of Art and Design, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology and Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences.

Map of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Public School Districts

There are 16 public school districts in the county:

There is also one charter school, the La Academia Charter School.

Linden Hall, an independent boarding and day school for girls, is located in Lititz.

Additionally, Lancaster County has a federated library system with 14 member libraries, three branches and a bookmobile. The Library System of Lancaster County was established in April 1987 to provide well-coordinated countywide services and cooperative programs to assist member libraries in meeting the diverse needs of its community residents. The Board of Lancaster County Commissioners appoints the Library System of Lancaster County's seven-member board of directors. The System is an agent of the Commonwealth which supported Pennsylvania and The County of Lancaster.

Sports[edit]

Before the Barnstormers, Lancaster was the home of the Lancaster Red Roses, which played from 1906 to about 1930, and from 1932 to 1961.[104] In 2005, the Lancaster Barnstormers joined the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. The Barnstormers are named after the "barnstorming" players who played exhibition games in the county. Their official colors are red, navy blue, and khaki, the same as those of the Red Roses. This franchise won their first league championship in 2006, only their second season. They have revived the old baseball rivalry between Lancaster and nearby York, called the War of the Roses, when the York Revolution started their inaugural season in 2007.[105]

The Women's Premier Soccer League expanded to Lancaster for the 2008 season, with the Lancaster Inferno. The WPSL is a FIFA-recognized women's league. The Inferno is owned by the Pennsylvania Classics organization and play their home games at the Hempfield High School stadium in Landisville. The Inferno's colors are orange, black, and white.

Amateur teams[edit]

Since 2004, the amateur Lancaster Lightning football team of the North American Football League has played at Pequea Valley High School's football stadium in Kinzers.[106]

Lancaster is also the home of the Dutchland Derby Rollers (DDR), a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA.) Founded in 2006, The Dutchland Rollers boast 2 travel teams, the All-Stars and the Blitz. Both rosters play teams from neighboring leagues, though it is the Dutchland All-Stars that compete for national ranking. Their home rink is Overlook Activities Center, and their colors are orange and black.

Former teams[edit]

From 1946 to 1980, a professional basketball team known as the Lancaster Red Roses (as well as the Lancaster Rockets and the Lancaster Lightning) played in the Continental Basketball Association.[107]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°02′N 76°15′W / 40.04°N 76.25°W / 40.04; -76.25