Luis Buñuel, 1968
|Born||Luis Buñuel Portolés
22 February 1900
Calanda, Teruel, Spain
|Died||29 July 1983 (aged 83)
Mexico City, Mexico
|Spouse(s)||Jeanne Buñuel (1925–1983; his death)|
When Luis Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in the New York Times called him "an iconoclast, moralist, and revolutionary who was a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later". His first picture—made in the silent era—was called "the most famous short film ever made" by critic Roger Ebert, and his last film—made 48 years later—won him Best Director awards from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics. Writer Octavio Paz called Buñuel's work "the marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality...scandalous and subversive".
Often associated with the surrealist movement of the 1920s, Buñuel created films from the 1920s through the 1970s. His work spans two continents, three languages, and nearly every film genre, including experimental film, documentary, melodrama, satire, musical, erotica, comedy, romance, costume dramas, fantasy, crime film, adventure, and western. Despite this variety, filmmaker John Huston believed that, regardless of genre, a Buñuel film is so distinctive as to be instantly recognizable, or, as Ingmar Bergman put it, "Buñuel nearly always made Buñuel films".
Six of Buñuel's films are included in Sight & Sound's 2012 critic's poll of the top 250 films of all time. 15 of his films are included in They Shoot Pictures, Don't They? list of the 1,000 greatest films of all time, which is tied with John Ford for second most, and he ranks number 14 on their list of the top 250 directors.
- 1 Early years (1900–1924)
- 2 Career
- 3 Influences
- 4 Technique
- 5 Tributes
- 6 Characterizations
- 7 Awards
- 8 Filmography
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early years (1900–1924)
Buñuel was born in Calanda, a small town in the province of Teruel, in the Aragon region of Spain, to Leonardo Buñuel, the cultivated scion of an established Aragonese family, and María Portolés, many years younger than her husband, with wealth and family connections of her own.:pp.16–17 He would later describe his birthplace by saying that in Calanda, "the Middle Ages lasted until World War I". The oldest of seven children, Luis had two brothers, Alfonso and Leonardo, and four sisters: Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María.
When Buñuel was just four and a half months old, the family moved to Zaragoza, where they were one of the wealthiest families in town.:p.22 In Zaragoza, Buñuel received a strict Jesuit education at the private Colegio del Salvador.:pp.23–36 After being kicked and insulted by the study hall proctor before a final exam, Buñuel refused to return to the school. He told his mother he had been expelled, which was not true; in fact, he had received the highest marks on his world history exam. Buñuel finished the last two years of his high school education at the local public school. Even as a child, Buñuel was something of a cinematic showman; friends from that period described productions in which Buñuel would project shadows on a screen using a magic lantern and a bedsheet. He also excelled at boxing and playing the violin.
In his youth, Buñuel was deeply religious, serving at Mass and taking Communion every day, until, at age 16, he grew disgusted with what he perceived as the illogicality of the Church, along with its power and wealth.:p.292
In 1917 he went to university at the University of Madrid, first studying agronomy then industrial engineering and finally switching to philosophy. He developed very close relationships with painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish creative artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes, with the three friends forming the nucleus of the Spanish Surrealist avant-garde, and becoming known as members of "La Generacion del 27". Buñuel was especially taken with Lorca, later writing in his autobiography: "We liked each other instantly. Although we seemed to have little in common—I was a redneck from Aragon, and he an elegant Andalusian—we spent most of our time together... We used to sit on the grass in the evenings behind the Residencia (at that time, there were vast open spaces reaching to the horizon), and he would read me his poems. He read slowly and beautifully, and through him I began to discover a wholly new world.":p.62 Buñuel's relationship with Dalí was somewhat more troubled, being tinged with jealousy over the growing intimacy between Dalí and Lorca and resentment over Dalí's early success as an artist.:p.300
Starting when he was 17, he steadily dated the future poet and dramatist Concha Mendez, with whom he vacationed every summer at San Sebastián, introducing her as his fiancée to his friends at the Residencia. After five years, she broke off the relationship, citing Buñuel's "insufferable character".
During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist. He claimed that once, while calming a hysterical prostitute through hypnotic suggestion, he inadvertently put one of the several bystanders into a trance as well.:p.67 He was often to insist that watching movies was a form of hypnosis: "This kind of cinematographic hypnosis is no doubt due to the darkness of the theatre and to the rapidly changing scenes, lights, and camera movements, which weaken the spectator's critical intelligence and exercise over him a kind of fascination.":p.69
Buñuel's interest in films was intensified by a viewing of Fritz Lang's Der müde Tod: "I came out of the Vieux Colombier [theater] completely transformed. Images could and did become for me the true means of expression. I decided to devote myself to the cinema". At age 72, Buñuel had not lost his enthusiasm for this film, asking the octogenarian Lang for his autograph.:p.301
First French period (1925–1931)
In 1925 Buñuel moved to Paris, where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation.:p.124 He also became actively involved in cinema and theater, going to the movies as often as three times a day. Through these interests, he met a number of influential people, including the pianist Ricardo Viñes, who was instrumental in securing Buñuel's selection as artistic director of the Dutch premiere of Manuel de Falla's puppet-opera El retablo de maese Pedro in 1926.:p.29
He decided to enter the film industry and enrolled in a private film school run by Jean Epstein and some associates. At that time, Epstein was one of the most celebrated commercial directors working in France, his films being hailed as "the triumph of impressionism in motion, but also the triumph of the modern spirit". Before long, Buñuel was working for Epstein as an assistant director on Mauprat (1926) and La chute de la maison Usher (1928), and also for Mario Nalpas on La Sirène des Tropiques (1927), starring Josephine Baker. He appeared on screen in a small part as a smuggler in Jacques Feyder's Carmen (1926).
When Buñuel somewhat derisively refused to acquiesce to Epstein's demand that he assist Epstein's mentor, Abel Gance, who was at the time working on the film Napoléon, Epstein dismissed him angrily, saying "How can a little asshole like you dare to talk that way about a great director like Gance?":p.30 then added "You seem rather surrealist. Beware of surrealists, they are crazy people."
After parting with Epstein, Buñuel worked as film critic for La Gaceta Literaria (1927) and Les Cahiers d'Art (1928).:p.30 In the periodicals L'Amic de les Arts and La gaseta de les Arts, he and Dalí carried on a series of "call and response" essays on cinema and theater, debating such technical issues as segmentation, découpage, "photogenia" (founded on the insert shot) and rhythmic editing. He also collaborated with the celebrated writer Ramón Gómez de la Serna on the script for what he hoped would be his first film, "a story in six scenes" called Los caprichos.:pp.30–31 Through his involvement with Gaceta Literaria, he helped establish Madrid’s first cine-club and served as its inaugural chairman.
It was during this time that he met his future wife, Jeanne Rucar, a gymnastics teacher who had won an Olympic bronze medal. Buñuel courted her in a formal Aragonese manner, complete with a chaperone, and they married in 1934 despite a warning by Jean Epstein when Buñuel first proposed in 1930: "Jeanne, you are making a mistake... It's not right for you, don't marry him." The two remained married throughout his life and had two sons, Juan-Luis and Rafael. Diego Buñuel, filmmaker and host of the National Geographic Channel's Don't Tell My Mother series, is their grandson.
Un Chien Andalou (1929)
After this apprenticeship, Buñuel co-wrote and directed a 16-minute short, Un Chien Andalou, with Salvador Dalí. The film, financed by Buñuel's mother, consists of a series of startling images of a Freudian nature, starting with a woman's eyeball being sliced open with a razor blade. Un Chien Andalou was enthusiastically received by the burgeoning French surrealist movement of the time and continues to be shown regularly in film societies to this day.
The script was written in six days at Dalí's home in Cadaqués. In a letter to a friend written in February 1929, Buñuel described the writing process, "We had to look for the plot line. Dalí said to me, 'I dreamed last night of ants swarming around in my hands', and I said, 'Good Lord, and I dreamed that I had sliced somebody or other's eye. There's the film, let's go and make it.'" In deliberate contrast to the approach taken by Jean Epstein and his peers, which was to never leave anything in their work to chance, with every aesthetic decision having a rational explanation and fitting clearly into the whole, Buñuel and Dalí made a cardinal point of eliminating all logical associations. In Buñuel's words: "Our only rule was very simple: no idea or image that might lend itself to a rational explanation of any kind would be accepted. We had to open all doors to the irrational and keep only those images that surprised us, without trying to explain why".:p.104
It was Buñuel's intention to shock and insult the intellectual bourgeoisie of his youth, later saying: "Historically the film represents a violent reaction against what in those days was called ‘avant-garde,’ which was aimed exclusively at artistic sensibility and the audience’s reason.” Against his hopes and expectations, the film was a huge success amongst the French bourgeoisie, leading Buñuel to exclaim in exasperation, "What can I do about the people who adore all that is new, even when it goes against their deepest convictions, or about the insincere, corrupt press, and the inane herd that saw beauty or poetry in something which was basically no more than a desperate impassioned call for murder?"
Although Un Chien Andalou is a silent film, during the original screening (attended by the elite of the Parisian art world), Buñuel played a sequence of phonograph records which he switched manually while keeping his pockets full of stones with which to pelt anticipated hecklers. Through the film, Dalí and Buñuel became the first filmmakers to be officially welcomed into the ranks of the Surrealists by the movement's leader André Breton, an event recalled by film historian Georges Sadoul: "Breton had convoked the creators to our usual venue [the Café Radio]... one summer's evening. Dalí had the large eyes, grace, and timidity of a gazelle. To us, Buñuel, big and athletic, his black eyes protruding a little, seemed exactly like he always is in Un Chien Andalou, meticulously honing the razor that will slice the open eye in two."
L'Age d'Or (1930)
Late in 1929, on the strength of Un Chien Andalou, Buñuel and Dalí were commissioned to make another short film by Marie-Laurie and Charles de Noailles, owners of a private cinema on the Place des États-Unis and financial supporters of productions by Jacques Manuel, Man Ray and Pierre Chenal.:p.124 At first, the intent was that the new film be around the same length as Un Chien, only this time with sound. But by mid-1930, the film had grown segmentally to an hour's duration.:p.116 Anxious that it was over twice as long as planned and at double the budget, Buñuel offered to trim the film and cease production, but Noailles gave him the go-ahead to continue the project.:p.116
The film, entitled L'Age d'Or, was begun as a second collaboration with Dalí, but, while working on the scenario, the two had a falling out; Buñuel, who at the time had strong leftist sympathies, desired a deliberate undermining of all bourgeois institutions, while Dalí, who eventually supported the Spanish nationalist dictator Francisco Franco and various figures of the European aristocracy, wanted merely to cause a scandal through the use of various scatological and anti-Catholic images. The friction between them was exacerbated when, at a dinner party in Cadaqués, Buñuel tried to throttle Dalí's girlfriend, Gala, the wife of Surrealist poet Paul Éluard. In consequence, Dalí had nothing to do with the actual shooting of the film.:pp.276–277 During the course of production, Buñuel worked around his technical ignorance by filming mostly in sequence and using nearly every foot of film that he shot. Buñuel invited friends and acquaintances to appear, gratis, in the film; for example, anyone who owned a tuxedo or a party frock got a part in the salon scene.:p.116
L'Âge d'Or was publicly proclaimed by Dalí as a deliberate attack on Catholicism, and this precipitated a much larger scandal than Un Chien Andalou. One early screening was taken over by members of the fascist League of Patriots and the Anti-Jewish Youth Group, who hurled purple ink at the screen and then vandalised the adjacent art gallery, destroying a number of valuable surrealist paintings. The film was banned "in the name of public order". The de Noailles, both Catholics, were threatened with excommunication by The Vatican because of the film’s blasphemous final scene (which visually links Jesus Christ with the writings of the Marquis de Sade), so they made the decision in 1934 to withdraw all prints from circulation, and L'Age d'Or was not seen again until 1979, after their deaths. The furor was so great that the premiere of another film financed by the de Noailles, Jean Cocteau's The Blood of a Poet, had to be delayed for over two years until outrage over L'Age d'Or had died down. To make matters worse, Charles de Noailles was forced to withdraw his membership from the Jockey Club.
Concurrent with the succès de scandale, both Buñuel and the film's leading lady, Lya Lys, received offers of interest from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and traveled to Hollywood at the studio's expense. While in the United States, Buñuel associated with other celebrity expatriates including Sergei Eisenstein, Josef Von Sternberg, Jacques Feyder, Charles Chaplin and Bertolt Brecht. All that was required of Buñuel by his loose-ended contract with MGM was that he "learn some good American technical skills", but, after being ushered off the first set he visited because the star, Greta Garbo, did not welcome intruders, he decided to stay at home most of the time and only show up to collect his paycheck. His only enduring contribution to MGM came when he served as an extra in La Fruta Amarga, a Spanish-language remake of Min and Bill. When, after a few months at the studio, he was asked to watch rushes of Lili Damita to gauge her Spanish accent, he refused and sent a message to studio boss Irving Thalberg stating that he was there as a Frenchman, not a Spaniard, and he "didn't have time to waste listening to one of the whores".:p.18 He was back in Spain shortly thereafter.
Spain in the early 1930s was a time of political and social turbulence, a period of intense and bloody upheaval. Mobs led by anarchists and Radical Socialists sacked monarchist headquarters in Madrid and proceeded to set afire or otherwise wreck more than a dozen churches in the capital while similar acts of arson and vandalism occurred in a score of other cities in southern and eastern Spain, in most cases with the acquiescence and occasionally with the assistance of the official Republican authorities.
Buñuel's future wife, Jeanne Rucar, recalled that during that period, "he got very excited about politics and the ideas that were everywhere in pre-Civil War Spain". In the first flush of his enthusiasm, Buñuel joined the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) in 1931:pp.85–114 though later in life he denied becoming a Communist.:p.72 It was soon made clear to him that he could not be both a Communist and a Surrealist; his artistic collaborator Pierre Unik recounted in a letter of 30 January 1932 that "a comrade from Agit-Prop" called Buñuel and others together to tell them that, "Surrealism was a movement of bourgeois degeneration", continuing, "What will the rank-and-file comrades say the day I have to announce to them, 'Comrades, I no longer have the right to militate amongst you...because I'm a degenerate bourgeois?'":p.97 In consequence, on 6 May 1932, Buñuel wrote a letter to André Breton renouncing his membership in the Surrealist group: "Given the current state of things there could be no question for a Communist of doubting for an instant between the choice of his party and any other sort of activity or discipline".
In 1932 Buñuel was invited to serve as film documentarian for the celebrated Mission Dakar-Djibouti, the first large-scale French anthropological field expedition, which, led by Marcel Griaule, unearthed some 3,500 African artifacts for the new Musée de l'Homme.:p.45 Although he declined, the project piqued his interest in ethnography. After reading the academic study, Las Jurdes: étude de géographie humaine (1927) by Maurice Legendre, he decided to make a film focused on peasant life in Extremadura, one of Spain's poorest states. The film, called Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan (1933), was financed on a budget of 20,000 pesetas donated by a working-class anarchist friend named Ramón Acín, who had won the money in a lottery. In the film, Buñuel matches scenes of deplorable social conditions with narration that resembles travelogue commentary delivered by a detached-sounding announcer, while the soundtrack thunders inappropriate music by Brahms.
Las Hurdes was banned by three successive Republican governments, definitively by Franco when he came to power. It is film which continues to perplex viewers and resists easy categorization by film historians. Las Hurdes has been called one of the first examples of mockumentary, and has been labeled a "surrealist documentary", a term defined by critic Mercè Ibarz as "A multi-layered and unnerving use of sound, the juxtaposition of narrative forms already learnt from the written press, travelogues and new pedagogic methods, as well as a subversive use of photographed and filmed documents understood as a basis for contemporary propaganda for the masses". Catherine Russell has stated that in Las Hurdes, Buñuel was able to reconcile his political philosophy with his surrealist aesthetic, with surrealism becoming, "a means of awakening a marxist materialism in danger of becoming a stale orthodoxy."
After Las Hurdes, Buñuel worked in Paris in the dubbing department of Paramount Pictures, but following his marriage in 1934, he switched to Warner Brothers because they operated dubbing studios in Madrid.:p.39 A friend, Ricardo Urgoiti, who owned the commercial film company Filmófono, invited Buñuel to produce films for a mass audience. He accepted the offer, viewing it as an "experiment" as he knew the film industry in Spain was still far behind the technical level of Hollywood or Paris.:p.56 According to film historian Manuel Rotellar’s interviews with members of the cast and crew of the Filmófono studios, Buñuel’s only condition was that his involvement with these pictures be completely anonymous, apparently for fear of damaging his reputation as a surrealist. Rotellar insists, however, "the truth is that it was Luis Buñuel who directed the Filmófono productions".:p.37 José Luis Sáenz de Heredia, the titular director of two of the films created during Buñuel's years as "executive producer" at Filmófono, recounted that it was Buñuel who "explained to me every morning what he wanted...We looked at the takes together and it was Buñuel who chose the shots, and in editing, I wasn’t even allowed to be present.":p.39 Of the 18 films produced by Buñuel during his years at Filmófono, the four that are believed by critical consensus to have been directed by him are:
- Don Quintín el amargao (Don Quintin the Sourpuss), 1935 – a musical based on a play by Carlos Arniches, the first zarzuela (a type of Spanish opera) filmed in sound.
- La hija de Juan Simón (Juan Simón's Daughter), 1935 – another musical and a major commercial success
- ¿Quién me quiere a mí? (Who Loves Me?), 1936 – a sentimental comedy that Buñuel called "my only commercial failure, and a pretty dismal one at that.":p.144
- ¡Centinela, alerta!, (Sentry, Keep Watch!), 1937 – a comedy and Filmófono's biggest box-office hit.
During the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), Buñuel placed himself at the disposal of the Republican government.:p.255 The minister for foreign affairs sent him first to Geneva and then to Paris for two years, with official responsibility for cataloging Republican propaganda films.:p.6 But Buñuel didn't limit his efforts to this alone; some of his other activities included taking left-wing tracts to Spain, occasionally doing some spying, acting as a bodyguard, and supervising the making of a documentary, titled España 1936 in France and Espana leal, ¡en armas! in Spain, that covered the elections, the parades, the riots, and the war. In August 1936, Federico García Lorca was shot and killed by Nationalist militia. According to his son, Juan Luis, Buñuel rarely talked about Lorca but mourned the poet’s untimely death throughout his life.
Buñuel essentially functioned as the coordinator of film propaganda for the Republic, which meant that he was in a position to examine all film shot in the country and decide what sequences could be developed and distributed abroad. The Spanish Ambassador suggested that Buñuel revisit Hollywood where he could give technical advice on films being made there about the Spanish Civil War,:p.6 so he and his family traveled to the United States using funds obtained from his old patrons, the Noailles. Almost immediately upon his arrival in America, however, the war ended and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association of America discontinued making films on the Spanish conflict. According to Buñuel's wife, returning to Spain was impossible since the Fascists had seized power,:p.63–64 so Buñuel decided to stay in the U.S. indefinitely, stating that he was "immensely attracted by the American naturalness and sociability.":p.255
United States (1938–1945)
Returning to Hollywood in 1938, he was befriended by Frank Davis, an MGM producer and member of the Communist Party USA,:p.349 who placed Buñuel on the payroll of Cargo of Innocence, a film about Spanish refugee mothers and children fleeing from Bilbao to the USSR. The project was shelved precipitately when another Hollywood film about the Spanish Civil War, Blockade, was met with disfavor by the Catholic League of Decency. In the words of biographer Ruth Brandon, Buñuel and his family "lived from one unsatisfactory crumb of work to another" because he "had none of the arrogance and pushiness essential for survival in Hollywood.":p.358 He just wasn't flamboyant enough to capture the attention of Hollywood decision makers, in the opinion of film composer George Antheil: "Inasmuch as [Buñuel], his wife and his little boy seemed to be such absolutely normal, solid persons, as totally un-Surrealist in the Dalí tradition as one could possibly imagine.":p.172 For the most part, he was snubbed by many of the people in the film community whom he met during his first trip to America, although he was able to sell some gags to Chaplin for his film The Great Dictator.:p.213
In desperation, to market himself to independent producers, he composed a 21-page autobiography, a section of which, headed "My Present Plans", outlined proposals for two documentary films:
- "The Primitive Man", which would depict "the terrible struggle of primitive man against a hostile universe, how the world appeared, how they saw it, what ideas they had on love, on death, on fraternity, how and why religion is born", [italics in original]
- "Psycho-Pathology", which would "expose the origin and development of different psychopathic diseases... Such a documental film, apart from its great scientific interest, could depict on screen a New Form of Terror or its synonym Humour." [italics in original]:p.257
Nobody showed any interest and Buñuel realized that staying in Los Angeles was futile, so he traveled to New York to see if he could change his fortunes.:p.174
In New York, Antheil introduced Buñuel to Iris Barry, chief curator of film at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA).:p.360 Barry talked Buñuel into joining a committee formed to help educate those within the U.S. government who might not have appreciated fully the effectiveness of film as a medium of propaganda. Buñuel was hired to produce a shortened version of Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935) as a demonstration project. The finished product was a compilation of scenes from Riefenstahl's Nazi epic with Hans Bertram's Feuertaufe.:p.58 Buñuel stayed at MoMA to work for the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (OCIAA) as part of a production team that would gather, review and edit films intended as anti-fascist propaganda to be distributed in Latin America by American embassies.:p.72 While being vetted for the job at the OCIAA, upon being asked if he was a Communist, he replied: "I am a Republican," and, apparently, the interviewer didn't realize that Buñuel was referring to the Spanish socialist coalition government, not the American political party.:p.180 Describing Buñuel's work at MoMA, his friend, composer Gustavo Pittaluga, stated: "Luis created maybe 2,000 remarkable works. We were sent anodyne documentaries, often extremely feeble primary materials, which the Museum team turned into marvellous films. And not just Spanish versions, but also Portuguese, French and English... He would create a good documentary through editing." [italics in original]:p.124
In 1942, Buñuel applied for American citizenship, because he anticipated that MoMA would soon be put under federal control.:p.183 But that same year, Dalí published his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí, in which he made it clear that he had split with Buñuel because the latter was a Communist and an atheist. News of this reached Archbishop Spellman, who visited Barry and angrily confronted her with the question: "Are you aware that you are harbouring in this Museum the Antichrist, the man who made a blasphemous film L'Age d'Or?":p.214 Buñuel felt himself compelled to resign and in 1944 returned to Hollywood for the third time, this time as Spanish Dubbing Producer for Warner Brothers.:p.190 Before leaving New York, he confronted Dalí at his hotel, the Sherry Netherland, to tell the painter about the damage his book had done and then shoot him in the knee. Buñuel did not carry out the violent part of his plan. Dalí explained himself by saying: "I did not write my book to put YOU on a pedestal. I wrote it to put ME on a pedestal".
Buñuel's first dubbing assignment on returning to Hollywood was My Reputation, a Barbara Stanwyck picture which became El Que Diran in Buñuel's hands.:p.190 In addition to his dubbing work, Buñuel attempted to develop a number of independent projects:
- In collaboration with an old friend from his Surrealist days, Man Ray, he worked on a scenario called The Sewers of Los Angeles, which took place on a mountain of excrement close to a highway and a dust basin.:p.129
- With his friend, José Rubia Barcia, he co-wrote a screenplay called La novia de medianoche (The Midnight Bride), a gothic thriller, which lay dormant until it was filmed by Antonio Simón in 1997.
- He continued working on a screenplay called "Goya and the Duchess of Alba", a treatment he had started as early as 1927, with the actor/producer Florián Rey and cameraman José María Beltrán, and then resuscitated in 1937 as a project for Paramount.
- In his 1982 autobiography Mon Dernier soupir (My Last Sigh, 1983), Buñuel wrote that at the request of director Robert Florey, he submitted a treatment of a scene about a disembodied hand, which was later included in the movie The Beast with Five Fingers (1946), starring Peter Lorre, without acknowledgement of Buñuel's contribution or payment of any compensation.:p.189 However, Brian Taves, film scholar and archivist with the Library of Congress, has challenged the truth of this claim.
In 1945, Buñuel's contract with Warner Brothers expired, and he decided not to renew it in order, as he put it: "to realize my life's ambition for a year: to do nothing". While his family enjoyed themselves at the beach, Buñuel spent much of his time in Antelope Valley with new acquaintances writer Aldous Huxley and sculptor Alexander Calder, from whom he rented a house.:p.130
In his autobiography, in a chapter about his second spell in America, Buñuel states that "[o]n several occasions, both American and European producers have suggested that I tackle a film version of Malcolm Lowry's Under the Volcano".:p.194 He says that he read the book many times as well as eight different screenplays but was unable to come up with a solution for the cinema. The movie was eventually made in 1984 by John Huston.
Mexican period (1946–1965)
The following year, an old friend, producer Denise Tual, the widow of Pierre Batcheff, the leading man in Un Chien Andalou, proposed that she and Buñuel adapt Lorca’s play, La casa de Bernarda Alba, for production in Paris. As it turned out, though, before they could both make their way to Europe, they encountered problems in securing the rights from Lorca's family.:p.21 While in Mexico City, on a stopover, they had asked Óscar Dancigers, a Russian emigre producer active in Mexico, for financing. Dancigers ran an independent production company that specialized in assisting U.S. film studios with on-location shooting in Mexico, but following World War II, he had lost his connection with Hollywood due to his being blacklisted as a Communist.:p.73 Although Dancigers wasn't enthusiastic about the Lorca project, he did want to work with Buñuel and persuaded the Spanish director to make a film for him.:p.197
The so-called "Golden Age" of Mexican cinema, was climaxing in the mid-to-late 1940s, at just the time Buñuel was connecting with Dancigers. Movies represented Mexico’s third largest industry by 1947, employing 32,000 workers, with 72 film producers who invested 66 million pesos (approximately U.S. $13 million) per year, four active studios with 40 million pesos of invested capital, and approximately 1,500 theaters throughout the nation, with about 200 in Mexico City alone. For their first project, the two men selected what seemed like a sure-fire success, Gran Casino, a musical period piece set in Tampico during the boom years of oil exploitation, starring two of the most popular entertainers in Latin America: Libertad Lamarque, an Argentine actress and singer, and Jorge Negrete, a Mexican singer and leading man in "charro" films.:p.64 Buñuel recalled: "I kept them singing all the time—a competition, a championship".:pp.130–131 The film was not successful at the box office, with some even calling it a fiasco. Different reasons have been given for its failure with the public; for some, Buñuel was forced to make concessions to the bad taste of his stars, particularly Negrete, others cite Buñuel's rusty technical skills and lack of confidence after so many years out of the director's chair, while still others speculate that Mexican audiences were tiring of genre movies, called "churros", that were perceived as being cheaply and hastily made.:p.48
The failure of Gran Casino sidelined Buñuel, and it was over two years before he had the chance to direct another picture. According to Buñuel, he spent this time: "scratching my nose, watching flies and living off my mother's money",:p.199 but he was somewhat more industrious than that may sound. With the husband/wife team of Janet and Luis Alcoriza, he wrote the scenario for Si usted no puede, yo sí, which was filmed in 1950 by Julián Soler.:p.203 He continued developing the idea for a surrealistic film called Ilegible, hijo de flauta, with the poet Juan Larrea. Dancigers pointed out to him that there was currently a vogue for films about street urchins, so Buñuel scoured the back streets and slums of Mexico City in search of material, interviewing social workers about street gang warfare and murdered children.:pp.203–204
During this period, Dancigers was busy producing films for the actor/director Fernando Soler, one of the most durable of Mexican film personalities, having been referred to as the "national paterfamilias". Although Soler typically preferred to direct his own films, for their latest collaboration, El Gran Calavera, based on a play by Adolfo Torrado, he decided that doing both jobs would be too much trouble, so he asked Dancigers to find someone who could be trusted to handle the technical aspects of the directorial duties. Buñuel welcomed the opportunity, stating that: "I amused myself with the montage, the constructions, the angles... All of that interested me because I was still an apprentice in so-called 'normal' cinema." As a result of his work on this film, he developed a technique for making films cheaply and quickly by limiting them to 125 shots.:p.73 El Gran Calavera was completed in 16 days at a cost of 400,000 pesos (approximately $46,000 US at 1948 exchange rates).:p.52 The picture has been described as "a hilarious screwball send-up of the Mexican nouveau riche... a wild roller coaster of mistaken identity, sham marriages and misfired suicides", and it was a big hit at the box office in Mexico. In 1949, Buñuel renounced his Spanish citizenship to become a nationalized Mexican.
The commercial success of El Gran Calavera enabled Buñuel to redeem a promise he had extracted from Dancigers, which was that if Buñuel could deliver a money-maker, Dancigers would guarantee "a degree of freedom" on the next film project. Knowing that Dancigers was uncomfortable with experimentalism, especially when it might affect the bottom line, Buñuel proposed a commercial project titled ¡Mi huerfanito jefe!, about a juvenile street vendor who can't sell his final lottery ticket, which ends up being the winner and making him rich. Dancigers was open to the idea, but instead of a "feuilleton", he suggested making "something rather more serious".:p.60 During his recent researches through the slums of Mexico City, Buñuel had read a newspaper account of a twelve-year-old boy's body being found on a garbage dump, and this became the inspiration, and final scene, for the film, called Los olvidados (in the U.S.: The Young and the Damned).:pp.53–54
The film tells the story of a street gang of children who terrorize their impoverished neighborhood, at one point brutalizing a blind man and at another assaulting a legless man who moves around on a dolly, which they toss down a hill. Film historian Carl J. Mora has said of Los olvidados that the director: "visualized poverty in a radically different way from the traditional forms of Mexican melodrama. Buñuel's street children are not 'ennobled' by their desperate struggle for survival; they are in fact ruthless predators who are not better than their equally unromanticized victims".:p.91 The film was made quickly (18 days) and cheaply (450,000 pesos), with Buñuel's fee being the equivalent of $2,000.:pp.210–211 During the course of filming, a number of members of the crew resisted the production in a variety of ways: one technician confronted Buñuel and asked why he didn't make a "real" Mexican movie "rather than a miserable picture like this one",:p.200 the film's hairdresser quit on the spot over a scene in which the protagonist's mother refuses to give him food ("In Mexico, no mother would say that to her son."),:p.99 another staff member urged Buñuel to abandon shooting on a "garbage heap", noting that there were many "lovely residential neighborhoods like Las Lomas" that were available,:p.99 while Pedro de Urdimalas, one of the scriptwriters, refused to allow his name in the credits.
This hostility was also felt by those who attended the movie’s première in Mexico City on 9 November 1950, when Los olvidados was taken by many as an insult to Mexican sensibilities and to the Mexican nation.:p.67 At one point, the audience shrieked in shock as one of the characters looked straight into the camera and hurled a rotten egg at it, leaving a gelatinous, opaque ooze on the lens for a few moments. In his memoir, Buñuel recalled that after the initial screening, painter Diego Rivera's wife refused to speak to him, while poet León Felipe's wife had to be restrained physically from attacking him.:pp.200–201 There were even calls to have Buñuel's Mexican citizenship revoked.:p.61 Dancigers, panicked by what he feared would be a complete debacle, quickly commissioned an alternate "happy" ending to the film, and also tacked on a preface showing stock footage of the skylines of New York, London and Paris with voice-over commenary to the effect that behind the wealth of all the great cities of the world can be found poverty and malnourished children, and that Mexico City "that large modern city, is no exception". Regardless, attendance was so poor that Dancigers withdrew the film after only three days in theaters.
Through the determined efforts of future Nobel Prize winner for Literature Octavio Paz, who at the time was in Mexico's diplomatic service, Los olvidados was chosen to represent Mexico at the Cannes Film Festival of 1951, and Paz promoted the film assiduously by distributing a supportive manifesto and parading outside the cinema with a placard. Opinion in general was enthusiastic, with the Surrealists (Breton and poet Jacques Prevert) and other artistic intellectuals (painter Marc Chagall and poet/dramatist/filmmaker Jean Cocteau) laudatory, but the communists objected to what they saw as the film's "bourgeois morality" for containing a scene in which the police stop a pederast from assaulting a child. Buñuel won the Best Director prize that year at Cannes, and also won the FIPRESCI International Critics' Award. After receiving these accolades, the film was reissued in Mexico where it ran for two months to much greater acceptance and profit. Los olvidados and its triumph at Cannes made Buñuel an instant world celebrity and the most important Spanish-speaking film director in the world. In 2003, Los olvidados was recommended by UNESCO for inclusion in the Memory of the World Register, calling it: "the most important document in Spanish about the marginal lives of children in contemporary large cities".
Buñuel remained in Mexico for the rest of his life, although he spent periods of time filming in France and Spain. In Mexico, he filmed 20 films in all, including Él (1953), The Criminal Life of Archibaldo de la Cruz (1955), Nazarín (1959) (based on a novel by Spain's Benito Pérez Galdós, and adapted by Buñuel to a Mexican context), Viridiana (1961), The Exterminating Angel (1962), and Simon of the Desert (1965).
As busy as he was during the 1950s and early 1960s, there were still many film projects that Buñuel had to abandon due to lack of financing or studio support, including a cherished plan to film Mexican novelist Juan Rulfo's Pedro Páramo, of which he said how much he enjoyed "the crossing from the mysterious to the real, almost without transition. I really like this mixture of reality and fantasy, but I don't know how to bring it to the screen." Other unrealized projects included adaptations of André Gide's Les caves du Vatican, Benito Pérez Galdos's Fortunata y Jacinta, Doña Perfecta, and Ángel Guerra, Evelyn Waugh's The Loved One, William Golding's The Lord of the Flies, Dalton Trumbo's Johnny Got His Gun, J. K. Huysmans' Là-Bas, Matthew Lewis's The Monk, José Donoso's Lugar sin límites, a film of four stories based on Carlos Fuentes's Aura, and Julio Cortázar's "Las ménades".:p.96
Second French period (1963–1977)
After the golden age of the Mexican film industry ended, Buñuel started to work in France along with screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrière and producer Serge Silberman. During this period, Buñuel directed some of his best-known works:
- Diary of a Chambermaid (1964)
- Belle de Jour (1967)
- The Milky Way (1969)
- Tristana (1970, a French/Spanish/Italian co-production)
- The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972)
- The Phantom of Liberty (1974)
- That Obscure Object of Desire (1977)
Last years (1978–1983)
After the release of That Obscure Object of Desire, Buñuel retired from filmmaking. In 1982, he wrote (along with Carrière) his autobiography, Mon Dernier Soupir (My Last Sigh), which provides an account of Buñuel's life, friends, and family as well as a representation of his eccentric personality. In it, he recounts dreams, encounters with many well-known writers, actors, and artists such as Pablo Picasso and Charlie Chaplin as well as antics, like dressing up as a nun and walking around town.
Buñuel's films were famous for their surreal imagery, including scenes in which chickens populate nightmares, women grow beards, and aspiring saints are desired by lascivious women. Even in the many movies he made for hire (rather than for his own creative reasons), such as Susana and The Great Madcap, he usually added his trademark of disturbing and surreal images.:pp.119–120 Some critics have pointed out that one reason why Buñuel found working in Mexico so congenial was that what might seem unusual or even outlandish in Europe or the United States fit comfortably with elements of Mexican culture and the audience's expectations of national melodrama. As filmmaker Tomás Pérez Turrent has commented, when referring to the apparently incredible features that many critics find in Buñuel's films: "In Mexico, it's believable", while one of the founders of Surrealism, André Breton, called Mexico, “the most surrealist country in the world.” Certainly, running through the more personal films of Buñuel's early and late years is a backbone of surrealism; Buñuel's world is one in which an entire dinner party suddenly finds itself inexplicably unable to leave the room and go home, a bad dream hands a man a letter which he brings to the doctor the next day, and where the devil, if unable to tempt a saint with a pretty girl, will fly him to a disco. An example of a more Dada influence can be found in Cet obscur objet du désir, when Mathieu closes his eyes and has his valet spin him around and direct him to a map on the wall.
Buñuel never explained or promoted his work, remaining true to his and Dalí's early insistence on the completely irrational and defying symbolic interpretation. On one occasion, when his son was interviewed about The Exterminating Angel, Buñuel instructed him to give facetious answers. As examples, when asked about the presence of a bear in the socialites' house, Buñuel fils claimed it was because his father liked bears, and, similarly, the several repeated scenes in the film were explained as having been put there to increase the running time.
Religion and atheism
Many of his films were openly critical of bourgeois morals and organized religion, mocking the Roman Catholic Church in particular but religion in general, for its hypocrisy. When asked if it was intention to blaspheme in his films, Buñuel responded, “I didn’t deliberately set out to be blasphemous, but then Pope John XXIII is a better judge of such things than I am.” Many of his most famous films demonstrate this irreverent spirit:
- Un chien andalou (1929) – A man drags pianos, upon which are piled two dead donkeys, two priests, and the tablets of The Ten Commandments.
- L'Âge d'Or (1930) – A bishop is thrown out a window, and in the final scene one of the culprits of the 120 days of Sodom is portrayed by an actor dressed in a way that he would be recognized as Jesus.
- El Gran Calavera (1949) – During the final scenes of the wedding, the priest continuously reminds the bride of her obligations under marriage. Then the movie changes and the bride runs chasing her true love.
- Ensayo de un crimen (1955) – A man dreams of murdering his wife while she's praying in bed dressed all in white.
- Nazarin (1959) – The pious lead character wreaks ruin through his attempts at charity.
- Viridiana (1961) – A well-meaning young nun tries unsuccessfully to help the poor. One scene in the film parodies The Last Supper.
- El ángel exterminador (1962) – The final scene is of sheep entering a church, mirroring the entrance of the parishioners.
- Simón del desierto (1965) – The devil tempts a saint by taking the form of a bare-breasted girl singing and showing off her legs. At the end of the film, the saint abandons his ascetic life to hang out in a jazz club.
- La Voie Lactée (1969) – Two men travel the ancient pilgrimage road to Santiago de Compostela and meet embodiments of various heresies along the way. One dreams of anarchists shooting the Pope.
Buñuel is often cited as one of the world's most prominent atheists. In a 1960 interview, he was asked about his attitude toward religion, and his response has become one of his most celebrated quotes: “I’m still an atheist, thank God.” But his entire answer to the question was somewhat more nuanced: "I have no attitude. I was raised in it. I could answer “I’m still an atheist, thank God.” I believe we must seek God within man himself. This is a very simple attitude." Seventeen years later, in an interview with the New Yorker, Buñuel expressed a somewhat different opinion about religion and atheism: “I’m not a Christian, but I’m not an atheist either, ... I’m weary of hearing that accidental old aphorism of mine ‘I’m not an atheist, thank God’ It’s outworn. Dead leaves. In 1951, I made a small film called ‘Mexican Bus Ride,’ about a village too poor to support a church and a priest. The place was serene, because no one suffered from guilt. It’s guilt we must escape, not God.” However in 1982, Buñuel had reaffirmed his atheism in his autobiography. Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes has commented that Buñuel represents one of the most compelling intellectual tendencies of the twentieth century: "religious temperament without religious faith."
Buñuel's style of directing was extremely economical; he shot films in a few weeks, rarely deviating from his script (the scene in Tristana where Catherine Deneuve exposes her breasts to Saturno – but not the audience – being a noted exception) and shooting in order as much as possible to minimize editing time. He remained true throughout his working life to an operating philosophy that he articulated at the beginning of his career in 1928: "The guiding idea, the silent procession of images that are concrete, decisive, measured in space and time—in a word, the film—was first projected inside the brain of the filmmaker".:p.135 In this, Buñuel has been compared with Alfred Hitchcock, another director famous for precision, efficiency and preplanning, for whom actually shooting the film was an anticlimax, since each man would know, in Buñuel's words, "exactly how each scene will be shot and what the final montage will be".
He told actors as little as possible, and limited his directions mostly to physical movements ("move to the right", "walk down the hall and go through that door", etc.), arguing that he had a better chance of capturing reality with inexperienced players who projected a desired sense of awkwardness. He often refused to answer actors' questions and was known to simply turn off his hearing aid on the set. Though they found it difficult at the time, many actors who worked with him acknowledged later that his approach made for fresh and excellent performances.
Buñuel preferred scenes that could simply be pieced together end-to-end in the editing room, resulting in long, mobile, wide shots which followed the action of the scene. Filmmaker Patricia Gruben has attributed this procedure to a long-standing strategy on Buñuel's part intended to thwart external interference: "he would make the whole scene in long four-minute dolly shots so the producers couldn’t cut it". Examples are especially present in his French films. For example, at the ski resort's restaurant in Belle de jour, Séverin, Pierre, and Henri converse at a table. Buñuel cuts away from their conversation to two young women, who walk down a few steps and proceed through the restaurant, passing behind Séverin, Pierre, and Henri, at which point the camera stops and the young women walk out of frame. Henri then comments on the women and the conversation at the table progresses from there.
Critics have remarked on Buñuel's predilection for developing a surrealist mise-en-scène through use of a deceptively sparse naturalism, as Michael Atkinson has put it: "visually Spartan and yet spasming with bouts of the irrational." Buñuel's visual style has been generally characterized as highly functional and uncluttered, with extraneous detail eliminated on sets to focus on character-defining elements.
As an example, Buñuel has told about one of his experiences with cameraman Gabriel Figueroa, a veteran who had become famous in cinematography circles by making a specialty of illuminating the beauty of the Mexican landscape using photographic chiaroscuro (stark contrast between illuminated space and dark shadows). Figueroa had set up a shot for Nazarín near the valley of the Popocatépetl: "It was during this shoot that I scandalized Gabriel Figueroa, who had prepared for me an aesthetically irreproachable framing, with the Popocatépetl in the background and the inevitable white clouds. I simply turned the camera to frame a banal scene that seemed to me more real, more proximate. I have never liked refabricated cinematographic beauty, which very often makes one forget what the film wants to tell, and which personally, does not move me."
Actress Catherine Deneuve has provided another anecdote illustrating this aspect of Buñuel's style: while shooting Tristana, he had told her frequently of the distaste he felt for the "touristy" side of Toledo, where the film was made, so she teased him about one crane shot that brought out the beauty of the surrounding landscape, to which Buñuel responded by re-shooting the entire scene from a dolly with no background whatsoever, all the while inveighing against the "obviously" beautiful.
Buñuel has been hailed as a pioneer of the sound film, with L'Age d'Or being cited as one of the first innovative uses of sound in French film. Film scholar Linda Williams has pointed out that Buñuel used sounds, including music, as nonsynchronous counterpoint to the visual image, rather than redundant accompaniment, in accordance with theories that had been advanced by Sergei Eisenstein and others in a 1928 manifesto on the sound film. Critic Marsha Kinder has posited that Buñuel's years as a film dubber in Europe and Hollywood put him in the position of “mastering the conventions of film sound, to subvert them more effectively”. As an illustration of this, scholar Sally Faulkner has described the means by which, in his film Tristana, Buñuel "engineers a kind of figurative deafness, or disability, in the spectator" in scenes which involve deaf characters, by, for example, combining the sound of gushing water with an image of a stagnant pool, or exaggerating the volume level of chiming bells.
Music is an important part of Buñuel's early films, to such an extent that, for his one silent film Un Chien Andalou, in his sixties, he took the trouble to create a sonorised version, based on the music (Wagner, a South American tango) played at its original screening. One critic has noted that, in L'Age d'Or, Buñuel employed the music of Beethoven, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Debussy and Wagner "as a kind of connective tissue for, and aural commentary on, the unnerving visuals." As regards Las Hurdes, critics have often remarked on the "nagging inappropriateness" of the score, the fourth movement of Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 4 in E Minor, a practice called by James Clifford "fortuitous or ironic collage." Although Buñuel's use of this technique declined in frequency over the years, he still occasionally employed incongruous musical juxtaposition for ironic effect, notably during the opening and the climactic scenes of Viridiana, which take place to the strains of Handel's Hallelujah Chorus, in pointed contrast to the jazz music played during the film's final scene of the card game.
Late in life, Buñuel claimed to dislike non-diegetic music (music not intrinsic to the scene itself) and avoided its use, stating: “In my last films I rarely use music. If I do, it has to be justified, so the viewer can see its source: a gramophone or a piano." One consistent exception, however, is the use of the traditional drums from his birthplace Calanda, which are heard in most of his films, with such regularity that the repetition has been described as a “biofilmographic signature”. Buñuel's explanation of his use of these drums was the statement: "Nowhere are they beaten with such mysterious power as in Calanda...in recognition of the shadows that covered the earth at the moment Christ died." :p.19
The films of his second French era were not scored and some (Belle de jour, Diary of a Chambermaid) are without music entirely. Belle de jour does, however, feature non-diegetic sound effects, "to unify spatially incongruous shots or symbolize [the protagonist's] dream world."
- In 1994, a retrospective of Buñuel's works was organized by the Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle in Bonn, as homage to one of the most internationally revered figures in world cinema. :p.101 This was followed in the summer of 1996 by a commemoration of the centenary of the birth of cinema held by the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, which included a unique retrospective, jointly sponsored by the King of Spain and the President of Mexico, called ¿Buñuel!. La mirada del siglo, honoring his special status as Spanish cinema's most emblematic figure.
- A secondary school in Zaragoza, Spain has been named for Buñuel: Instituto de Educación Secundaria Ies Luis Buñuel.
- In Calanda, Spain a bust of the head of Luis Buñuel is on display at the Centro Bunuel Calanda (CBC), a museum devoted to the director. The mission of the CBC is to serve as a reference center both for connoisseurs of Buñuel and for anyone interested in the arts of Aragon.
- One of the main theatres at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, where the Cannes Film Festival is held, is named after him: Salle Buñuel.
- To mark the centenary of his birth, in 2000 the Cannes festival partnered with the Spanish film industry, to pay tribute to Luis Buñuel. This tribute consisted of three events: (1) the inauguration, for Cannes 2000, of the Palace's new Luis Buñuel room, (2) an original exhibition organized by L'Instituto de la Cinematografia y de las Artes Audiovisuales entitled "The Secret World of Bunuel", and (3) an exceptional projection of Viridiana, the Palme d'Or winner in 1961, in the presence of specially invited artists.
- The Luis Buñuel Film Institute (LBFI) is housed in the Downtown Independent Theatre, Los Angeles, and has as its mission: "to form the vital and innovative arena for the promotion of the work of Luis Buñuel, and a seminal resource for the development of new research, knowledge and scholarship on his life and work, extending across his body of films and writings."
Buñuel has been portrayed as a character in many films and television productions. A portion of the television mini-series Lorca, muerte de un poeta (1987–1988), directed by Juan Antonio Bardem recreates the student years of Buñuel, Lorca and Dalí, with Fernando Valverde portraying Buñuel in two episodes. He was played by Dimiter Guerasimof in the 1991 biopic Dalí, directed by Antoni Ribas, despite the fact that Dalí and his attorney had written to Ribas objecting to the project in its early stages in 1985. Buñuel appeared as a character in Alejandro Pelayo's 1993 film Miroslava, based on the life of actress Miroslava Stern, who committed suicide after appearing in Ensayo de un crimen (1955). Buñuel was played by three actors, El Gran Wyoming (old age), Pere Arquillué (young adult) and Juan Carlos Jiménez Marín (child), in Carlos Saura's 2001 fantasy, Buñuel y la mesa del rey Salomón, which tells of Buñuel, Lorca and Dalí setting out in search of the mythical table of King Salomón, which is thought to have the power to see into the past, the present and the future. Buñuel was a character in a 2001 television miniseries Severo Ochoa: La conquista de un Nobel, on the life of the Spanish émigré and Nobel Prize winner in medicine, who was also at the Residencia de Estudiantes during Buñuel's time there. Matt Lucas portrayed Buñuel in Richard Curson Smith's 2002 TV movie Surrealissimo: The Scandalous Success of Salvador Dalí, a comedy depicting Dalí's "trial" by the Surrealists in 1934 for his pro-Hitler sympathies. A 2005 short called The Death of Salvador Dali, directed by Delaney Bishop, contains sequences in which Buñuel appears, played by Alejandro Cardenas. Paul Morrison's Little Ashes hypothesizes a love affair between Dalí and Lorca, with Buñuel (played by Matthew McNulty) looking on suspiciously. Buñuel, played by Adrien de Van, is one of many notable personalities encountered by Woody Allen's protagonist in Midnight in Paris (2011).
Luis Buñuel was given the Career Golden Lion in 1982 by the Venice Film Festival and the FIPRESCI Prize – Honorable Mention in 1969 by the Berlin Film Festival. In 1977, he received the National Prize for Arts and Sciences for Fine Arts. At the 11th Moscow International Film Festival in 1979, he was awarded with the Honorable Prize for the contribution to cinema.
|Year||Original title||English title||Production country||Language||Length||Award nominations
(Wins in bold)
|1929||Un Chien Andalou||An Andalusian Dog||France||French||16 min|
|1930||L'Age d'Or||The Golden Age||France||French||60 min|
|1933||Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan||Land Without Bread||Spain||French||30 min|
|1947||Gran Casino (aka En el viejo Tampico)||Magnificent Casino||Mexico||Spanish||92 min|
|1949||El Gran Calavera||The Great Madcap||Mexico||Spanish||92 min|
|1950||Los olvidados||The Forgotten (aka The Young and the Damned)||Mexico||Spanish||85 min||Cannes Film Festival – Best Director
Ariel Award - Golden Ariel
Ariel Award -Silver Ariel - Mejor Dirección
Ariel Award -Silver Ariel - Mejor Adaptación (with Luis Alcoriza)
Ariel Award -Silver Ariel - Mejor Argumento Original (with Luis Alcoriza)
|1951||Susana||Susana (aka The Devil and the Flesh)||Mexico||Spanish||86 min|
|1951||La hija del engaño||The Daughter of Deceit||Mexico||Spanish||78 min|
|1952||Subida al cielo||Ascent to Heaven (aka Mexican Bus Ride)||Mexico||Spanish||85 min||Cannes Film Festival – Official Selection
Ariel Award nominee - Golden Ariel
Ariel Award nominee -Silver Ariel - Mejor Dirección
|1952||Una mujer sin amor||A Woman Without Love||Mexico||Spanish||85 min|
|1953||El bruto||The Brute||Mexico||Spanish||81 min|
|1953||Él||This Strange Passion (aka Tourments)||Mexico||Spanish||92 min||Cannes Film Festival – Official Selection|
|1954||La ilusión viaja en tranvía||Illusion Travels by Streetcar||Mexico||Spanish||82 min|
|1954||Abismos de pasión (aka Cumbres Borrascosas)||Wuthering Heights||Mexico||Spanish||91 min|
|1954||The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe||Mexico||English||90 min||Ariel Award - Golden Ariel
Ariel Award -Silver Ariel - Mejor Dirección
Ariel Award -Silver Ariel - Mejor Adaptación
|1955||Ensayo de un crimen||Rehearsal for a Crime (aka The Criminal Life of Archibaldo de la Cruz)||Mexico||Spanish||89 min||Ariel Award nominee - Golden Ariel
Ariel Award nominee -Silver Ariel - Mejor Dirección
Ariel Award nominee -Silver Ariel - Mejor Adaptación (with Eduardo Ugarte)
|1955||El río y la muerte||The River and Death||Mexico||Spanish||91 min|
|1956||Cela s'appelle l'aurore||That is the Dawn||Italy/France||French||102 min|
|1956||La mort en ce jardin||Death in the Garden (aka The Diamond Hunters)||France/Mexico||French||104 min|
|1959||Nazarín||Mexico||Spanish||94 min||Cannes Film Festival – International Prize
Bodil Award - Best Non-European Film (Bedste ikke-europæiske film)
|1959||La fièvre monte à El Pao||Fever Rises in El Pao (aka Republic of Sin)||France/Mexico||French||109 min|
|1960||La joven||The Young One||Mexico/USA||English||96 min||Cannes Film Festival – Special Mention|
|1961||Viridiana||Mexico/Spain||Spanish||90 min||Cannes Film Festival – Palme d'Or|
|1962||El ángel exterminador||The Exterminating Angel||Mexico||Spanish||95 min||Cannes Film Festival – FIPRESCI Prize
Bodil Award - Best Non-European Film (Bedste ikke-europæiske film)
|1964||Le journal d'une femme de chambre||The Diary of a Chambermaid||France/Italy||French||98 min||Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists - Nastro d'Argento nominee for Best Foreign Director
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival - Best Actress (Jeanne Moreau)
|1965||Simón del desierto||Simon of the Desert||Mexico||Spanish||45 min||Venice Film Festival – Special Jury Prize
Venice Film Festival – FIPRESCI Prize
Venice Film Festival nominee - Golden Lion
|1967||Belle de jour||France/Italy||French||101 min||Venice Film Festival – Golden Lion
Venice Film Festival – Pasinetti Award
Bodil Award - Best European Film (Bedste europæiske film)
French Syndicate of Cinema Critics Award - Best Film
New York Film Critics Circle Awards - Third place - Best Foreign Language Film
French Syndicate of Cinema Critics - Prix Méliès
BAFTA Award nominee for Best Actress (Catherine Deneuve)
|1969||La Voie Lactée||The Milky Way||France/Italy||French||105 min||Berlin Film Festival – Interfilm Award
Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists - Nastro d'Argento nominee for Best Foreign Director
|1970||Tristana||France/Italy/Spain||Spanish||105 min||Oscar Nominee – Best Foreign Language Film
Cinema Writers Circle Award - Mejor Director
National Society of Film Critics Award nominee - Best Director
Sant Jordi Award - Best Film (Mejor Película Española)
Fotogramas de Plata - Best Spanish Movie Performer (Fernando Rey)
Fotogramas de Plata nominee - Best Spanish Movie Performer (Lola Gaos)
|1972||Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie||The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie||France/Italy/Spain||French||102 min||Oscar Winner – Best Foreign Language Film
Oscar Nominee – Best Original Screenplay
BAFTA Film Award - Best Screenplay (with Jean-Claude Carrière)
BAFTA Film Award nominee - Best Direction
BAFTA Film Award nominee - Best Soundtrack (with Guy Villette)
French Syndicate of Cinema Critics - Prix Méliès
Golden Globes nominee - Best Foreign-Language Foreign Film
Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists - Nastro d'Argento nominee for Best Foreign Director
National Society of Film Critics Award - Best Director
National Society of Film Critics Award nominee - Best Screenplay (with Jean-Claude Carrière)
New York Film Critics Circle Award nominee - Best Director
New York Film Critics Circle Award nominee - Best Screenplay (with Jean-Claude Carrière)
|1974||Le fantôme de la liberté||The Phantom of Liberty||Italy/France||French||104 min||Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists - Nastro d'Argento for Best Foreign Director
National Board of Review - Top Foreign Films
|1977||Cet obscur objet du désir||That Obscure Object of Desire||France/Spain||French||105 min||Oscar Nominee – Best Foreign Language Film
Oscar Nominee – Best Adapted Screenplay
Cinema Writers Circle Award - Mejor Director
César Award nominee for Best Director
César Award nominee for Best Screenplay, Original or Adaptation (with Jean-Claude Carrière)
Golden Globes nominee - Best Foreign-Language Foreign Film
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award - Best Foreign Language Film
National Board of Review Award - Best Director
National Society of Film Critics Award - Best Director
New York Film Critics Circle Award nominee - Best Director
- Kyrou, Ado. "Luis Buñuel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Flint, Peter B. (30 July 1983). "Luis Buñuel Dies at 83; Filmmaker for 50 Years". New York Times. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (16 April 2000). "Un Chien Andalou (1928)". Great Movies: The First 100 (Chicago Sun Times). Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Berg, Charles Ramírez. "That Obscure Object of Desire, 1977". Austin Film Society. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Paz, Octavio (1986). On Poets and Others. New York: Arcade Publishing. p. 152. ISBN 1-55970-139-0.
- Sinyard, Neil (2010). "The Discreet Charm of Houston and Buñuel: Notes on a Cinematic Odd Couple", in John Huston: Essays on a Restless Director, ed. Tony Tracy and Roddy Flynn. Jefferson NC: McFarland. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-7864-5853-0.
- "Bergman on Filmmakers". Bergmanorama. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "Critics’ Top 250 Films". Sight and Sound. British Film Institute. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "The 1,000 Greatest Films". They Shoot Pictures, Don't They?.
- "The Top 250 Directors". They Shoot Pictures, Don't They?. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Alcalá, Manuel (1973). Buñuel (Cine e ideologia). Madrid: Edicusa. ISBN 84-229-0101-3.
- Buñuel, Luis. My Last Sigh. Trans. Abigail Israel. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8166-4387-3. page 8.
- Schwarze, Michael (1988). Luis Buñuel. Barcelona: Plaza & Janes. p. 9. ISBN 84-01-45079-9.
- "Luis Bunuel". The Directors Guide. Website Creations. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Buñuel, Luis. My Last Sigh. Trans. Abigail Israel. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8166-4387-3. page 30.
- Gobierno de Aragon. "A Proposito de Bunuel – Screenplay". Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Brandon, Ruth (1999). Surreal Lives: The Surrealists 1917–1945. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-8021-3727-X.
- Smith, Warren Allen (2002). Celebrities in Hell. Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books. p. 25. ISBN 1-56980-214-9.
- Delgado, Manuel and Alice J. Poust (2001). Lorca, Buņuel, Dalí: Art and Theory. Cranbury NJ: Associated University Presses. pp. passim. ISBN 0-8387-5508-9.
- "La Generacion del 27: Dalí, Buñuel, and Lorca". Poets.org. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Buñuel, Luis (1983). My last sigh. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-394-52854-9.
- Bellver, Catherine Gullo (2001). Absence and Presence: Spanish Women Poets of the Twenties and Thirties. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-8387-5463-4.
- Wilcox, John Chapman (1997). Women Poets of Spain, 1860–1990: Toward a Gynocentric Vision. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-252-06559-0.
- "Biografia Concha Mendez Cuesta". Agonia.Net. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Christian, Diane, and Bruce Jackson. "Luis Buñuel That Obscure Object of Desire/ Cet obscur oject du désir 1977". Buffalo Film Seminars. Market Arcade Film & Arts Center and State University of New York at Buffalo. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Hammond, Paul (2003). "L'Age d'Or" in British Film Institute Film Classics, Volume 3. New York: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 1-57958-328-8.
- Williams, Alan Larson (1992). Republic of Images: A History of French Filmmaking. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-674-76267-1.
- Taléns, Jenaro (1993). The Branded Eye: Buñuel's Un Chien Andalou. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-2046-6.
- Sadoul, Georges (1972). Dictionary of Film Makers. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-520-02151-7.
- Edwards, Gwynne (2005). A Companion to Luís Buñuel. Woodbridge: Tamesis. ISBN 1-85566-108-X.
- "Siren of the Tropics". fandor. Our Film Festival, Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Luis Buñuel". brain-juice. Brain-Juice.Com, Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- De La Colina, Jose (1994). Objects of Desire: Conversations with Luis Bunuel. Marsilio Publishers. p. 80. ISBN 0-941419-69-X.
- Dalí, Salvador (1998). The Collected Writings of Salvador Dalí. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56027-6.
- Gómez Mesa, Luis. (1978). "La generación cinematográfica del ‘27". Cinema 2002 (37): 52–58.
- "Luis Buñuel: In The Directors' Chair". BBC World Service. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Rucar de Buñuel, Jeanne (2010). Memoirs of a Woman Without a Piano: My Life with Luis Buñuel. Brooklyn: Five Ties Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-9794727-6-3.
- "Rafael Bunuel, Escultor". Centro Virtual Cervantes. Instituto Cervantes. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Nat Geo Adventure". NGC-UK Partnership. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- "Un chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog, 1929)". Brain-Juice.Com. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Mansfield, Nick (2000). Subjectivity: Theories of the Self from Freud to Haraway. New York: New York University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-8147-5650-6.
- Richardson, Michael (2006). Surrealism and Cinema. Oxford: Berg. p. 27. ISBN 1-84520-225-2.
- Mathijs, Ernest (2011). Cult Cinema. West Sussex: Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-7374-2.
- Etherington-Smith, Meredith (1995). The Persistence of Memory: A Biography of Dalí. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-306-80662-2.
- O’Donoghue, Darragh. "On Some Motifs in Poe: Jean Epstein’s La Chute de la maison Usher". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- Adamowicz, Elza (2010). Un Chien Andalou: (Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, 1929). London: I.B.Tauris. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84885-056-9.
- Breton, Andre (1969). Manifestoes of Surrealism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-472-06182-2.
- Buñuel, Luis (2006). "Notes on the Making of Un Chien Andalou", in Art in Cinema : documents toward a history of the ﬁlm society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 1-59213-425-4.
- Koller, Michael. "Un Chien Andalou". Senses of Cinema. Film Victoria. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Buñuel, Luis (12 December 1929). "Preface to the script for Un Chien Andalou". La Révolution Surréaliste. no. 12.
- "Un Chien Andalou". Maverick Arts Magazine. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Sadoul, Georges (12–18 December 1951). "Mon ami Buñuel". L´écran française. no. 335: 12.
- Gubern, Román and Paul Hammond (2012). Luis Bunuel: The Red Years, 1929–1939. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-28474-9.
- "Marxism – European Cinema Before and After World War II". film reference. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Thurlow, Clifford (2008). Making Short Films: The Complete Guide from Script to Screen, 2nd ed.. Oxford: Berg. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84520-803-5.
- Dalí, Salvador (1942). The Secret Life of Salvador Dali. New York: Dial Press.
- Bodin, Richard Pierre (7 December 1930). "Review of "L'age d'Or"". Le Figaro.
- Fanés, Fèlix (2007). Salvador Dali: The Construction of the Image. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-300-09179-3.
- Kyrou, Ado (1963). Luis Buñuel: an introduction. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 30.
- Scheib, Richard. "L'Age d'Or". Moria – The Science Fiction, Horror and Fantasy Film Review. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Instituto Cervantes (2001). Buñuel, 100 año: es peligroso asomarse al Interior/ Buñuel, 100 Years: It’ s Dangerous to Look Inside,. New York: Museum of Modern Art. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8109-6219-4.
- Laufer, Laura. "L'Âge d'or" de Luis Bunuel". Le Centre Georges-Pompidou. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Burke, Carolyn (2005). Lee Miller: A Life. New York: Knopf. p. 114. ISBN 0-375-40147-4.
- Teitelbaum, Mo Amelia (2010). The Stylemakers: Minimalism and Classic-Modernism 1915–45. London: Philip Willson. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-85667-703-8.
- Durgnat, Raymond (1968). Luis Buñuel. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Walters, Rob (2006). Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr And the Mobile Phone. Great Britain: BookSurge Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4196-2129-1.
- Doniol-Valcroze, Jacques; André Bazin (July 1954). "Entretien avec Luis Buñuel". Cahiers du Cinema (37): 44–48.
- Jarvinen, Lisa (2012). The Rise of Spanish-Language Filmmaking: Out from Hollywood's Shadow, 1929–1939. Piscataway NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-8135-5328-3.
- Bazin, Andre (1991). Buņuel, Dreyer, Welles. Madrid: Editorial Fundamentos. ISBN 978-84-245-0521-9.
- Payne, Stanley G. (1976). A History of Spain and Portugal, V. 2.. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 630. ISBN 978-0-299-06284-2.
- Rucar de Buñuel, Jeanne (1990). Memorias de un mujer sin piano. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. p. 58. ISBN 978-9683903907.
- Aub, Max (1985). Conversaciones con Buñuel: Seguidas de 45 entrevistas con familiares, amigos y colaboradores del cineasta aragonés . Madrid: Aguilar. ISBN 978-84-03-09195-5.
- Hammond, Paul. "Buñuel Bows Out". Rouge. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Ruoff, Jeffrey (Spring–Summer 1998). "An Ethnographic Surrealist Film: Luis Buñuel's Land Without Bread". Visual Anthropology Review 14 (1): 52. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Margulies, Ivone (2003). Rites of Realism: Essays on Corporeal Cinema. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8223-3078-3.
- Weir, David (1997). Anarchy & Culture: The Aesthetic Politics of Modernism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-55849-083-3.
- "Buñuel: The Beginning and the End". Harvard Film Archive. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Richardson, Tony (1978). "The Films of Luis Buñuel," in The World of Luis Buñuel, ed. Joan Mellen. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-19-502398-6.
- Russell, Dominique. "Luis Buñuel". Great Directors, Issue 35. Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Juhasz, Alexandra (2006). F Is For Phony: Fake Documentary And Truth's Undoing. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8166-4251-9.
- "Week 16: Mockumentary". Documentary film and video course syllabus. Documentary Site. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Ibarz, Mercè (2004). "A Serious Experiment: Land Without Bread, 1933", in Luis Buñuel: New Readings. ed. Isabel Santaolalla and Peter William Evans. London: British Film Institute. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-84457-003-4.
- Russell, Catherine (2006). "Surrealist Ethnography: Las Hurdes and the Documentary Unconscious", in F Is for Phony: Fake Documentary And Truth's Undoing, edited by Alexandra Juhasz and Jesse Lerner. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8166-4251-9.
- Acevedo-Muñoz, Ernesto R. (2003). Buñuel and Mexico: The Crisis of National Cinema. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23952-0.
- Higginbotham, Virginia (1979). Luis Buñuel. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9261-4.
- Rotellar, Manuel (1978). "Luis Buñuel en Filmófono". Cinema 2002 (37): 36–40.
- Mortimore, Roger (Summer 1975). "Buñuel, Sáenz de Heredia, and Filmófono". Sight and Sound 44: 180–182.
- Fuentes, Victor (2000). Los mundos de Buñuel. Madrid: Ediciones AKAL. ISBN 84-460-1450-5.
- "Don Quintín el Amargao on AllMovie Don Quintín el Amargao (1935)". allmovie.com. AllMovie, a division of All Media Network. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Bentley, Bernard P. E. (2008). A Companion to Spanish Cinema. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Tamesis. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-85566-176-9.
- Buñuel, Luis (2002). An Unspeakable Betrayal: Selected Writings of Luis Buñuel. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23423-5.
- del Olmo, F. Javier Ruiz (2010). "Language and Collective Identity in Buñuel. Propaganda in the Film "España 1936"". Comunicar. XVIII (35): 69–76. doi:10.3916/C35-2010-02-07.
- "Espana leal, en armas". BFI Film Forever. British Film Institute. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Beevor, Antony (2006). The Battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. London: Penguin Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-14-303765-1.
- Ehrlich, Linda C. "A Buñuel Scrapbook: The Last Script: Remembering Luis Buñuel (1) and Calanda: 40 Years Later". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Faber, Sebastiaan. "Luis Buñuel, chameleon: Revelations from the "Red Decade"". The Volunteer. Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives (ALBA). Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Hoberman, J. (14 May 2012). "A Charismatic Chameleon: On Luis Buñuel". The Nation. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Cole, Robert (2006). Propaganda, Censorship And Irish Neutrality in the Second World War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-7486-2277-2.
- Edwards, Gwynne (2009). Lorca, Buñuel, Dalí: forbidden pleasures and connected lives. London: I. B. Tauris. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-84885-007-1.
- Manchel, Frank (1990). Film Study: An Analytical Bibliography, Volume 1. Cranbury NJ: Associated University Presses. pp. 219–220. ISBN 0-8386-3186-X.
- Baxter, John (1994). Buñuel. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-7867-0619-8.
- "A documentary shows the most bitter of Buñuel and intimate portrait". The Delta World. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Taylor, John Russell (1983). Strangers in paradise: the Hollywood émigrés, 1933–1950. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-061944-1.
- Nin, Anais (1969). Diary of Anaïs Nin Volume 3 1939–1944: Vol. 3 (1939–1944). New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 109. ISBN 0-15-626027-1.
- Trimborn, Jürgen (2007). Leni Riefenstahl: A Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-374-18493-3.
- Schreiber, Rebecca M. (2008). Cold War Exiles in Mexico: U.S. Dissidents and the Culture of Critical Resistance. Minneapolis: Univ of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4308-0.
- Aranda, Francisco (1976). Luis Buñuel: A Critical Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-70754-3.
- Harrison, Don. "15 Footnotes on the Moustache of Bunuel – Episodes of Luis". Amerian Buddha. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Barcia, José Rubia (1992). Con Luis Buñuel en Hollywood y después. Sada, A Coruña: Ediciós do Castro. pp. 105–160. ISBN 84-7492-582-7.
- Sánchez Vidal, Agustín (1995). Góngora, Buñuel, Spanish Avant-Garde and Centenary of Goya's Death, in The Spanish Avant-Garde, ed. Derek Harris. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-7190-4342-0.
- Taves, Brian (Summer 1987). "Whose Hand? Correcting a Buñuel myth". Sight and Sound 56 (3): 210–211.
- Bazin, André (1982). The cinema of cruelty: from Buñuel to Hitchcock. New York: Seaver Books. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-86579-018-6.
- Pallister, Janis L. (1997). French-Speaking Women Film Directors: A Guide. Madison NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8386-3736-4.
- Camacho, Enrique, Javier Pérez Bazo and Manuel Rodríguez Blanco (2001). Buñuel, 100 años : es peligroso asomarse al interior = Buñuel, 100 years : it's dangerous to look inside. New York: Instituto Cervantes / The Museum of Modern Art. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8109-6219-4.
- Fein, Seth (1994). "Hollywood, U.S.-Mexican Relations, and the Devolution of the "Golden Age" of Mexican Cinema". Film-Historia IV (2): 103–135. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- Huer, Federico (1964). La industria cinematográfica mexicana. México. DF: Policromía. pp. 48–69.
- Mira Nouselles, Alberto (2010). Historical Dictionary of Spanish Cinema. Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5957-9.
- Estève, Michel (1963). "Luis Buñuel". Etudes Cinématographiques (20–21): 82.
- Martínez Herranz, Amparo (2002). "Gran Casino de Luis Buñuel". Artigrama (Num. 17): 525.
- Fuentes, Víctor (Winter–Spring 2004). "Buñuel's Cinematic Narrative and the Latin American New Novel". Discourse 26 (1 & 2): 92.
- García Riera, Emilio (1969). Historia documental del cine mexicano. Vol. 3. Mexico: Era. p. 90. ISBN 968-895-343-1.
- Charity, Tom (December 2007). "Luis Buñuel: Two-Disc Collector's Edition". Sight and Sound 17 (12): 105.
- Mraz, John (February 1984). "Mexican Cinema: Of churros and charros". Jump Cut (29): 23.
- Paranaguá, Paulo Antonio (1995). Mexican Cinema. London: British Film Institute. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-85170-516-3.
- Gurney, Robert (2004). "Juan Larrea and the Film Buñuel Did Not Make", in Companion to Spanish Surrealism, ed. Robert Havard. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Tamesis Books. p. 49. ISBN 1-85566-104-7.
- Stock, Ann Marie (1997). Framing Latin American Cinema: Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-8166-2972-2.
- "El gran calavera (1949)". Más de Cien Años de Cine Mexicano. Cine Club – Cine Mexicano. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Buñuel's Mexico". Harvard Film Archive. Harvard College. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Dent, David W. (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern Mexico. Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-8108-4291-2.
- Pulver, Andrew (29 March 2011). "A short history of Spanish cinema". newEurope (London: Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Los olvidados (1950)". Las 100 mejores películas del cine mexicano: 2. Cine Club – Cine Mexicano. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Ibañez, Juan Carlos and Manuel Palacio (2003). "Los Olvidados/The Young and the Damned", in The Cinema of Latin America, ed. Alberto Elena and Marina Díaz López. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-1-903364-84-0.
- Pierre, DBC (16 February 2007). "The lost boys". The Guardian, 16 February 2007 (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Villarreal, Rachel Kram (2008). Gladiolas for the Children of Sanchez: Ernesto P. Uruchurtu's Mexico City, 1950—1968. Ann Arbor MI: ProQuest. p. 31.
- Gonzalez, Ed. "Los Olvidados ****". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Mora, Carl J. (1982). Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04304-9.
- Mraz, John (2003). Nacho Lopez, Mexican Photographer. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4047-8.
- "Pedro de Urdimalas". Sociedad de Autores y Compositores de México (SACM). Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Caistor, Nick (2007). Octavio Paz. London: Reaktion Books. p. 36. ISBN 1-86189-303-5.
- Faber, Sebastiaan (2012). "Buñuel's Impure Modernism". Modernist Cultures 7 (1): 56. doi:10.3366/mod.2012.0028.
- "Nomination Form, Memory of the World Register". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Ross, John (2009). El Monstruo: Dread and Redemption in Mexico City. New York: Nation Books. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-56858-424-9.
- Berg, Charles Ramírez. "Los Olvidados (1950)". Essential Cinema. Austin Film Society. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Paz, Octavio (29 September 1983). "Cannes, 1951. Los olvidados". El País. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Wilson, Jason (1979). Octavio Paz, a Study of His Poetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-521-22306-7.
- Garmendia, Arturo. "La batalla por "Los Olvidados" de Buñuel". Cineforever. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- Steffen, James. "Los Olvidados". Turner Classic Movies Film Article. Turner Entertainment Networks.
- Faber, Sebastiaan (2002). Exile and Cultural Hegemony: Spanish Intellectuals in Mexico, 1939–1975. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. pp. xiv. ISBN 0-8265-1422-7.
- Gazetas, Aristides (2008). An Introduction to World Cinema. Jefferson NC: McFarland. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-7864-3907-2.
- "Los olvidados". Memory of the World. UNESCO. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Poniatowska, Elena (1961). Palabras cruzadas. Mexico City: Ediciones Era. p. 191.
- Williams, Linda (1996). "The Critical Grasp: Bunuelian Cinema and Its Critics", in Dada and Surrealist Film, ed. by Rudolf E. Kuenzli. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-262-61121-3.
- Hershfield, Joanne (1996). Mexican Cinema/Mexican Woman, 1940–1950. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1636-7.
- Rodriguez, Rafael Hernandez (1999). "Melodrama and Social Comedy in the Cinema of the Golden Age", in Mexico's Cinema: A Century of Film and Filmmakers, ed. by Joanne Hershfield and David R. Maciel. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-8420-2681-9.
- Turrent, Tomás Pérez and José de la Colina (1993). Buñuel por Buñuel. Madrid: Plot. p. 88. ISBN 978-84-86702-20-5.
- "Luis Buñuel and Gabriel Figueroa: A Surreal Alliance". The Luis Buñuel Film Institute. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Munjal, Savi. "I'm Tired of Symmetry: The Destructive Rhythms of Bunuel's Bourgeois Trilogy". Cerebration. Caspersen School of graduate studies, Drew University. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Davies-Stofka, Beth (2011). "Luis Buñuel", in Encyclopedia of Religion and Film, ed. by Eric Michael Mazur. Santa Barbara CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-33072-8.
- Stafford, Jeff. "The Exterminating Angel". Turner Classic Movies Film Article. Turner Entertainment Networks. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Ali, Murtaza. "Viridiana (1961): Luis Bunuel's Case Study on Bourgeoisie Plight and its Underlining Causes". A Potpourri of Vestiges. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Wood, Michael. "Viridiana: The Human Comedy". Criterion Collection. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "The Religious Affiliation of Director Luis Bunuel". Adherents.com. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- Manceaux, Michèle (12 May 1960). "Luis Buñuel: athée grâce à Dieu". L’Express: 41.
- Gilliatt, Penelope (5 December 1977). "Long Live the Living!". The New Yorker.
- Luis Buñuel (1982, 1984). My Last Breath. Jonathan Cape. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-224-02073-2. "Father Julian... and I often talk about faith and the existence of God, but... he's forever coming up against the stone wall of my atheism..."
- Fuentes, Carlos (2006). This I Believe: An A to Z of a Life. New York: Random House. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8129-7254-2.
- Alexander, Sean (2004). "Luis Buñuel", in The Scarecrow Video Movie Guide. Seattle WA: Sasquatch Books. p. 31. ISBN 1-57061-415-6.
- Stam, Robert (1991). "Hitchock and Buñuel: Authority, Desire and the Absurd", in Hitchcock's Rereleased Films: From Rope to Vertigo, ed. by Walter Raubicheck and Walter Srebnick. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-8143-2326-X.
- Carriere, Jean-Claude. "The Bunuel mystery". maryellenmark.com. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
- Davis, Ronald L. (2006). Zachary Scott: Hollywood's Sophisticated Cad. Jackson MS: University Press of Mississippi. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-57806-837-1.
- Isaac, Claudio (2008). Midday with Buñuel: memories and sketches, 1973–1983. Chicago: Swan Isle Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-9748881-3-2.
- Hoolboom, Mike (2001). Inside the pleasure dome: fringe ﬁlm in Canada. Toronto: Coach House Books. p. 42. ISBN 1-55245-099-6.
- Nelson, Thomas Allen (2000). Kubrick, Inside a Film Artist's Maze. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-253-33742-9.
- Atkinson, Michael. "Diary of a Chambermaid". Criterion Collection. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Axmaker, Sean. "Catherine Deneuve in Luis Bunuel's Belle De Jour". TCM Archive. Turner Entertainment Network. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
- "The Mexico of Emilio Fernández and Gabriel Figueroa". Cine Las Americas. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Acevedo-Muñoz, Ernesto R. (1997). Los olvidados: Luis Buñuel and the Crisis of Nationalism. Guadalajara: Latin American Studies Association. p. 4.
- Deneuve, Catherine (2007). The Private Diaries of Catherine Deneuve: Close Up and Personal. New York: Pegasus Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-933648-36-1.
- Richards, Rashna Wadia (Winter 2008). "Unsynched: The Contrapuntal Sounds of Luis Bunuel's L'Age d'Or". Film Criticism 33 (2): 23–43.
- Williams, Linda (1981). Figures of Desire: A Theory and Analysis of Surrealist Film. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 0-520-07896-9.
- Eisenstein, Sergei (1949). Film Form: Essays in Film Theory. New York: Harcourt Brace. pp. 257–260. ISBN 0-15-630920-3.
- Kinder, Marsha (1993). Blood Cinema: The Reconstruction of National Identity in Spain. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-520-08157-4.
- Faulkner, Sally (2004). Literary Adaptations in Spanish Cinema. London: Tamesis. pp. 152–153. ISBN 1-85566-098-9.
- "Un Chien Andalou". Cinémathèque Annotations on Film, Issue 12. Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Higgins, Steven (2006). Still Moving: The Film and Media Collections of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art. p. 151. ISBN 0-87070-326-9.
- Clifford, James (1988). The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-674-69843-7.
- Coates, Paul (2003). Cinema, Religion, and the Romantic Legacy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 191–192. ISBN 978-0-7546-1585-9.
- Pavlović, Tatjana et al. (2009). 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. New York: Wiley. pp. 101–102. ISBN 1-4051-8419-1.
- Kanaya, S. (2007). Luis Buñuel. Tokyo: Kinokuniya. pp. 12–29.
- D’Lugo, Marvin (1999). "Buñuel in the Cathedral of Culture" in Marsha Kinder (ed.), Luis Buñuel’s The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-521-56831-9.
- "¿Buñuel!. La mirada del siglo". Catálogo de publicaciones. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "IES Luis Buñuel". http://iesluisbunuel.com/. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Simonis, Damien (2009). Spain – ebook edition. 7th Edition. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet. p. 467. ISBN 978-1-74179-000-9.
- "el CBC". cbcvirtual.com. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Accès aux projections". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Tribute to Luis Buñuel". Around the selection 2000. Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "Luis Buñuel Film Institute". Luis Buñuel Film Institute. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Selas, Alejandro Reche. "La Hispalense rendirá homenaje a Buñuel en marco del Festival de Cine". Diario de Sevilla. Joly Digital. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Dalí se opone a un proyecto de película de Antoni Ribas sobre el pintor". El Pais. 18 January 1985. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Montes Garces, Elizabeth (2007). Relocating Identities in Latin American Cultures. Calgary: University of Calgary Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-55238-209-7.
- "Buñuel y la mesa del Rey Salomón". Noticias. ClubCine. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Residencia de Estudiantes – History". Residencia de Estudiantes. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Rojas, Carlos (1993). Salvador Dalí, Or The Art of Spitting on Your Mother's Portrait. University Park PA: Penn State Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-271-00842-3.
- "The Death of Salvador Dali – Press release". dalimovie.com. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Smith, David (27 October 2007). "Were Spain's two artistic legends secret gay lovers?". The Observer (London). Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Berger, Joseph (27 May 2011). "Decoding Woody Allen’s ‘Midnight in Paris’". New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "11th Moscow International Film Festival (1979)". MIFF. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
- "The 43rd Academy Awards (1971) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-11-26.
- "The 45th Academy Awards (1973) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
- "The 50th Academy Awards (1978) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- Luis Buñuel: Biografia Critica (Spanish Edition) [Paperback] by J. Francisco Aranda (Author)
- Paperback: 479 pages. Publisher: Lumen; Nueva ed. rev. y aumentada edition (1975) . Language: Spanish . ISBN 8426410553. ISBN 978-8426410559.
- Luis Buñuel, Mi Ultimo Suspiro (English translation My Last Sigh Alfred A. Knopf, 1983).
- Luis Buñuel: The Red Years, 1929–1939 (Wisconsin Film Studies). 
- Froylan Enciso, "En defensa del poeta Buñuel", en Andar fronteras. El servicio diplomático de Octavio Paz en Francia (1946–1951), Siglo XXI, 2008, pp. 130–134 y 353–357.
- Michael Koller "Un Chien Andalou", Senses of Cinema January 2001 Retrieved on 26 July 2006.
- Ignacio Javier López, The Old Age of William Tell: A Study of Buñuel's '"Tristana", MLN 116 (2001): 295–314.
- Ignacio Javier López, "Film, Freud and Paranoia: Dalí and the Representation of Male Desire in An Andalusian Dog", "'Diacritics'" 31,2 (2003): 35–48.
- Javier Espada y Elena Cervera, México fotografiado por Luis Buñuel.
- Javier Espada y Elena Cervera, Buñuel. Entre 2 Mundos.
- Javier Espada y Asier Mensuro, Album fotografico de la familia Buñuel.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luis Buñuel.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Luis Buñuel|
- Luis Buñuel at the Internet Movie Database
- Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database
- They Shoot Pictures, Don't They?
- Interview with Jean-Claude Carriere – Bunuel's screenwriter and friend
- The Religious Affiliation of Luis Buñuel
- The Luis Buñuel Film Institute
- Luis Buñuel at Find a Grave
- La furia umana, n°6, multilanguage dossier (texts by Gilberto Perez, Adrian Martin, Toni D'Angela, Alberto Abruzzese and others) 
- Bunuel Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
- Buñuel biography