|Kalaignar Karunanidhi at a state event|
|15th, 12th, 10th, 4th, 3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu|
13 May 2006 – 15 May 2011
13 May 1996 – 13 May 2001
27 January 1989 – 30 January 1991
|Preceded by||Janaki Ramachandran|
15 March 1971 – 31 January 1976
|Preceded by||President's rule|
|Succeeded by||President's rule|
10 February 1969 – 4 January 1971
|Preceded by||V. R. Nedunchezhiyan (acting)|
|Succeeded by||President's rule|
3 June 1924
Thirukuvalai, Madras Presidency, British India
|Political party||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam|
|Children||M. K. Muthu
M. K. Alagiri
M. K. Stalin
M. K. Tamilarasu
M. K. Selvi
|Residence||Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India|
Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born Dakshinamurthy, 3 June 1924) (Tamil: கருணாநிதி, karunaanidhi ?) is an Indian politician who has served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on five separate occasions. He is the head of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), a Dravidian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu. He has been the leader of the DMK since the death of its founder, C. N. Annadurai, in 1969. He holds the record of winning his seat in every election in which he has participated, in a political career spanning more than 60 years. In the 2004 Lok Sabha Elections, he led the DMK-led DPA (UPA and Left Parties) in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry to win all 40 Lok Sabha seats. In the following 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, he was able to increase the number of seats for the DMK from 16 to 18 seats, and led the UPA in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, to win 28 seats, even with a significantly smaller coalition. He is also a playwright and screenwriter in Tamil cinema. He is called by his supporters as Kalaignar ("artist").
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Screenwriting
- 3 Literature
- 4 Politics
- 5 Awards and titles
- 6 Controversies
- 7 Elections contested and positions held
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Muthuvel Karunanidhi was born as Dakshinamurthy in Thirukuvalai in Tiruvarur, India, on 3 June 1924 to Muthuvel and Anjugam. He married three times; his wives are the late Padmavathy Ammal, Dayalu Ammal and Rajathiammal. His sons are M. K. Muthu, M. K. Alagiri, M. K. Stalin, and M. K. Tamilarasu. His daughters are Selvi and Kanimozhi. Kanimozhi is a Rajya Sabha MP. M. K. Muthu, his eldest son was born to Padmavathy, who died at a young age. He had many wives and sons. Alagiri, Stalin, Selvi and Tamilarasu were born to Dayaluammal, while Kanimozhi is the only daughter from his third wife, Rajathiammal. He has donated his house, that is to be converted into a free hospital for the poor after the lifetime of him and his wife Dayalu Ammal.
Karunanidhi began his career as a screenwriter in the Tamil film industry. Through his wit and oratorical skills he rapidly rose as a popular politician. He was famous for writing historical and social (reformist) stories which propagated the socialist and rationalist ideals of the Dravidian movement to which he belonged. He first began using Tamil cinema to propagate his political ideas through the movie Parasakthi. Parasakthi was a turning point in Tamil cinema, as it espoused the ideologies of the Dravidian movement and also introduced two prominent actors of Tamil filmdom, Sivaji Ganesan and S. S. Rajendran. The movie was initially banned but was eventually released in 1952. It was a huge box office hit, but its release was marred with controversies. The movie was opposed by orthodox Hindus since it contained elements that criticized Brahmanism. Two other movies written by Karunanidhi that contained such messages were Panam and Thangarathnam. These movies contained themes such as widow remarriage, abolition of untouchability, self-respect marriages, abolition of zamindari and abolition of religious hypocrisy. As his movies and plays with strong social messages became popular, they suffered from increased censorship; two of his plays in the 1950s were banned.
Karunanidhi rose to fame as a scriptwriter for the Modern Theatres Studio in Salem about 350 kilometers from Madras or present day Chennai. T R Sundaram, the owner of Modern Theatres Studio at Yercaud foot hills, was instrumental in honouring the talents of Karunanidhi, Jayalalithaa and M G Ramachandran. Even today, whenever Karunanidhi visits Salem, he takes a ride through Modern Theatres ( now a gated community of exclusive bungalows)and goes up to the first hair pin bend on the Yercaud hill road to relive nostalgia.
Karunanidhi known for his contributions to Tamil literature. His contributions cover a wide range: poems, letters, screenplays, novels, biographies, historical novels, stage-plays, dialogues and movie songs. He has written Kuraloviam for Thirukural, Tholkaappiya Poonga, Poombukar, as well as many poems, essays and books. Apart from literature, Karunanidhi has also contributed to the Tamil language through art and architecture. Like the Kuraloviyam, in which Kalaignar wrote about Thirukkural, through the construction of Valluvar Kottam he gave an architectural presence to Thiruvalluvar, in Chennai. At Kanyakumari, Karunanidhi constructed a 133-foot-high statue of Thiruvalluvar in honour of the scholar.
The books written by Karunanidhi's include Sanga Thamizh, Thirukkural Urai, Ponnar Sankar, Romapuri Pandian, Thenpandi Singam, Vellikizhamai, Nenjukku Needhi, Iniyavai Irubathu and Kuraloviam. His books of prose and poetry number more than 100.
Karunanidhi's stage plays include: Manimagudam, Ore Ratham, Palaniappan, Thooku Medai, Kagithapoo, Naane Arivali, Vellikizhamai, Udhayasooriyan and Silappathikaram.
At the age of 20, Karunanidhi went to work for Jupiter Pictures as a scriptwriter. His first film, Rajakumaari, gained him much popularity. It was here that his skills as a scriptwriter were honed. He wrote 75 screenplays including: Rajakumaari, Abimanyu, Manthiri Kumari, Marudhanaattu Ilavarasi, Manamagal, Devaki, Parasakthi, Panam, Thirumbi Paar, Naam, Manohara, Ammaiappan, Malaikkallan, Rangoon Radha, Raja Rani, Pudhaiyal, Pudhumai Pithan, Ellorum Innattu Mannar, Kuravanji, Thayillapillai, Kaanchi Thalaivan, Poompuhar, Poomalai, Mani Makudam, Marakka Mudiyuma?, Avan Pithana?, Pookkari, Needhikku Thandanai, Paalaivana Rojakkal, Pasa Paravaikal, Padadha Theneekkal, Niyaya Tharasu, Pasakiligal, Kannamma, Uliyin Osai, Pen Singam,Ilaignan and Ponnar Shankar
- Ponnar Shankar (2011)
- Ilaignan (2011)
- Pen Singam (2010)
- Uliyin Osai (2008)
- Pasa Kiligal (2006)
- Kannamma (2005)
- Mannin Maindhan (2005)
- Kavalukku Kettikaran (1990)
- Nyaya Tharasu (1989)
- Paasa Paravaigal (1988)
- Paadatha Thenikkal (1988)
- Pudhumai Pithan (1957)
- Raja Rani (1956)
- Panam (1952)
- Manohara (1952)
- Parasakthi (1952)
- Manthiri Kumari (1950)
- Marudhanaattu Ilavarasi (1950)
- Abimanyu (1948)
- Rajakumaari (1947)
Entry into politics
Karunanidhi entered politics at the age of 14, inspired by a speech by Alagiriswamii of the Justice Party, and participated in Anti-Hindi agitations. He founded an organisation for the local youth of his locality. He circulated a handwritten newspaper called Manavar Nesan to its members. Later he founded a student organisation called Tamil Nadu Tamil Manavar Mandram, which was the first student wing of the Dravidan Movement. Karunanidhi involved himself and the student community in social work with other members. Here he started a newspaper for its members, which grew into Murasoli, the DMK party's official newspaper.
The first major protest that aided Karunanidhi in gaining ground in Tamil politics was his involvement in the Kallakudi agitation in Kallakudi. Original name of this industrial town was Kallakudi and it was changed to Dalmiapuram after a cement mogul who built a cement plant there. DMK wanted to change the name back to Kallagudi.. In the protest Karunanidhi and his companions erased the name Dalmiapuram from the railway station and lay down on the tracks blocking the course of trains. Two people died in the protest and Karunanidhi was arrested.
Rise to power
Karunanidhi was first elected to the Tamil Nadu assembly in 1957 from the Kulithalai assembly of Thiruchirapalli district. He became the DMK treasurer in 1961 and deputy leader of opposition in the state assembly in the year 1962 and when the DMK came to power in 1967, he became the minister for public works. When Annadurai expired in 1969, Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He has held various positions in the party and government during his long career in Tamil Nadu political arena. However, he suffered multiple electoral defeats against his primary opponent M.G.Ramachandran's ADMK until the latter's death in 1987.
After a brief stint as Chief Minister during the late 1980s (his government was dismissed by the Central government on accusations of degrading Law and Order situation in the state), Karunanidhi became the CM of Tamil Nadu in 1996 following a sweeping electoral win in the preceding elections. Following a 5-year rule, his party again lost at the elections to J. Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in 2001. He was however back in power when he took over as chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on 13 May 2006 after his coalition defeated his main opponent J. Jayalalithaa in the May 2006 elections. He currently[update] represents the constituency of Tiruvarur in the Tamil Nadu state Legislative Assembly. He has been elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly 12 times and once to the now abolished Tamil Nadu Legislative Council. At the end of the 5-year administration, the DMK lost the majority of seats in the legislative assembly of Tamil Nadu when elections were held in 2011, thereby ceding power again to the AIADMK under J. Jayalalithaa.
Editor and publisher
He started Murasoli on 10 August 1942. He was the founding editor and publisher of Murasoli during his boyhood as a monthly, then a weekly, and now a daily. He used his talents as a journalist and cartoonist to bring issues relevant to his political ideology before the public. He writes daily letters addressed to his party workers by name; he has been writing these for over 50 years. In addition he has served as editor for Kudiyarasu and gave life to the journal Mutharam. He is the founder of State Governments News Reel, Arasu Studio and also the Government Journal Tamil Arasu, published in Tamil and English.
World Tamil Conference
He delivered the special address on the inaugural day of 3rd World Tamil Conference held in Paris in 1970, and also on the inaugural day of 6th World Tamil Conference held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) in 1987. He penned the song "Semmozhiyaana Tamizh Mozhiyaam", the official theme song for the World Classical Tamil Conference 2010, that was set to tune by A. R. Rahman.
Awards and titles
- Annamalai University awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1971.
- He was awarded "Raja Rajan Award" by Tamil University, Thanjavur for his book "Thenpandi Singam".
- On 15 December 2006, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chancellor of Madurai Kamaraj University, Surjit Singh Barnala conferred an honorary doctorate on the Chief Minister on the occasion of the 40th annual convocation.
- In June 2007, the Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi announced that it would confer the title 'Friend of the Muslim Community' ('Yaaran-E-Millath') upon M. Karunanidhi.
He has been indicted by the Sarkaria commission for corruption in allotting tenders for the Veeranam project. Indra Gandhi dismissed the Karunanidhi government based on charges of possible secession and corruption. In 2001 Karunanidhi, former chief secretary, K.A. Nambiar, and a host of others were arrested on charges of corruption in the construction of flyovers in Chennai. He and his party members were also charged under Sections 120(b) (criminal conspiracy), 167 (public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury), 420 (cheating) and 409 (criminal breach of trust) of the IPC, and Section 13 (2) read with 13 (1)(d) of the Prevention of Corruption Act, but no prima facie evidence was found against him and his son M K Stalin.
Desecrating Hindu Gods
Karunanidhi and senior party members reportedly participated in a rally in Villupuram on 15 September 2012, to celebrate the DMK founding day, where they were reportedly received by a group of dancers made up as Hindu gods. Dressed in costumes depicting Shiva, Parvathy, Murugan and Vinayaka, the dancers put up a show for this group of "atheist" leaders. This development has not gone down well with the Hindu Leaders with the TN Hindu Maha Sabha president K. Srikandan sending a petition to the chief minister's cell and the director general of police, demanding the arrest of rally organizer K. Ponmudy and other office-bearers of the DMK under the National Security Act. Karunanidhi and the DMK leaders have been criticized for their opportunistic use of their so-called lofty ideals of 'rationalism' to favor and follow the minority appeasement policies.
Ram Setu remarks
Some say there was a person over 1.7 million years ago. His name was Rama. Do not touch the bridge (Ramar Sethu) constructed by him. Who is this Rama? From which engineering college did he graduate? Is there any proof for this?
His remarks caused a firestorm of controversy. BJP leader Ravi Shankar Prasad accused Karunanidhi of religious discrimination when noting "We would like to know from Karunanidhi if he would make a similar statement against religious head of any other religion; chance are he may not."
In response to these statements, Karunanidhi defiantly stated, "Anyway, neither Valmiki nor Ram is here now [to vouch for claims of Ram's existence]. There is only a group that thinks of people as fools. They will be proved wrong."
Several days later, he commented:
Karunanidhi who is well known for being associated with Anti-Hindi agitations throughout his political career, chose to recite a poem for the first time in Hindi showing the unity of people of India on 1 October 2007 on a public platform to downplay the criticism for his remarks on Ram and for the fast implementation of Sethusamudram Project.
Connections with LTTE
The interim report of Justice Jain Commission, which oversaw the investigation into Rajiv Gandhi's assassination, indicted Karunanidhi for abetting the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The interim report recommended that Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi and the DMK party be held responsible for abetting Rajiv Gandhi's murderers. The final report contained no such allegations. In April 2009, in an interview to NDTV, Karunanidhi made a controversial remark stating that "Prabhakaran is my good friend" and also said, "India could not forgive the LTTE for assassinating Rajiv Gandhi".
Allegations of nepotism
Karunanidhi has been accused by opponents, by some members of his party, and by other political observers of trying to promote nepotism and start a political dynasty along the lines of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Many political opponents and DMK party senior leaders have been critical of the rise of M. K. Stalin in the party. But some of the party men have pointed out that Stalin has come up on his own. He has faced a lot of hardship since 1975, when he was jailed under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) and was beaten up in jail so brutally during the Emergency that a fellow DMK party prisoner died trying to save him. Stalin was an MLA in 1989 and 1996 when his father Karunanidhi was the Chief Minister, but he was not inducted into the Cabinet. He became Chennai's 44th mayor and its first directly elected mayor in 1996. It was only in his fourth term as MLA that he was made a Minister in the Karunanidhi cabinet and then in 2009 was made the Deputy Chief Minister. His daughter Kanimozhi is a Rajya Sabha MP now. Murosoli Maran,Dayanidhi Maran& Alagiri were appointed to the Union Cabinet on dynastic principles, disregarding the services of many loyal party workers.
Involvement in 2G Scam
As per the chargesheet filed by CBI Kanimozhi has 100% stake in her family owned Kalaignar TV, her step-mother Dayalu Ammal owns 60% stake in the same channel. CBI alleges that Kanimozhi was an "active brain" behind the channel's operations and she worked along with former telecom minister A. Raja to get DB Realty promoter Shahid Balwa to circuitously route 2 billion (US$36.2 million) to Kalaignar TV. According to CBI, Kanimozhi was in regular touch with A Raja regarding launching of Kalaignar TV channel and its other pending works. CBI alleges that A Raja was further pursuing the cause of Kalaignar TV not only for getting registration of the company from Ministry of Information and Broadcasting but also for getting it in the DTH operator TATA Sky's bouquet. She was also summoned by the Income Tax Department, Chennai for alleged tax evasion charges.
Mr Karunanidhi was reportedly upset in the JPC's findings and revelations and have discreetly urged his trusted DMK channels to ensure support and cooperation from the UPA government to safeguard his daughter's interests in this 2G scam. Mr T R Baalu from DMK visited Congress veteran Mr Ahamed Patel to convey DMK chief's displeasure over the JPC findings.
Elections contested and positions held
|Year||Constituency||Result||Vote percentage||Opposition Candidate||Opposition Party||Opposition vote percentage|
|1957||Kulithalai||Won||K. A. Dharmalingam||INC|
|1962||Thanjavur||Won||A. Y. S. Parisutha Nadar||INC|
|1967||Saidapet||Won||S. G. Vinayagamurthy||INC|
|1977||Anna Nagar||Won||50.1||G. Krishnamurthy||ADMK||30.98|
|1996||Chepauk||Won||77.05||N.S. Nellai Kannan||INC||17.24|
|2006||Chepauk||Won||50.96||Dawood Miah Khan||Independent||38.25|
Posts in legislature
|Assembly||From||To||Position||Party - Number of seats
|Third Assembly||1962||1967||Deputy Leader of the Opposition||50/143|
|Fourth Assembly||1967||1969||State Minister for Public Works||138/233|
|Fourth Assembly||10 February 1969||5 January 1971||Chief Minister (1)||136/233|
|Fifth Assembly||15 March 1971||31 January 1976||Chief Minister (2)||182/203|
|Sixth Assembly||25 July 1977||17 February 1980||Leader of the Opposition (1)||48/230|
|Seventh Assembly||27 June 1980||18 August 1983||Leader of the Opposition (2)||37/112|
|Ninth Assembly||27 January 1989||30 January 1991||Chief Minister (3)||150/202|
|Eleventh Assembly||13 May 1996||14 May 2001||Chief Minister (4)||173/182|
|Thirteenth Assembly||13 May 2006||14 May 2011||Chief Minister (5)||96/132|
|Fourteenth Assembly||16 May 2011||MLA||23/124|
- "Karunanidhi shares dais with Sai Baba". CNN-IBN. 17 June 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Mohan, Gopu (31 May 2009). "Karunanidhi's Kutumbam". The Indian Express. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "With Them / Against Them: The DMK's bitter battles with the state BJP continue, so how long can they hang on at the Centre?". Outlook India. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "DMK's Official Homepage". Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Biography of Karunanaidhi in official party website". Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "I am not a rich person:TN CM Karunanidhi proclaims". Asian Tribune. 2 December 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Karunanidhi wife pulls out stake in Sun TV". Indian Express. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Kalaignar survives 4 challenging years". The Economic Times. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2013.He lost badly in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
- Menon, Jeya (20 April 2006). "Karunanidhi’s been nice, but his village not blind to Amma option". The Indian Express (Thirukuvalai). Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "In South India, more the merrier". The Times of India. 2 May 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- N., Sathiya Moorthy (2 November 2008). "Rama, Ravana battle again in TN". Madras: Rediff. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Karunanidhi Donates his House to Establish Free Hospital for Poor". Asian Tribune. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "The Wives & Wherefores". The Outlook (New Delhi). 8 June 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "The Last Lear – The Long Profile of Karunanidhi in The Caravan". The Caravan India. Retrieved 22 November 2013.[dead link]
- Guneratne 2003, p. 216
- Hardgrave, Jr, Robert L (1973). "Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK". Asian Survey 13 (3): 288–305. doi:10.1525/as.1973.13.3.01p0314o.
- A., Srivathsan (12 June 2006). "Films and the politics of convenience". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Ramaswamy 1997, p. 226
- Krishnakumar (25 April 2006). "The Sachin of TN politics". Rediff.com. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- T., Ramakrishnan (16 May 2010). "Front Page : Theme song launched for world classical Tamil meet". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Awards". Drkalaignar.org. Retrieved 19 December 2011.[dead link]
- "TMMK to confer Karunanidhi with 'Friend of the Community' title". newkerala.com. United News of India. 3 June 2007.
Chennai, 3 June: Tamil Nadu Chief Minister and DMK President M Karunanidhi, who turned 84 today, will be conferred with the 'Friend of the Muslim Community' title by the Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi.
- United News of India (3 June 2007). "MK awarded 'Friend of the Community' title". oneindia.in.[dead link]
- United News of India (4 June 2007). "Karunanidhi turns 84". news.webindia123.com.
The Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi has decided to confer 'Yaaraan-E-Millath (meaning friend of the Muslim community) title on Mr Karunanidhi to mark the occasion.
- "The Hindu : What the Sarkaria Commission said". The Hindu. 10 June 2001. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Welcome to Frontline" 29 (01). Frontline.
- "Karunanidhi held in pre-dawn swoop – Jailed on corruption charges". Blonnet.com. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2012.[dead link]
- S. Thirunavukarasu (18 September 2012). "DMK lands in ‘divine’ trouble". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Which engineering college did Rama study, asks Karuna, New India Press – 18 September 2007
- "Karuna earns BJP's wrath for comments on Lord Ram". Rediff. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "DMK chief rubbishes Ram again". The Pioneer. 20 September 2007.[dead link]
- As per Valmiki, Rama was a drunkard: Karunanidhi AndhraNews.net
- "On the eve of D-day with SC, Karunanidhi’s Hindi avatar". The Indian Express (Chennai). 1 October 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Defying SC ban, MK pulls a 'fast' one; speaks Hindi". Chennai. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "India Today Cover Story Jain Commission Revelations: Damning the DMK]". India Today. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "No adverse comments on DMK leaders in Jain report". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 14 February 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Karunanidhi flip flops, says can't forgive LTTE". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- TamilNet (21 April 2012). "Karunanidhi: "Tamil Eelam Still Around the Corner"". Tamilnet.tv. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Politics: Special Series; M K Stalin". India Today. 1 November 1999. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Enough proof to nail Karuna’s wife, Kanimozhi in 2G scam: ED tells JPC". Times of India. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Anna Nagar constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Harbour constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- "Party wise comparison since 1977 in Chepauk constituency". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly elections 2011, p. 191
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1962-70 1967, pp. 6-7
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1967-70 1971, p. 7
- "Details of Successive legislative assemblies constituted under the constitution of India". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1967-70 1971, p. 145
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1971-76 1976, p. 157
- Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1977-80 1980, p. 9
- Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1980, p. 10
- Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1989, p. 10
- Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1996, p. 11
- Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 2006, p. 11
- Guneratne, Anthony R.; Wimal Dissanayake; Sumita S. Chakravarty (2003). Rethinking Third Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21354-1.
- Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). Passions of the tongue: language devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20805-6 ISBN 978-0-520-20805-6.
- "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1962-67" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1967.
- "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1967-70" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1971.
- "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1971-76" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. June 1976.
- "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Quadrennial Review 1977-80" (PDF). Fort St. George, Madras: Legislative Assembly Department. 1980.
- "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly elections 2011" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 2011.
- "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1980" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1980.
- "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1989" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1989.
- "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 1996" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 1996.
- "Statistical report on Tamil Nadu Assembly general elections 2006" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. 2006.
- The Last Lear: A Long Profile of Muthuvel Karunanidhi by Vinod K Jose in The Caravan magazine[dead link]
- Muthuvel Karunanidhi: One Hundred Tamils of 20th Century[dead link]
C. N. Annadurai
|Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Title next held byM. G. Ramachandran
Title last held byJanaki Ramachandran
|Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Title next held byJ. Jayalalithaa
|Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
|Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu