Erode

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the geologic process, see Erosion.
Erode
City
River Kaveri at Erode.
River Kaveri at Erode.
Nickname(s): Turmeric City, Textile City, Loom-City
Erode is located in Tamil Nadu
Erode
Erode
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Coordinates: 11°21′N 77°44′E / 11.350°N 77.733°E / 11.350; 77.733Coordinates: 11°21′N 77°44′E / 11.350°N 77.733°E / 11.350; 77.733
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
Region Kongu Nadu
District Erode District
Municipal Corporation 2009
Talukas Erode
Government
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Erode Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Mallika Paramasivam
Elevation 183 m (600 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 157,101
 • Density 397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 63800x
Telephone code 91 (424)
Vehicle registration TN 33(East), TN 86(West)
Literacy 76%
Website erodecorp.tn.gov.in

Erode ([iːroːɽɯ]) is the administrative headquarters of Erode District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of River Kaveri, and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Hyder Ali, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. It is situated at the center of the South Indian Peninsula, about 400 kilometres (249 mi) southwest of the state capital Chennai and about 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of Coimbatore. Hand loom, power loom textile products and ready made garments industries contribute to the economy of the city. The people in the city are employed in various textile, oil and turmeric manufacturing industries.

Being the district headquarters, Erode accommodates the district administration offices, government educational institutes, colleges and schools. Erode is a part of Erode constituency (Erode East and Erode West) and elects its member of legislative assembly every five years, and a part of the Erode constituency that elects its member of parliament. The city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 2009 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Roadways is the major mode of transport to the city, while it has also got rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Coimbatore International Airport, located at a distance of 90 km from the city.

Etymology[edit]

Modern historians contend that Erode has its origin in the Tamil phrase Eru Odai meaning two streams. The claim is based on the presence of two water courses, Perumpallam in Surampatti and Kalingarayan Canal in Brahmana Periya Agraharam and Kasipalayam. As per another local belief, the name is derived from the words "Eera Odu" which means wet skull. Dakshaprajapathi, who married his daughter to Hindu god Shiva, conducted a yajna. For the ritual, Shiva was not invited. However, Dakshyayini, the wife of Shiva, attended the ritual, much against the wish of her husband. During the function, Dakshyayini was not welcomed by her parents or other attendees. She was vexed and threw herself in the fire pot and burned to ashes. On hearing this, Shiva got highly enraged, proceeded to the sacrificial pot and threw everyone present including Brahma, the Hindu god of creation. The skulls and bones were thrown in river Cauvery and remained as a wet skull.[1][2]

History[edit]

The present day Erode region was a larger part of Coimbatore district and formed part of the ancient Kongu country known as "Kongu Nadu", whose history dates back to the Sangam period. After the Sangam age, most of present day Tamil Nadu, including Erode, came under the rule of the Kalabhras dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. It is also believed that the area was occupied by tribes, the most prominent being the Kosars whose capital was 'Kosamputhur' (modern day Coimbatore). These tribes were overpowered by the Rashtrakutas and who were subsequently won over by the Cholas. The city remained under the control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308 CE), Erode came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The Erode Sultanate then seceded from Delhi and functioned as an independent kingdom until its gradual annexation by the Vijayanagar Empire in 1378 CE. Erode became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the Madurai Nayaks. Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Erode was repeatedly captured several times by Mysore rulers from whom Hyder Ali took over the area. Consequent to the fall of Tipu Sultan (the son of Hyder Ali) of Mysore in 1799, the Kongu region came under the direct control of the East India Company who restored the power to the Maharaja of Mysore. It remained under British rule until India got independence in 1947. Now Erode is rule by Arun Balashanmugam.[3][4][5][5][6]

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census, Erode had a population of 157,101 with a sex-ratio of 1,008 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[9] A total of 14,599 were under the age of six, constituting 7,412 males and 7,187 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 11.04% and .15% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 80.08%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[9] The city had a total of 43184 households. There were a total of 66,135 workers, comprising 220 cultivators, 380 main agricultural labourers, 1,693 in house hold industries, 61,382 other workers, 2,460 marginal workers, 34 marginal cultivators, 34 marginal agricultural labourers, 128 marginal workers in household industries and 2,264 other marginal workers.[8] As of the census of India 2001, there were a total of 37,505 households. A total of 12,642 people constituting 9.31% of the total population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 74 people constituting 0.05% of the population belong to Scheduled tribes (ST). There were a total of 58,342 main workers: 232 cultivators, 318 agricultural labourers, 1,154 in house hold industries and 54,669 other workers. There were 1,969 marginal workers: 12 marginal cultivators, 100 marginal agricultural labourers, 191 in marginal workers in household industries and 1,666 other marginal workers.[10]

As of 2001, 52 slums were identified in the town and approximately 33,000 people resided in the slums.[11] The population of the town increased 11 times during the last century without any physical expansion of the city area.[7]

Hindus form the majority of the urban population, followed by Muslims and Christians. Tamil is the main language spoken in the city, but the use of English is relatively common; English is the medium of instruction in most educational institutions and offices in the service sector.[12]

Geography[edit]

Erode is located at 11°13′N 77°26′E / 11.21°N 77.44°E / 11.21; 77.44. The city has a semi-arid climate with high temperatures throughout the year, and relatively low rainfall. The city is located in Erode district of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu, at a distance of 400 km (250 mi) from Chennai. Erode has a hilly terrain with undulating topography. Urugumalai, Athimalai, Chennimalai are the hills that surround the city. The rivers that flow in Erode are Amaravathy, Noyal, Bhavani, and Cavery. There are no notable mineral resources available in and around the city. Black loam soil is found in parts of Erode Taluk. The other type of soil in the city is chiefly gravelly, stony and sandy of the red variety. Lime stone is found in abundance in the form of modules, streaks and massive beds of grey and white colour inter branded with igeneous rocks in the river beds.

Erode experiences hot and dry weather throughout the year. The temperature ranges from a maximum of 96 °F (36 °C) to a minimum of 80 °F (27 °C). Like the rest of the state, April to June are the hottest months and December to January are the coldest. Erode receives 800 mm of rainfall with an average of 812 mm (32.0 in). The South west monsoon, with an onset in June and lasting up to August, brings scanty rainfall. Bulk of the rainfall is received during the North East monsoon in the months of October, November and December. The municipality covers an area of 8.44 km2 (8,440,000 m2)[5][13]

Climate data for Erode
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.4
(88.5)
34.1
(93.4)
36.5
(97.7)
37.1
(98.8)
36.6
(97.9)
34.5
(94.1)
33
(91)
33.2
(91.8)
33.3
(91.9)
32.2
(90)
30.9
(87.6)
30.4
(86.7)
33.6
(92.45)
Average low °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
21.1
(70)
23.2
(73.8)
25.4
(77.7)
25.7
(78.3)
24.7
(76.5)
24
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
22.1
(71.8)
20.5
(68.9)
23.15
(73.67)
Precipitation mm (inches) 9
(0.35)
13
(0.51)
12
(0.47)
47
(1.85)
82
(3.23)
28
(1.1)
50
(1.97)
80
(3.15)
77
(3.03)
171
(6.73)
88
(3.46)
43
(1.69)
700
(27.54)
Source: Climate-data.org[14]

Administration and Politics[edit]

Typical street-life near Clock Tower near PS Park
Municipality officials
Mayor Malliga Paramasivam[15]
Commissioner M. Vijayalakshmi[16]
Deputy Mayor K.C. Palanisamy[17]
Elected members
Member of Parliament S. Selvakumara Chinnayan[18]
Member of Legislative Assembly K. V. Ramalingam (Erode West) [19]
Member of Legislative Assembly V. C. Chandhirakumar (Erode East)[20]

Erode is the headquarters of the Erode District, which was bifurcated from Coimbatore District in 1979. The town was constituted as a municipality in 1871 and was promoted to special-grade during 1980 and upgraded as a corporation with effect from 1 January 2008. The Erode municipality has 60 wards and there is an elected councillor for each of those wards.[21] The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: general administration/personnel, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, city planning and Information Technology (IT). All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the executive head.[22] The legislative powers are vested in a body of 60 members, one each from the 60 wards.[23] The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson.[24]

Erode has two state assembly constituencies namely Erode East and Erode West and it elects 2 memberS to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years. The City Corporation area covers a part of Bhavani, Modakurichi, Perundurai and Komarapalayam constituencies. Until the 2004 elections, Erode had only one constituency.[25] From the 1977 elections, All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) won the assembly seat five times (in 1977, 1980, 1984, 1991 and 2001 elections) and four times by [[Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam]] (DMK, 1989, 1996 and 2006). The current MLA of Erode (East) constituency is V.C. Chandhirakumar from the DMDK party and Erode (West) is K.V. Ramalingam from AIADMK.[19][20][26] During the 1951 and 1962 elections, Erode was a part of Erode constituency and was held by the Indian National Congress.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is Selvakumara Chinnayan from the AIADMK party.[18]

Law and order in the city in maintained by the Erode sub division of the Tamil Nadu Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent. There are seven law & order police stations in the city corporation area, located at Karungalpalayam, Bazaar, Surampatti, Veerappan Chatram, Rangampalayam and Chithode, including a newly upgraded Periyar GH Police Station; one all-women police station; two traffic Police stations. There are special units like Armed Reserve, prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division headed by a Superintendent of Police.[40]

Transport[edit]

Busiest Arterial Road of the city – Brough Road

The Erode municipality maintains 102.071 km (63.424 mi) of roads. The city has 5.34 km (3.32 mi) concrete road and 96.73 km (60.11 mi) bituminous road. A total of 16.597 km (10.313 mi) of state highways is maintained by the State Highways Department.[41]

The main arterial roads include:

NH 47 connecting SalemCoimbatoreKanyakumari, bypasses the city via Bhavani, Chithode and Perundurai.[42] The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (TNSTC) which provides major connectivity has a sub-divisional headquarters at Erode falling under the Coimbatore division. Originally called as Jeeva Transport Corporation (JTC), it started functioning from 1 April 1983, with the principal area of operation in Erode district. Erode Central Bus Terminus, located near the Swastik Circle at the junction of State Highway 15 and Mettur Road is the main bus station complex in the city. Tamil Nadu State Express Transport Corporation, neighboring state bus corporations and private carriers operate long distance buses connecting the city to major cities like Chennai, Bangalore etc.[43][44]

Erode Junction railway station is a major rail junction in Salem division of Southern Railway. There is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric locomotive shed attached to Erode Junction. It also serves as the hub for water filling facilities, food provisions and cleaning services for long-distance trains that run via Erode.[45] The following are the lines running from Erode junction:

Line No. Towards Passing Through Station Type / Track
1 Salem Junction Sankari Durg Broad, Electrified – Double Track[46]
2 Coimbatore Junction Tiruppur Broad, Electrified – Double Track[47]
3 Trichy Junction Karur Broad, Single Track[48]

The nearest airport is Coimbatore International Airport located at a distance of 90 km. which has regular flights from/to various domestic destinations like Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Mumbai, Pune and international destinations like Sharjah and Singapore.[49]

Education and utility services[edit]

As of 2006, there were 46 public and private schools in Erode. There were four technical institutes in the city, with the Government Technical Institute being the prominent among them. There are four school playgrounds in the city.[50]

Electricity supply to Erode is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). The city along with its suburbs forms the Erode Electricity Distribution Circle. A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters.[51] Water supply is provided by the Erode Municipality from the river Kaveri through eight reservoirs located in various parts of the city. In the period 2000–2001, a total of 14 million litres of water was supplied everyday for households in the city.[52] As per the municipal data for 2011, about 110-125 metric tonnes of solid waste were collected from Erode every day by door-to-door collection and subsequently the source segregation and dumping was carried out by the sanitary department of the Erode municipality. The coverage of solid waste management in the city by the municipality had an efficiency of 100% as of 2001.[53]

There is no underground drainage system in the city and the sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences.[54] The municipality maintained a total of 192.36 km (119.53 mi) of storm water drains in 2011, comprising 190 km (120 mi) of open drains and 2.36 km (1.47 mi) of underground drains.[55] Thandhai Periyar Government General Hospital serves as the primary center of healthcare. There are many private hospitals such as Lotus Hospitals, Idhayam Apollo Specialty Hospital, C.K Hospital, Maruthi Medical Center Hospital (MMCH), Kovai Medical Center Hospital (KMCH), Erode Trust Hospital, National Hospital (formerly known as Savitha Hospital) that take care of the health care needs of the citizens.[56] As of 2011, the municipality maintained a total of 4,678 street lamps: 1,351 sodium lamps, 224 mercury vapour lamps, 3,028 tube lights and four high mast beam lamp.[57] The municipality operates two markets, namely the Nethaji market and Silambarasan kuttai market that cater to the needs of the city and the rural areas around it. The municipality also maintains a textile market named EKM Abdul Gani Market in Brough road.[58]

Economy[edit]

Fabrics, like rugs, made in Erode are famous throughout India & are being exported

According to Indian Census of 2001, the urban workforce participation rate of Erode is 35 percent. Erode, being the headquarters of the district, has registered growth in the secondary and tertiary sectors, with a corresponding decrease in the primary Sector. Major employment in the city is provided by textile industry, turmeric industry and oil industry. Approximately 68.83 percent of the workforce is employed in tertiary sector. The district at large has only two industrial estates, with one of them located in the city. As of 2001, there were approximately 60 tanneries, 165 lock manufacturing units and large number of cotton spinning mills. Many textile industries are located in the nearby places like Chennimalai, Dharapuram and Karur hosts the textile industries. Products are traded in the city during Tuesdays and Wednesdays.[59][60]

Industries that flourished in early days in and around Erode area were hand loom weaving and carpet manufacturing. The advent of modern era has resulted in the emergence of power loom industries. There are 24189 registered SSI units as on 31 December 2000 in the district besides 59 large scale units. Erode's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth for year 2008 stood at 15.5 per cent was the top in the State and ahead of the State's GDP growth by 4 per cent.[61] The major industries in and around the city include oil and rice mills, engineering works, automobiles and power looms. Within the city, the industrial units occupy 16.69% of the city area whereas the industrial belt as a whole covers 136 hectares and accounts for 4.80% of the Erode LPA.

Erode stands second in leather processing in the state, next only to Ambur. Paper industry also thrives around the city with some of the largest paper companies like TNPL and Seshasayee paper boards located near river Kaveri. Sugarcane processing industries extract juice from the cane to make sugar and the remains are used for paper manufacturing.

Erode is also known as "Turmeric City" or "Yellow City" on account of production of turmeric in the state and has one of the largest markets for coconut.[59] There are a lot of dall mills, cotton textiles, vanaspathy manufacturing, wax and screen printing power loom, sizing, warping and printing press located in the city. It is also one of the largest coconut oil producers in south India.[62]

Erode is a major producer of turmeric, used extensively in Indian cuisine

Culture[edit]

The city is built around a demolished fort, which includes a temple for Arudra Kabaleeswar (Shiva) praising the Saiva concept and another for Kasthuri Ranganatha Perumal (Vishnu) praising the Vaishnava concept of Hinduism. Thindal Murugan Temple, situated 6 km (3.7 mi) from the city is the most prominent temple in the city. Periya Mariamman Temple, Natadreeswarar Temple, the hillock temple is situated in the centre of the Kaveri river between Kudagu (origin) and Poompuhar, Sangameswarar Temple, CSI Brough Church, Thowheeth mosque, Ravlathul Janna mosque, Bazaar Mosque and Jamia Pallivasal are some of the prominent religious destinations in the city. E.V.R Corporation Museum and Thanthai Periyar Memorial House, a Sociological Museum, which depicts the life history of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy are the prominent museums in the city. Jain Temples at Erode, Vijayapuri and Aval Poondurai, Sankagiri Fort and Vellode Birds Sanctuary are other visitor attractions around the city.[63][64]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Room, Adrian (2003). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historic Sights. McFarland. p. 119. ISBN 9780786418145. 
  2. ^ Abdi, Wazir Hasan. Toils and triumphs of Srinivasa Ramanujan, the man and the mathematician. National. p. 3. 
  3. ^ Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, p. 30
  4. ^ "Historical moments". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  5. ^ a b c Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, pp. 29-30
  6. ^ "Historical moments of Erode district". Erode District Administration. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  7. ^ a b Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, pp. 31-34
  8. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Erode". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 Jan 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 Jan 2014. 
  10. ^ "Primary census abstract 2001". Directorate of Census Operations  – Tamil Nadu. 2001. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  11. ^ Urban Infrastructure Report 2008, p. 43
  12. ^ Urban Infrastructure Report 2008, p. 4
  13. ^ "About Erode". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  14. ^ "climate data of Erode". climate-data.org. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  15. ^ "Chairman of municipality". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  16. ^ "Commissioner of municipality". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  17. ^ "Vice Chairman of municipality". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  18. ^ a b "Members of Lok Sabha from Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "MLA of Erode West". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  20. ^ a b "MLA of Erode East". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  21. ^ "About the municipality". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  22. ^ "Commissionerate of Municipal Administration". Commissionerate of Municipal Administration. 2006. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  23. ^ "Councillors of municipality". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  24. ^ "Economic and political weekly, Volume 30". Sameeksha Trust. 1995. p. 2396. 
  25. ^ "List of Assembly Constituencies". Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu state government. 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  26. ^ "Partywise Comparison Since 1977". Election Commission of India. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  27. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 17. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  28. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 49. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  29. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 67. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  30. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 71. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  31. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 80. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  32. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 79. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  33. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 73. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  34. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  35. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 51. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  36. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  37. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  38. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 85. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  39. ^ "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 94. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  40. ^ "Erode Police". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  41. ^ "Erode roads". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  42. ^ Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, pp. 44-45
  43. ^ "S.E.T.C. Tamil Nadu Ltd., Computer reservation centres". Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Ltd. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  44. ^ (PDF) Transport Handbook (Report). Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Ltd.. 2011. http://www.tn.gov.in/rti/proactive/transport/handbook-tnstc-cbe.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
  45. ^ "Use of water in trains for bathing leads to shortage". The Hindu. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  46. ^ "Re-schedule train timings". The Hindu. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  47. ^ "Palakkad-Erode train commences service". The Hindu. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  48. ^ "Trains partially cancelled". The Hindu. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  49. ^ "Trains partially cancelled". The Hindu. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  50. ^ "Educational Institutions". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  51. ^ "Important Address" (PDF). Indian Wind Power Association. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  52. ^ "Water Supply Details". Erode Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  53. ^ "Waste management programme". Erode Municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  54. ^ "Erode sewarage". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  55. ^ "Storm water drains of Erode". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  56. ^ "Erode hospitals". Erode municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  57. ^ "Erode street lights". Erode Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  58. ^ "Erode markets". Erode Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  59. ^ a b Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, p. 32
  60. ^ "About Erode". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  61. ^ "Erode GDP is better than that of State". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  62. ^ "Industries Erode". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  63. ^ "Visitor attracts at Erode". Erode municipality. 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  64. ^ "Erode museum to host exhibition on A.W. Brough". The Hindu. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]