Plug-in electric vehicle

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The Nissan Leaf electric car (left) and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid (right) are the world's best selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles.

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a superset of electric vehicles that includes all-electric or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[1][2][3]

Plug-in cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. They have lower operating and maintenance costs, and produce little or no local air pollution. They reduce dependence on petroleum and may reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the onboard source of power, depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation to charge the batteries. Plug-in hybrids only capture these benefits when they are operating in all-electric mode. Despite their potential benefits, market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles has been slower than expected as adoption faces several hurdles and limitations. As of 2013, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive than conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. Other factors discouraging the adoption of electric cars are the lack of public and private recharging infrastructure and, in the case of all-electric vehicles, the driver's fear of the batteries running out of energy before reaching their destination due to the limited range of existing electric cars. Plug-in hybrids eliminate the problem of range anxiety associated to all-electric vehicles, because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted, giving PHEVs driving range comparable to other vehicles with gasoline tanks.

Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of plug-in electric vehicles depending on battery size and their all-electric range. The term plug-in electric drive vehicle is formally used in U.S. federal legislation to grant this type of consumer incentives. In China, plug-in electric vehicles are called new energy vehicles (NEVs), and only pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are subject to purchase incentives.

Most plug-in electric vehicles in the world roads are low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles, and there were almost 479,000 NEVs on the world roads in 2011. As of January 2014, there are over 30 models of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars available for retail sales, mainly in the United States, Japan, Western European countries and China. Global sales of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles increased from around 40,000 units in 2011 to over 200,000 in 2013. As of December 2013, a total of 405,000 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles have been sold worldwide,[4] with sales led by the United States with over 170,000 units delivered since 2008, followed by Japan with over 70,000 units since 2009.[5] As of January 2014, the Nissan Leaf is the world's top selling highway-capable all-electric car, with global sales of 100,000 units,[6] followed by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, which together with its sibling the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera has combined sales of about 70,000 units in North America and Europe.[7]

Terminology[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicle[edit]

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle with rechargeable battery packs that can be charged from the electric grid, and the electricity stored on board drives or contributes to drive the wheels for propulsion.[1][2] Plug-in electric vehicles are also sometimes referred to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV)[2] and also as electrically chargeable vehicles.[8]

PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[1][2] Even though conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have a battery that is continually recharged with power from the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking, they can not be recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source, and therefore, they do not belong to the category of plug-in electric vehicles.[1][2]

"Plug-in electric drive vehicle" is the legal term used in U.S. federal legislation to designate the category of motor vehicles eligible for federal tax credits depending on battery size and their all-electric range.[9][10] In some European countries, particularly in France, "electrically chargeable vehicle" is the formal term used to designate the vehicles eligible for these incentives.[11] While the term "plug-in electric vehicle" most often refers to automobiles or "plug-in cars", there are several other types of plug-in electric vehicle, including scooters, motorcycles, neighborhood electric vehicles or microcars, city cars, vans, light trucks or light commercial vehicles, buses, trucks or lorries, and military vehicles.[12]

Battery electric vehicles[edit]

A battery electric vehicle (BEV) uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs as its only source for propulsion.[2][13] BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion.[2]

A plug-in hybrid operates as an all electric vehicle or BEV when operating in charge-depleting mode, but it switches to charge-sustaining mode after the battery has reached its minimum state of charge (SOC) threshold, exhausting the vehicle's all-electric range (AER).[14][15]

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles[edit]

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV or PHV), also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source.[2][16] A plug-in hybrid shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle and an all-electric vehicle: it uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor for propulsion, but a PHEV has a larger battery pack that can be recharged, allowing operation in all-electric mode until the battery is depleted.[16][17][18]

Aftermarket conversions[edit]

An aftermarket electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.[19][20][21]

There are several companies in the U.S. offering conversions. The most common conversions have been from hybrid electric cars to plug-in hybrid, but due to the different technology used in hybrids by each carmaker, the easiest conversions are for 2004–2009 Toyota Prius and for the Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner Hybrid.[19]

New energy vehicles[edit]

In China the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) refers to vehicles that are partially or fully powered by electricity, such as battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). The Chinese government began implementation of its NEV program in 2009 to foster the development and introduction of new energy vehicles.[22]

Advantages[edit]

Lower operating and maintenance costs[edit]

Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reused as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking.[23][24] Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%.[23]

The operating cost of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid in the U.S. is estimated at US$0.03 per mile while operating in all-electric mode.[23][25]

In the United States, as of early 2010 with a national average electricity rate of US$0.10 per kWh,[26] the cost per mile for a plug-in electric vehicle operating in all-electric mode is estimated between $0.02 to $0.04, while the cost per mile of a standard automobile varies between $0.08 to $0.20, considering a gasoline price of $3.00 per gallon.[23] As petroleum price is expected to increase in the future due to oil production decline and increases in global demand, the cost difference in favor of PEVs is expected to become even more advantageous.[23]

According to Consumer Reports, as of December 2011 the Nissan Leaf has a cost of 3.5 cents per mile and the Chevrolet Volt has a cost in electric mode of 3.8 cents per mile. The Volt cost per mile is higher because it is heavier than the Leaf. These estimates are based on the fuel economy and energy consumption measured on their tests and using a U.S. national average rate of 11 cents per kWh of electricity. When the Volt runs in range-extended mode using its premium gasoline-powered engine, the plug-in hybrid has a cost of 12.5 cents per mile. The out-of-pocket cost per mile of the three most fuel efficient gasoline-powered cars as tested by the magazine are the Toyota Prius, with a cost of 8.6 cents per miles, the Honda Civic Hybrid with 9.5 cents per mile, the Toyota Corolla with 11.9 cents per mile, and the Hyundai Elantra 13.1 cents per mile. The analysis also found that on trips up to 100 mi (160 km), the Volt is cheaper to drive than the Prius and the other three cars due to the Volt's 35 mi (56 km) driving range on electricity. The previous operating costs do not include maintenance, depreciation or other costs.[27]

All-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles also have lower maintenance costs as compared to internal combustion vehicles, since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems on board last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. PEVs do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.[23][24]

The following table compares EPA's estimated out-of-pocket fuel costs and fuel economy ratings of all the plug-in electric vehicles rated by EPA in the U.S. by April 2014 versus the most fuel efficient gasoline-electric hybrid car, the Toyota Prius third generation,[28] and EPA's average new 2013/14 vehicle, which has a fuel economy of 23 mpg-US (10 L/100 km; 28 mpg-imp).[29] The table also shows the fuel efficiency for all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids in all-electric mode expressed as KW-hrs/100 mile, the metric used by EPA to rate electric cars before November 2010.[30]

Comparison of out-of-pocket fuel costs and fuel economy for all plug-in electric vehicles
rated by EPA as of March 2014 with MPGe and conventional MPG(1)
(as displayed in the Monroney label and the US DoE fueleconomy.gov website)
Vehicle Year
model
Operating
mode
(EV range)
EPArated
Combined
fuel economy
EPA rated
city
fuel economy
EPA rated
highway
fuel economy
Fuel cost
to drive
25 miles
Annual
fuel cost(1)
(15,000 mi)
Notes
Scion iQ EV[31] 2013 All-electric 121 mpg-e
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
138 mpg-e
(24 kW-hrs/100 mi)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$0.84 $500 The 2013 iQ EV is the most fuel
efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all
fuel types considered in all years.
[32]
Chevrolet Spark EV[33] 2014 All-electric 119 mpg-e
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
128 mpg-e 109 mpg-e n.a. $500
Honda Fit EV[34] 2013 All-electric 118 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
132 mpg-e
(26 kW-hrs/100 mi)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$0.87 $500
Fiat 500e[35] 2013 All-electric 116 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
122 mpg-e 108 mpg-e $0.87 $500
Nissan Leaf[36] 2013 All-electric 115 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
129 mpg-e 102 mpg-e $0.87 $500
Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid[37] 2014 Electricity
and gasoline
(13 miles)
115mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi)
- - $1.36 $950 The 2014 Accord is the most fuel
efficient plug-in hybrid in
electric/hybrid mode with a
combined rating of 115 mpg-e.
Gasoline only 46 mpg 47 mpg 46 mpg
Mitsubishi i[38] 2012-13 All-electric 112 mpg-e
(30 kW-hrs/100 mi)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW-hrs/100 mi)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$0.90 $550
Smart electric drive[39] 2013 All-electric 107 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW-hrs/100 mi)
93 mpg-e
(36 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$0.96 $600 Ratings correspond to both
convertible and coupe models.
Ford Focus Electric[40] 2012-13 All-electric 105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
110 mpg-e
(31 kW-hrs/100 mi)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$0.96 $600
BMW ActiveE[41] 2011 All-electric 102 mpg-e
(33 kW-hrs/100 mi)
107 mpg-e 96 mpg-e $0.99 $600
Ford C-Max Energi[42][43]
Ford Fusion Energi[44]
2013 Electricity
and gasoline
(21 miles)
100 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
108 mpg-e 92 mpg-e $1.17 $950 The Energi did not use any gasoline
for the first 21 miles in EPA tests,
but depending on the driving style,
the car may use both gasoline
and electricity during EV mode.
Gasoline only 43 mpg 44 mpg 41 mpg $2.03
Nissan Leaf[45] 2011-12 All-electric 99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
106 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
92 mpg-e
(37 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$1.02 $600
Chevrolet Volt[46] 2013 Electricity only
(38 miles)
98 mpg-e
(35 kW-hrs/100 mi)
- - $1.05 $900 The 2013 Volt is the most fuel efficient
plug-in hybrid car with a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 62 mpg-e
(City 63 mpg-e, Hwy 61 mpg-e).
[32]
Gasoline only 37 mpg 35 mpg 40 mpg $2.57
Tesla Model S[47] 2013 All-electric 95 mpg-e
(35 kW-hrs/100 mi)
94 mpg-e 97 mpg-e $1.05 $650 Model with 60kWh battery pack
Toyota Prius PHV[42] 2013 Electricity
and gasoline
(11 mi)
95 mpg-e
(29 kW-hrs/100 mi
plus 0.2 gallons/100 mi)
- - $1.44 $950 After the first 11 miles the car
functions like a regular Prius hybrid
Gasoline only 50 mpg 51 mpg 49 mpg $1.74
Chevrolet Volt[46] 2012 Electricity only 94 mpg-e
(36 kW-hrs/100 mi)
95 mpg-e
(36 kW-hrs/100 mi)
93 mpg-e
(37 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$1.08 $1,000
Gasoline only 37 mpg 35 mpg 40 mpg $2.57
Tesla Model S[48] 2012 All-electric 89 mpg-e
(38 kW-hrs/100 mi)
88 mpg-e
(38 kW-hrs/100 mi)
90 mpg-e
(37 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$1.14 $700 Model with 85kWh battery pack
Cadillac ELR[49] 2014 Electricity only
(37 mi)
82 mpg-e
(41 kW-hrs/100 mi)
- - $1.23 $1,100
Gasoline only 33 mpg 31 mpg 35 mpg $2.89
Toyota RAV4 EV[50] 2012 All-electric 76 mpg-e
(44 kW-hrs/100 mi)
78 mpg-e 74 mpg-e $1.32 $850
Coda[51] 2012-13 All-electric 73 mpg-e
(46 kW-hrs/100 mil)
77 mpg-e
(44 kW-hrs/100 mi)
68 mpg-e
(50 kW-hrs/100 mi)
$1.38 $850
BYD e6[52] 2012 All-electric 62 mpg-e
(54 kW-hrs/100 mi)
60 mpg-e 64 mpg-e $1.62 $950
Fisker Karma[42] 2012 Electricity only
(33 miles)
54 mpg-e
(62 kW-hrs/100 mi)
- - $1.87 $1,750
Gasoline only 20 mpg 20 mpg 21 mpg $4.76
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid[53] 2014 Electricity
and gasoline
(16 mi)
50 mpg-e
(52 kWh/100 mi)
- - $3.49 $1,850 The all-electric range is between 0 to 15 mi
Gasoline only 25 mpg 23 mpg 29 mpg $3.81
Toyota Prius[54] 2013 Gasoline-electric
hybrid
50 mpg 51 mpg 48 mpg $1.74 $1,050 Most fuel efficient gasoline-electric
hybrid car, together with the Prius c.
[55]
Ford Taurus FWD 3.5L[56]
(Average new car)
2013-14 Gasoline only 23 mpg 19 mpg 29 mpg $3.79 $2,300 Other 2013 models achieving 23 mpg
include the Chrysler 200, and
Toyota Venza.
[56]
Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. Electricity cost of US$0.12/kw-hr, premium gasoline price of US$3.81 per gallon (used by the Volt and Karma), and regular gasoline price of US$3.49 per gallon (as of November 30, 2012). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kW-hr.

The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) conducted an analysis that demonstrated that between January 1976 and February 2012 the real price for gasoline has been much more volatile than the real price of electricity in the United States. The analysis is based on a plug-in electric vehicle with an efficiency of 3.4 miles per kW-hr (like the Mitsubishi i MiEV) and a gasoline-powered vehicle with a fuel economy rated at 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp) (like the 2012 Fiat 500). The EEI estimated that operating a plug-in would have had an equivalent cost of around US$1.50 a gallon in the late 70s and early 80s, and around US$1.00 a gallon since the late 1990s. In contrast, the price to operate an internal combustion engine vehicle has had much ample variations, costing more than US$3.50 per gallon during the 1979 energy crisis, then had a couple of lows with prices at less than US$1.50 during 1999 and 2001, only to climb and reach a maximum of more than US$4.00 before the beginning of the 2007-2009 financial crisis, by early 2012 has fluctuated around US$3.50. The analysis found that the cost of an equivalent electric-gallon of gasoline would have been not only cheaper to operate during the entire analysis period but also that equivalent electricity prices are more stable and have been declining in terms of equivalent dollars per gallon.[57][58]

Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

Electric cars, as well as plug-in hybrids operating in all-electric mode, emit no harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. The clean air benefit is usually local because, depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants.[24] In a similar manner, plug-in electric vehicles operating in all-electric mode do not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power, but from the point of view of a well-to-wheel assessment, the extent of the benefit also depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. This fact has been referred to as the long tailpipe of plug-in electric vehicles. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for PEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions.[1][24] On the other hand, when PEVs are recharged from coal-fired plants, they usually produce slightly more greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicles and higher than hybrid electric vehicles.[24][59] In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine, tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy.[1]

The magnitude of the potential advantage depends on the mix of generation sources and therefore varies by country and by region. For example, France can obtain significant emission benefits from electric and plug-in hybrids because most of its electricity is generated by nuclear power plants; California, where most energy comes from natural gas, hydroelectric and nuclear plants can also secure substantial emission benefits. The U.K. also has a significant potential to benefit from PEVs as natural gas plants dominate the generation mix. On the other hand, emission benefits in Germany, China, India, and the central regions of the United States are limited or non-existent because most electricity is generated from coal.[24][60] However these countries and regions might still obtain some air quality benefits by reducing local air pollution in urban areas. Cities with chronic air pollution problems, such as Los Angeles, México City, Santiago, Chile, São Paulo, Beijing, Bangkok and Katmandu may also gain local clean air benefits by shifting the harmful emission to electric generation plants located outside the cities. Nevertheless, the location of the plants is not relevant when considering greenhouse gas emission because their effect is global.[24]

Carbon footprint during production[edit]

Ricardo

A report published in June 2011, prepared by Ricardo in collaboration with experts from the UK's Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, found that hybrid electric cars, plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current conventional vehicles, but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle. The higher carbon footprint during production of electric drive vehicles is due mainly to the production of batteries. As an example, 43 percent of production emissions for a mid-size electric car are generated from the battery production, while for standard mid-sized gasolineinternal combustion engine vehicle, around 75% of the embedded carbon emissions during production comes from the steel used in the vehicle glider.[61] The following table summarizes key results of this study for four powertrain technologies:

Comparison of full life cycle assessment(well-to-wheels) of carbon emissions
and carbon footprint during production for four different powertrain technologies[61]
Type of vehicle
(powertrain)
Estimated
emissions in production
(tonnes CO2e)
Estimated
lifecycle emissions
(tonnes CO2e)
Percentage of

emissions
during production

Standard gasoline vehicle 5.6 24 23%
Hybrid electric vehicle 6.5 21 31%
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 6.7 19 35%
Battery electric vehicle 8.8 19 46%
Notes: Estimates based upon a 2015 model vehicle assuming 150,000 km (93,000 mi) full life travel using 10% ethanol blend and 500g/kWh grid electricity.

The Ricardo study also found that the lifecycle carbon emissions for mid-sized gasoline and diesel vehicles are almost identical, and that the greater fuel efficiency of the diesel engine is offset by higher production emissions.[61]

Volkswagen

In 2014 Volkswagen published the results of life-cycle assessment of its electric vehicles certified by TÜV NORD, and independent inspection agency. The study found that CO
2
emissions during the use phase of its all-electric VW e-Golf are 99% lower than those of the Golf 1.2 TSI when powers comes from exclusively hydroelectricity generated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Accounting for the full lifecycle, the e-Golf reduces emissions by 61%, offsetting higher production emissions. When the actual EU-27 electricity mix is considered, the e-Golf emissions are still 26% lower than those of the conventional Golf 1.2 TSI. Similar results were found when comparing the e-Golf with the Golf 1.6 TDI. The analysis considered recycling of the three vehicles at the end of their lifetime.[62]

Well-to-wheel GHG emissions in the U.S.[edit]

In the case of the United States, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) conducted a study in 2012 to assess average greenhouse gas emissions resulting from charging plug-in car batteries from the perspective of the full life-cycle (well-to-wheel analysis) and according to fuel and technology used to generate electric power by region. The study used the Nissan Leaf all-electric car to establish the analysis baseline, and electric-utility emissions are based on EPA's 2007 estimates. The UCS study expressed the results in terms of miles per gallon instead of the conventional unit of grams of greenhouse gases or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year in order to make the results more friendly for consumers. The study found that in areas where electricity is generated from natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric or renewable sources, the potential of plug-in electric cars to reduce greenhouse emissions is significant. On the other hand, in regions where a high proportion of power is generated from coal, hybrid electric cars produce less CO2 equivalent emissions than plug-in electric cars, and the best fuel efficient gasoline-powered subcompact car produces slightly less emissions than a PEV. In the worst-case scenario, the study estimated that for a region where all energy is generated from coal, a plug-in electric car would emit greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to a gasoline car rated at a combined city/highway driving fuel economy of 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp). In contrast, in a region that is completely reliant on natural gas, the PEV would be equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated at 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp).[63][64]

The study concluded that for 45% of the U.S. population, a plug-in electric car will generate lower CO2equivalent emissions than a gasoline-powered car capable of combined 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp), such as the Toyota Prius and the Prius c. The study also found that for 37% of the population, the electric car emissions will fall in the range of a gasoline-powered car rated at a combined fuel economy of 41 to 50 mpg-US (5.7 to 4.7 L/100 km; 49 to 60 mpg-imp), such as the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Lexus CT200h. Only 18% of the population lives in areas where the power-supply is more dependent on burning carbon, and the greenhouse gas emissions will be equivalent to a car rated at a combined fuel economy of 31 to 40 mpg-US (7.6 to 5.9 L/100 km; 37 to 48 mpg-imp), such as the Chevrolet Cruze and Ford Focus.[64][65][66] The study found that there are no regions in the U.S. where plug-in electric cars will have higher greenhouse gas emissions than the average new compact gasoline engine automobile, and the area with the dirtiest power supply produces CO2 emissions equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated at 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km).[63]

The following table shows a representative sample of cities within each of the three categories of emissions intensity used in the UCS study, showing the corresponding miles per gallon equivalent for each city as compared to the greenhouse gas emissions of a gasoline-powered car:

Regional comparison of full life cycle assessment
of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from charging plug-in electric vehicles
expressed in terms of miles per gallon of a gasoline-powered car with equivalent emissions[63][65][66]
Rating scale
by emissions intensity
expressed as
miles per gallon
City PEV well-to-wheels
carbon dioxide equivalent
(CO2e) emissions per year
expressed as mpg US
Percent reduction in
CO2e emissions
compared with
27 mpg US average
new compact car
Combined EPA's rated
fuel economy and
GHG emissions
for reference
gasoline-powered car[67]
Best
Lowest CO2e emissions
equivalent to
over 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km)
Juneau, Alaska 112 mpg-US (2.10 L/100 km) 315% 2012 Toyota Prius/Prius c
50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km)
San Francisco 79 mpg-US (3.0 L/100 km) 193%
New York City 74 mpg-US (3.2 L/100 km) 174%
Portland, Oregon 73 mpg-US (3.2 L/100 km) 170% Greenhouse gas emissions (grams/mile)
Boston 67 mpg-US (3.5 L/100 km) 148% Tailpipe CO2 Upstream GHG
Washington, D.C. 58 mpg-US (4.1 L/100 km) 115% 178 g/mi (111 g/km) 44 g/mi (27 g/km)
Better
Moderate CO2e emissions
equivalent to between
41 mpg-US (5.7 L/100 km) to
50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km)
Phoenix, Arizona 48 mpg-US (4.9 L/100 km) 78% 2012 Honda Civic Hybrid
44 mpg-US (5.3 L/100 km)
Miami 47 mpg-US (5.0 L/100 km) 74%
Houston 46 mpg-US (5.1 L/100 km) 70% Greenhouse gas emissions (grams/mile)
Columbus, Ohio 41 mpg-US (5.7 L/100 km) 52% Tailpipe CO2 Upstream GHG
Atlanta 41 mpg-US (5.7 L/100 km) 52% 202 g/mi (125 g/km) 50 g/mi (31 g/km)
Good
Highest CO2e emissions
equivalent to between
31 mpg-US (7.6 L/100 km) to
40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km)
Detroit 38 mpg-US (6.2 L/100 km) 41% 2012 Chevrolet Cruze
30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km)
Des Moines, Iowa 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km) 37%
St. Louis, Missouri 36 mpg-US (6.5 L/100 km) 33% Greenhouse gas emissions (grams/mile)
Wichita, Kansas 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km) 30% Tailpipe CO2 Upstream GHG
Denver 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km) 22% 296 g/mi (184 g/km) 73 g/mi (45 g/km)
Source: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2012.[63]
Notes: The Nissan Leaf is the baseline car for the assessment, with an energy consumption rated by EPA at 34 kW·h/100 mi or 99 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.4 L/100 km) combined.
The ratings are based on a region's mix of electricity sources and its average emissions intensity over the course of a year. In practice the electricity grid is very dynamic, with the mix of
power plants constantly changing in response to hourly, daily and seasonal electricity demand, and availability of electricity resources.

The following table compares well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for all series production plug-in electric vehicles available in the U.S. market by April 2012. For comparison purposes, emissions for the average gasoline-powered new car and the most fuel efficient hybrid-electric car are also included. Total emissions include the emissions associated with the production of electricity used to charge the vehicle, and for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, it also includes emissions associated with the production of gasoline and tailpipe emissions.[68][69]

Comparison of EPA's full life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions
for series production plug-in electric cars available in the U.S. market by April 2012
(Emissions as estimated by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
fueleconomy.gov website for model years 2011 and 2012)
[69]
Vehicle Operating
mode
EPA rated
All-electric range[70]
EPA rated
combined
fuel economy[71][72][73]
Clean electric grid
California
(San Francisco)
U.S. national
average
electric mix
Dirty electric grid
Rocky Mountains
(Denver)
Mitsubishi i-MiEV All-electric 62 mi (100 km) 112 mpg-e
(30 kW-hrs/100 mi)
100 g/mi (62 g/km) 200 g/mi (124 g/km) 290 g/mi (180 g/km)
Ford Focus Electric All-electric 76 mi (122 km) 105 mpg-e
(32 kW-hrs/100 mi)
110 g/mi (68 g/km) 210 g/mi (131 g/km) 310 g/mi (193 g/km)
BMW ActiveE All-electric 94 mi (151 km) 102 mpg-e
(33 kW-hrs/100 mi)
110 g/mi (68 g/km) 220 g/mi (137 g/km) 320 g/mi (199 g/km)
Nissan Leaf All-electric 73 mi (117 km) 99 mpg-e
(34 kW-hrs/100 mi)
120 g/mi (75 g/km) 230 g/mi (143 g/km) 330 g/mi (205 g/km)
Chevrolet Volt Electricity only
(charge-depleting)
35 mi (56 km) 94 mpg-e
(36 kW-hrs/100 mi)
190 g/mi (118 g/km)(1) 260 g/mi (162 g/km)(1) 330 g/mi (205 g/km)(1)
Gasoline only[74]
(Charge-sustaining)
37 mpg Total emissions: 299 g/mi (186 g/km)
Upstream: 59 g/mi (37 g/km) and tailpipe: 240 g/mi (149 g/km)
Smart ED All-electric 63 mi (101 km) 87 mpg-e
(39 kW-hrs/100 mi)
130 g/mi (81 g/km) 260 g/mi (162 g/km) 380 g/mi (236 g/km)
Coda All-electric 88 mi (142 km) 73 mpg-e
(46 kW-hrs/100 mi)
160 g/mi (99 g/km) 300 g/mi (186 g/km) 440 g/mi (273 g/km)
Transit Connect van All-electric 56 mi (90 km) 62 mpg-e
(54 kW-hrs/100 mi)
190 g/mi (118 g/km) 360 g/mi (224 g/km) 520 g/mi (323 g/km)
Toyota Prius[75] Gasoline-electric
hybrid
50 mpg Total emissions: 222 g/mi (138 g/km)
Upstream: 44 g/mi (27 g/km) and tailpipe: 178 g/mi (111 g/km)
Average 2012
U.S. new car[76]
Gasoline only 22 mpg Total emissions: 500 g/mi (311 g/km)
Upstream: 100 g/mi (62 g/km) and tailpipe: 400 g/mi (249 g/km)
Note (1) For the Chevrolet Volt EPA assumed that 64% of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle's operation is powered by electricity and the rest is powered from gasoline, and as a result, out of the total
emissions, 87 g/mi correspond to tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe emissions are zero for all other plug-in electric-drive vehicles, and the emissions shown account upstream GHG emissions.

Well-to-wheel GHG emissions in several countries[edit]

A study published in the UK in April 2013 assessed the carbon footprint of plug-in electric vehicles in 20 countries. As a baseline the analysis established that manufacturing emissions account for 70 g CO2/km for an electric car and 40 g CO2/km for a petrol car. The study found that in countries with coal-intensive generation, PEVs are no different from conventional petrol-powered vehicles. Among these countries are China, Indonesia, Australia, South Africa and India. A pure electric car in India generates emissions comparable to a 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp) petrol car.[77][78]

The country ranking was led by Paraguay, where all electricity is produced from hydropower, and Iceland, where electricity production relies on renewable power, mainly hydro and geothermal power. Resulting carbon emissions from an electric car in both countries are 70 g CO2/km, which is equivalent to a 220 mpg-US (1.1 L/100 km; 260 mpg-imp) petrol car, and correspond to manufacturing emissions. Next in the ranking are other countries with low carbon electricity generation, including Sweden (mostly hydro and nuclear power ), Brazil (mainly hydropower) and France (predominantly nuclear power). Countries ranking in the middle include Japan, Germany, the UK and the United States.[77][78][79]

The following table shows the emissions intensity estimated in the study for those countries where electric vehicle are available, and the corresponding emissions equivalent in miles per US gallon of a petrol-powered car:

Country comparison of full life cycle assessment
of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from charging plug-in electric cars and
emissions equivalent in terms of miles per US gallon of a petrol-powered car[77][79]
Country PEV well-to-wheels
carbon dioxide equivalent
emissions per electric car
expressed in (CO2e/km)
Power
source
PEV well-to-wheels
emissions equivalent
in terms of mpg US
of petrol-powered car
Equivalent
petrol car
 Sweden 81 Low carbon 159 mpg-US (1.48 L/100 km) Hybrid
multiples
 France 93 123 mpg-US (1.91 L/100 km)
 Canada 115 Fossil light 87 mpg-US (2.7 L/100 km) Beyond
hybrid
 Spain 146 61 mpg-US (3.9 L/100 km)
 Japan 175 Broad mix 48 mpg-US (4.9 L/100 km) New
hybrid
 Germany 179 47 mpg-US (5.0 L/100 km)
 United Kingdom 189 44 mpg-US (5.3 L/100 km)
 United States 202 Fossil heavy 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km) Efficient
petrol
 Mexico 203 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km)
 China 258 Coal based 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km) Average
petrol
 Australia 292 26 mpg-US (9.0 L/100 km)
 India 370 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km)
Note: Electric car manufacturing emissions account for 70 g CO2/km
Source: Shades of Green: Electric Cars’ Carbon Emissions Around the Globe, Shrink That Footprint, February 2013.
[79]

Less dependence on imported oil[edit]

Evolution of oil prices since 1987 (average Brent spot prices - adjusted for U.S. inflation).

For many net oil importing countries the 2000s energy crisis brought back concerns first raised during the 1973 oil crisis. For the United States, the other developed countries and emerging countries their dependence on foreign oil has revived concerns about their vulnerability to price shocks and supply disruption. Also, there have been concerns about the uncertainty surrounding peak oil production and the higher cost of extracting unconventional oil. A third issue that has been raised is the threat to national security because most proven oil reserves are concentrated in relatively few geographic locations, including some countries with strong resource nationalism, unstable governments or hostile to U.S. interests.[24][80][81] In addition, for many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest African countries, high oil prices have an adverse impact on the government budget and deteriorate their terms of trade thus jeopardizing their balance of payments, all leading to lower economic growth.[82][83]

Through the gradual replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles for electric cars and plug-in hybrids, electric drive vehicles can contribute significantly to lessen the dependence of the transport sector on imported oil as well as contributing to the development of a more resilient energy supply.[24][80][81][84]

Vehicle-to-grid[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicles offer users the opportunity to sell electricity stored in their batteries back to the power grid, thereby helping utilities to operate more efficiently in the management of their demand peaks.[85] A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system would take advantage of the fact that most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time. During such idle times the electricity stored in the batteries could be transferred from the PEV to the power lines and back to the grid. In the U.S this transfer back to the grid have an estimated value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car.[86] In a V2G system it would also be expected that battery electric (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) would have the capability to communicate automatically with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.[85][87][88]

Disadvantages[edit]

Tesla Model S electric car (left) and Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid (right) at the parking spots reserved for green cars at San Francisco International Airport.

Cost of batteries and cost of ownership[edit]

As of 2013, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. According to a 2010 study by the National Research Council, the cost of a lithium-ion battery pack is about US$1,700/kW·h of usable energy, and considering that a PHEV-10 requires about 2.0 kW·h and a PHEV-40 about 8 kW·h, the manufacturer cost of the battery pack for a PHEV-10 is around US$3,000 and it goes up to US$14,000 for a PHEV-40.[89][90] As of June 2012, and based on the three battery size options offered for the Tesla Model S, the New York Times estimated the cost of automotive battery packs between US$400 to US$500 per kilowatt-hour.[91] A 2013 study by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy reported that battery costs came down from US$1,300 per kWh in 2007 to US$500 per kWh in 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy has set cost targets for its sponsored battery research of US$300 per kWh in 2015 and US$125 per kWh by 2022. Cost reductions through advances in battery technology and higher production volumes will allow plug-in electric vehicles to be more competitive with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[92]

A study published in 2011 by the Belfer Center, Harvard University, found that the gasoline costs savings of plug-in electric cars do not offset their higher purchase prices when comparing their lifetime net present value of purchase and operating costs for the U.S. market at 2010 prices, and assuming no government subidies. According to the study estimates, a PHEV-40 is US$5,377 more expensive than a conventional internal combustion engine, while a battery electric vehicles is US$4,819 more expensive.[93] These findings assumed a battery cost of US$600 per kWh, which means that the Chevrolet Volt battery pack cost around US$10,000 and the Nissan Leaf pack costs US$14,400. The study also assumed a gasoline price of US$3.75 per gallon (as of mid June 2011), that vehicles are driven 12,000 miles (19,000 km) per year, an average price of electricity of US$0.12 per kWh, that the plug-in hybrid is driven in all-electric mode 85% of the time, and that the owner of PEVs pay US$1,500 to install a Level II 220/240 volt charger at home.[94]

The study also include hybrid electric vehicles in the comparison, and analyzed several scenarios to determine how the comparative net savings will change over the next 10 to 20 years, assuming that battery costs will decrease while gasoline prices increase, and also assuming higher fuel efficiency of conventional cars, among other scenarios. Under the future scenarios considered, the study found that BEVs will be significantly less expensive than conventional cars (US$1,155 to US$7,181 cheaper), while PHEVs, will be more expensive than BEVs in almost all comparison scenarios, and only less expensive than conventional cars in a scenario with very low battery costs and high gasoline prices. The reason for the different savings among PEVs is because BEVs are simpler to build and do not use liquid fuel, while PHEVs have more complicated powertrains and still have gasoline-powered engines. The following table summarizes the results of four of the seven scenarios analyzed by the study.[94]

Comparison of net lifetime savings
among conventional gasoline-powered cars, hybrids and plug-in electric cars
for several scenarios (U.S. market at 2010 prices)[94]
Description Conventional
ICE
Hybrid electric
(HEV)
Plug-in hybrid
(PHEV)
Battery electric
(BEV)
Scenario: 2010 costs
(battery US$600 per kWh, gasoline US$3.75 per gallon, and electricity US$0.12 per kWh)
Purchase price US$21,390 US$22,930 US$30,235 US$33,565
Total net present cost US$32,861 US$33,059 US$38,239 US$37,680
Cost differential with conventional car - US$197 US$5,377 US$4,819
Scenario: Future Costs - Lower battery cost and higher gasoline and electricity prices
(battery US$300 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$34,152 US$32,680 US$34,601 US$30,674
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$1,472) US$449 (US$3,478)
Scenario: Future Costs - Low battery cost and higher gasoline and electricity prices
(battery US$150 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$34,152 US$32,080 US$32,549 US$26,971
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$2,072) (US$1,603) (US$7,181)
Scenario: Higher fuel efficiency
ICEs:50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp)
HEVs and PHEVs: 75 miles per US gallon (3.1 L/100 km; 90 mpg-imp)
(battery US$300 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$32,829 US$31,366 US$34,403 US$30,674
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$463) US$2,574 (US$1,155)
Note: Assumes vehicles are driven 12,000 miles (19,000 km) per year and plug-in hybrid is driven in all-electric mode 85% of the time. Does not take into account other differences in cost of ownership.

According to a study by the Electric Power Research Institute published in June 2013, the total cost of ownership of the 2013 Nissan Leaf SV is substantially lower than that of comparable conventional and hybrid vehicles. For comparison, the study constructed average hybrid and conventional vehicles and assumed an average US distance per trip distribution. The study took into account the manufacturer's suggested retail price, taxes, credits, destination charge, electric charging station, fuel cost, maintenance cost, and additional cost due to the use of a gasoline vehicle for trips beyond the range of the Leaf.[95]

Electric Power Research Institute comparison of
the Leaf versus average conventional and hybrid cars.
Vehicle Operating mode
(powertrain)
Total ownership cost
US Average California
Nissan Leaf SV All-electric $37,288 $35,596
Chevrolet Volt Plug-in hybrid $44,176 $40,800
Average Conventional Gasoline $44,949 $46,561
Average Hybrid Gasoline-electric hybrid $44,325 $45,416
Notes: Costs are based on a gasoline price of $3.64 per gallon, an electricity rate of $0.12/kWh, and a vehicle lifetime of 150,000 miles.
The average conventional car was constructed by averaging of Honda Civic EX, Chevrolet Cruze LTZ, Ford Focus Titanium, and Volkswagen Passat.
The average hybrid car was constructed from Ford Fusion Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid XLE, and Toyota Prius trim IV.

Availability of recharging infrastructure[edit]

Despite the widespread assumption that plug-in recharging will take place overnight at home, residents of cities, apartments, dormitories, and townhouses do not have garages or driveways with available power outlets, and they might be less likely to buy plug-in electric vehicles unless recharging infrastructure is developed.[96][97] Electrical outlets or charging stations near their places of residence, in commercial or public parking lots, streets and workplaces are required for these potential users to gain the full advantage of PHEVs, and in the case of EVs, to avoid the fear of the batteries running out energy before reaching their destination, commonly called range anxiety.[97][98] Even house dwellers might need to charge at the office or to take advantage of opportunity charging at shopping centers.[99] However, this infrastructure is not in place and it will require investments by both the private and public sectors.[98]

Several cities in California and Oregon, and particularly San Francisco and other cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley, already have deployed public charging stations and have expansion plans to attend both plug-ins and all-electric cars.[98] Some local private firms such as Google and Adobe Systems have also deployed charging infrastructure. In Google's case, its Mountain View campus has 100 available charging stations for its share-use fleet of converted plug-ins available to its employees.[98][100] Solar panels are used to generate the electricity, and this pilot program is being monitored on a daily basis and performance results are published on the RechargeIT website.[100] As of December 2013, Estonia is the first and only country that had deployed an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with 165 fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance of between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi), and a higher density in urban areas.[101][102][103]

Battery swapping[edit]

Better Place's battery switching station in Israel

A different approach to resolve the problems of range anxiety and lack of recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles was developed by Better Place. Its business model considers that electric cars are built and sold separately from the battery pack. As customers are not allowed to purchase battery packs, they must lease them from Better Place which will deploy a network of battery swapping stations thus expanding EVs range and allowing long distance trips. Subscribed users pay a per-distance fee to cover battery pack leasing, charging and swap infrastructure, the cost of sustainable electricity, and other costs.[104][105] Better Place signed agreement for deployment in Australia, Denmark, Israel, Canada, California, and Hawaii.[106] The Renault Fluence Z.E. was the electric car built with switchable battery technology sold for the Better Place network.[107] The robotic battery-switching operation was completed in about five minutes.[108]

After implementing the first modern commercial deployment of the battery swapping model in Israel and Denmark, Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013. The company's financial difficulties were caused by the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, about US$850 million in private capital, and a market penetration significantly lower than originally predicted by Shai Agassi. Less than 1,000 Fluence Z.E. cars were deployed in Israel and around 400 units in Denmark.[109][110]

Tesla Motors designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping.[111] In June 2013, Tesla announced their goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its supercharging stations. At a demonstration event Tesla showed that a battery swap operation with the Model S takes just over 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to refill a gasoline-powered car used for comparison purposes during the event.[112][113] The first stations are planned to be deployed along Interstate 5 in California where, according to Tesla, a large number of Model S sedans make the San Francisco-Los Angeles trip regularly. These will be followed by the Washington, DC to Boston corridor.[112]

Other charging solutions[edit]

Roof-mounted solar panels of the REVA NXR concept car.
Nissan Leaf SV roof-mounted solar panel.

The REVA NXR exhibited in the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Nissan Leaf SV trim both have roof-mounted solar panels. These solar panels are designed to trickle charge the batteries when the car is moving or parked.[114][115][116] Another proposed technology is REVive, by REVA. When the REVA NXR's batteries are running low or are fully depleted, the driver is able to send an SMS to REVive and unlock a hidden reserve in the battery pack. REVA has not provided details on how the system will work.[117][118] The Fisker Karma uses solar panel in the roof to recharge the 12-volt lead-acid accessory battery.[119] The Nissan Leaf SL trim also has a small solar panel at the rear of the roof/spoiler that can trickle charge the auxiliary 12-volt lead-acid battery.[120]

Potential overload of the electrical grid[edit]

The existing electrical grid, and local transformers in particular, may not have enough capacity to handle the additional power load that might be required in certain areas with high plug-in electric car concentrations. As recharging a single electric-drive car could consume three times as much electricity as a typical home, overloading problems may arise when several vehicles in the same neighborhood recharge at the same time, or during the normal summer peak loads. To avoid such problems, utility executives recommend owners to charge their vehicles overnight when the grid load is lower or to use smarter electric meters that help control demand. When market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles begins to reach significant levels, utilities will have to invest in improvements for local electrical grids in order to handle the additional loads related to recharging to avoid blackouts due to grid overload. Also, some experts have suggested that by implementing variable time-of-day rates, utilities can provide an incentive for plug-in owners to recharge mostly overnight, when rates are lower.[98][121]

General Motors is sponsoring the Pecan Street demonstration project in Austin, Texas. The project objective is to learn the charging patterns of plug-in electric car owners, and to study how a residential fleet of electric vehicles might strain the electric grid if all owners try to charge them at the same, which is what the preliminary monitoring found when the plug-in cars return home in the evening. The Mueller neighborhood is the test ground, and as of June 2013, the community has nearly 60 Chevrolet Volt owners alone. This cluster of Volts was achieved thanks to GM's commitment to match the federal government's $7,500 rebate incentive, which effectively halves the purchase price of the plug-hybrid electric cars.[122]

Risks associated with noise reduction[edit]

Electric cars and plug-in hybrids when operating in all-electric mode at low speeds produce less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by an internal combustion engine, thereby reducing harmful noise health effects. However, blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence plug-in electric cars and conventional hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard when operating at low speeds.[123][124]

The 2011 Nissan Leaf had a switch to manually turn off its electric warning sound system.

Several tests conducted in the U.S. have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired.[125][126][127] At higher speeds the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.[124] However, a 2011 study, commissioned by the UK Department for Transport (DfT) and conducted by the Transport Research Laboratory, found little correlation between pedestrian vehicle involvement density and noise level for the majority of vehicles. In addition, the analysis found no evidence of a pattern in pedestrian vehicle involvement densities when only considering those accidents occurring on 30 mph (48 km/h) or slower roads, or where the pedestrian was disabled. A previous study did not found an increased pedestrian vehicle involvement density for electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to their conventional counterparts which raised the question as to whether added sound is necessarily required.[128]

Some carmakers announced they have decided to address this safety issue, and as a result, the new Nissan Leaf electric car and Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, both launched in December 2010, as well as the Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid launched in 2011 launched in 2012, include electric warning sounds to alert pedestrians, the blind and others to their presence.[129][130][131][132][133] As of January 2014, most of the hybrids and plug-in electric and hybrids available in the United States, Japan and Europe make warning noises using a speaker system. The Tesla Model S is one of the few electric cars without warning sounds, because Tesla Motors will await until regulations are enacted.[134] Volkswagen and BMW also decided to add artificial sounds to their electric drive cars only when required by regulation.[135]

The Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourismissued guidelines for hybrid and other near-silent vehicles in January 2010.[136] In the United States the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010 was approved by the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives in December 2010.[137][138][139] The act does not stipulate a specific speed for the simulated noise but requires the U.S. Department of Transportation to study and establish a motor vehicle safety standard that would set requirements for an alert sound.[137][140] A proposed rule was published for comment by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in January, 2013. It would require hybrids and electric vehicles traveling at less than 18.6 miles per hour (30 km/h) to emit warning sounds that pedestrians must be able to hear over background noises. According to the NHTSA proposal carmakers would be able to pick the sounds the vehicles make from a range of choices, and similar vehicles would have to make the same sounds. The rules are scheduled to go into effect in September 2014.[141][142]

On 6 February 2013, the European Parliament approved a draft law to tighten noise limits for cars to protect public health, and also to add alerting sounds to ensure the audibility of hybrid and electric vehicles to improve the safety of vulnerable road users in urban areas, such as blind, visually and auditorily challenged pedestrians, cyclists and children. The draft legislation states a number of tests, standards and measures that must first be developed for an Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS) to be compulsory in the future.[143][144] The approved amendment establishes that the sound to be generated by the AVAS should be a continuous sound and should be easily indicative of vehicle behavior and should sound similar to the sound of a vehicle of the same category equipped with an internal combustion engine."[144] In April 2014 the European Parliament approved legislation that requires the mandatory use of the AVAS for all new electric and hybrid electric vehicles and car manufacturers have to comply within 5 years.[145][146]

Risks of battery fire[edit]

Frontal crash test of a Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric to assess the safety of the battery pack.

Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to combustion.[147] To reduce these risks, lithium-ion battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that shuts down the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range.[148][149] When handled improperly, or if manufactured defectively, some rechargeable batteries can experience thermal runaway resulting in overheating. Especially prone to thermal runaway are lithium-ion batteries. Reports of exploding cellphones have been reported in newspapers. In 2006, batteries from Apple, HP, Toshiba, Lenovo, Dell and other notebook manufacturers were recalled because of fire and explosions.[150][151][152][153] Also, during the Boeing 787 Dreamliner's first year of service, at least four aircraft suffered from electrical system problems stemming from its lithium-ion batteries, resulting in the whole Dreamliner fleet being voluntarily grounded in January 2013.[154][155]

Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008. Most of them have been thermal runaway incidents related to the lithium-ion batteries and have involved the Zotye M300 EV, Chevrolet Volt, Fisker Karma, BYD e6, Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Outlander P-HEV. As of November 2013, four fires after a crash have been reported associated with the batteries of all-electric cars involving a BYD e6 and three Tesla Model S cars.

The first modern crash-related fire was reported in China in May 2012, after a high-speed car crashed into a BYD e6 taxi inShenzhen.[156] The second reported incident occurred in the United States in October 1, 2013, when a Tesla Model S caught fire after the electric car hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington state, and the debris punctured one of 16 modules within the battery pack.[157][158] A second reported fire occurred on October 18, 2013 in Merida, Mexico. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S being driven on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.[159]

The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a study due in 2014 to establish whether lithium-ion batteries in plug-electric vehicles pose a potential fire hazard. The research is looking at whether the high-voltage batteries can cause fires when they are being charged and when the vehicles are involved in an accident.[160] Both General Motors and Nissan have published a guide for firefighters and first responders to properly handle a crashed plug-in electric-drive vehicle and safely disable its battery and other high voltage systems.[161][162]

Rare earth metals availability and supply security[edit]

Common technology for plug-ins and electric cars is based on the lithium-ion battery and an electric motor which uses rare earth elements. The demand for lithium, heavy metals, and other specific elements (such as neodymium, boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the incoming market entrance of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term.[163][164] The Toyota Prius battery contains more than 20 pounds (9.1 kg) of the rare earth element lanthanum,[165] and its motor magnets use neodymium and dysprosium.[166]

Some of the largest world reserves of lithium and other rare metals are located in countries with strong resource nationalism, unstable governments or hostility to U.S. interests, raising concerns about the risk of replacing dependence on foreign oil with a new dependence on hostile countries to supply strategic materials.[163][164][167][168]

Lithium
The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world.[167][169]

The main deposits of lithium are found in China and throughout the Andes mountain chain in South America. In 2008 Chile was the leading lithium metal producer with almost 30%, followed by China, Argentina, and Australia.[164][170] In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada.[171][172]

Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia,[164][167] and according to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium.[167][171] Other important reserves are located in Chile, China, and Brazil.[164][171] Since 2006 the Bolivian government have nationalized oil and gas projects and is keeping a tight control over mining its lithium reserves. Already the Japanese and South Korean governments, as well as companies from these two countries and France, have offered technical assistance to develop Bolivia's lithium reserves and are seeking to gain access to the lithium resources through a mining and industrialization model suitable to Bolivian interests.[167][173][174]

According to a 2011 study conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California Berkeley, the currently estimated reserve base of lithium should not be a limiting factor for large-scale battery production for electric vehicles, as the study estimated that on the order of 1 billion 40 kWh Li-based batteries could be built with current reserves, as estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey.[175] Another 2011 study by researchers from the University of Michigan and Ford Motor Company found that there are sufficient lithium resources to support global demand until 2100, including the lithium required for the potential widespread use of hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. The study estimated global lithium reserves at 39 million tons, and total demand for lithium during the 90-year period analyzed at 12-20 million tons, depending on the scenarios regarding economic growth and recycling rates.[176]

Rare earth elements

China has 48% of the world's reserves of rare earth elements, the United States has 13%, and Russia, Australia, and Canada have significant deposits. Until the 1980s, the U.S. led the world in rare earth production, but since the mid-1990s China has controlled the world market for these elements. The mines in Bayan Obo near Baotou, Inner Mongolia, are currently the largest source of rare earth metals and are 80% of China's production. In 2010 China accounted for 97% of the global production of 17 rare earth elements.[165] Since 2006 the Chinese government has been imposing export quotas reducing supply at a rate of 5% to 10% a year.[168][177][178]

Prices of several rare earth elements increased sharply by mid-2010 as China imposed a 40% export reduction, citing environmental concerns as the reason for the export restrictions. These quotas have been interpreted as an attempt to control the supply of rare earths. However, the high prices have provided an incentive to begin or reactivate several rare earth mining projects around the world, including the United States, Australia, Vietnam, and Kazakhstan.[177][178][179][180]

Evolution of global rare earth oxides production by country (1950-2000)

In September 2010, China temporarily blocked all exports of rare earths to Japan in the midst of a diplomatic dispute between the two countries. These minerals are used in hybrid cars and other products such wind turbines and guided missiles, thereby augmenting the worries about the dependence on Chinese rare earth elements and the need for geographic diversity of supply.[178][181] A December 2010 report published by the US DoE found that the American economy vulnerable to rare earth shortages and estimates that it could take 15 years to overcome dependence on Chinese supplies.[182][183] China raised export taxes for some rare earths from 15 to 25%, and also extended taxes to exports of some rare earth alloys that were not taxed before. The Chinese government also announced further reductions on its export quotas for the first months of 2011, which represent a 35% reduction in tonnage as compared to exports during the first half of 2010.[184]

On September 29, 2010, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the Rare Earths and Critical Materials Revitalization Act of 2010 (H.R.6160).[185][186] The approved legislation is aimed at restoring the U.S. as a leading producer of rare earth elements, and would support activities in the U.S. Department of Energy (US DoE) to discover and develop rare earth sites inside of the U.S. in an effort to reduce the auto industry's near-complete dependence on China for the minerals.[186][187] A similar bill, the Rare Earths Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 (S. 3521), is being discussed in the U.S. Senate.[186][188]

In order to avoid its dependence on rare earth minerals, Toyota Motor Corporation announced in January 2011 that it is developing an alternative motor for future hybrid and electric cars that does not need rare earth materials. Toyota engineers in Japan and the U.S. are developing an induction motor that is lighter and more efficient than the magnet-type motor used in the Prius, which uses two rare earths in its motor magnets. Other popular hybrids and plug-in electric cars in the market that use these rare earth elements are the Nissan Leaf, the Chevrolet Volt and Honda Insight. For its second generation RAV4 EV due in 2012, Toyota is using an induction motor supplied by Tesla Motors that does not require rare earth materials. The Tesla Roadster and the Tesla Model S use a similar motor.[166]

Government incentives[edit]

Several national and local governments around the world have established tax credits, grants and other financial and non-financial incentives for consumers to purchase a plug-in electric vehicle as a policy to promote the introduction and mass market adoption of this type of vehicles.

Asia[edit]

The Nissan Leaf electric car is eligible for government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles in Japan, the United States and several European countries.
Japan

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure" that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009.[189] The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles. The program provides purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading an used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program).[189][190]

China

On June 1, 2010, The Chinese government announced a trial program to provide incentives up to 60,000 yuan (~US$8,785) for private purchase of new battery electric vehicles and 50,000 yuan (~US$7,320) for plug-in hybrids in five cities.[191][192]

Europe[edit]

As of April 2010, 17 of the 27 European Union member states provide tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles. The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of PEVs and hybrid vehicles.[11][193] In the U.K. the Plug-in Car Grant scheme provides a 25% incentive towards the cost of new plug-in electric cars that qualify as ultra-low carbon vehicles, but the benefit is capped at GB£5,000 (US$7,800).[194] Both private and business fleet buyers are eligible for the government grant.[195]

North America[edit]

United States

In the United States the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, and later the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric vehicles.[9] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins, though the credit is lower than for new PEVs.[10]

Fleet of Chevrolet Volts at a solar-powered charging station in Toronto. The plug-in hybrid is eligible for rebates or tax credits in the United States, the UK, several European countries and several Canadian provinces.

The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles is worth $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 5 kWh, and the portion of the credit determined by battery capacity cannot exceed $5,000. Therefore, the total amount of the credit allowed for a new PEV is $7,500.[9] Several states have established incentives and tax exemptions for BEVs and PHEV, and other non-monetary incentives.

President Barack Obama set the goal of bringing 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015.[196][197] However, considering the actual slow rate of PEV sales, as of mid-2012 several industry observers have concluded that this goal is unattainable.[198][199][200]

Canada

Ontario established a rebate between CA$5,000 to CA$8,500 (~US$4,900 to US$8,320), depending on battery size, for purchasing or leasing a new plug-in electric vehicle after July 1, 2010. The rebates are available to the first 10,000 applicants who qualify.[201]

Quebec offers rebates of up to CA$8,500 (US$8,485) from January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles equipped with a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for a CA$1,000 rebate. All-electric vehicles with high-capacity battery packs are eligible for the full C$8,000 rebate, and incentives are reduced for low-range electric cars and plug-in hybrids.[202][203]

Production plug-in electric vehicles available[edit]

Several electric cars charging in downtown Toronto. From farthest to closest, a Nissan Leaf, a Smart ED, and a Mitsubishi i MiEV.

During the 1990s several highway-capable plug-in electric cars were produced in limited quantities, all were battery electric vehicles, and they were available through leasing mainly in California. Popular models included the General Motors EV1 and the Toyota RAV4 EV. Some of the latter were sold to the public and are in use still today.[204] In the late 2000s began a new wave of mass production plug-in electric cars, motorcycles and light trucks. However, as of 2011, most electric vehicles in the world roads were low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) or electric quadricycles. Pike Research estimated there were almost 479,000 NEVs on the world roads in 2011.[205] Just in China, a total of 200,000 low-speed small electric cars were sold in 2013, most of which are powered by lead-acid batteries.[206]

As of March 2014, there are over 30 models of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and electric utility vans available mainly in the United States, Japan, Western European countries and China. There are also available several commercial models of plug-in motorcycles and all-electric light trucks. The Renault-Nissan Alliance is the leading electric vehicle manufacturer with global sales of over 134,000 all-electric vehicles through December 2013,[207] followed by General Motors with combined global sales since December 2010 of over 70,000 vehicles by January 2014, mostly plug-in hybrids.[7] Mitsubishi Motors ranks third, with global sales of more than 50,000 plug-in electric vehicles since 2009, including over 33,000 all-electric vehicles[208][209] and more than 17,000 plug-in hybrids.[209][210]

Sales and main markets[edit]

Market share of 2012 global sales
of highway-capable BEVs and PHEVs by country[211]
All-electric cars Plug-in hybrid cars
Ranking Country Market
share(1)
Ranking Country Market
share(1)
1  Japan 28% 1  United States 70%
2  United States 26% 2  Japan 12%
3  China 16% 3  Netherlands 8%
4  France 11% 4  Canada 2%
5  Norway 7% 5  China 2%
Note: (1) Market share as % total global sales of pure electric cars or plug-in hybrids.

As of December 2013, the global stock of plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans was 405,000 units,[4] up from more than 180,000 units in 2012, when plug-in vehicles represented 0.02% of the stock of total registered passenger cars.[211] Between 2007 and 2010, only 11,768 plug-in electric vehicles had been sold worldwide.[212] After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers, PEV sales jumped in 2011 to around 40,000 units,[213] increased to 119,300 in 2012,[214][215] and global sales climbed to over 200,000 plug-in electric cars and utility vans in 2013.[216] In January 2014, Navigant Research predicted that global sales of plug-in electric vehicles will grow by 86% in 2014, bringing the total of plug-in electric vehicle stock on the world's roads to more than 700,000 vehicles by the end of 2014.[217]

Cumulative sales of new PEVs are doing better than sales of HEVs in the U.S. over their respective 24 month introductory periods.[218]

As of December 2013, cumulative sales by country are led by the United States with over 170,000 units delivered since 2008, followed by Japan with over 74,000 units since 2009, China with about 38,600 units since 2011, the Netherlands with 28,673 units since 2009, France with 28,560 all-electric cars and light utility vans since 2010, and Norway with 20,486 plug-in electric vehicles since 2003.[5]

The United States was the world's leader in plug-in electric car sales in 2012, with a 46% share of global sales, followed by Japan and Europe, accounting for 23% each.[219] The market share by country varies according with the type of PEV. For 2012 the United States was the leader in plug-in hybrid sales with a 70% of global sales, while Japan is the leader in pure electric car sales with a 28% share, closely followed by the U.S. with 26%.[211]

Sales of series production PEVs during its first two years in the global market have been lower than initially expected in all countries.[220][221] However, an analysis by Scientific American found that at the international level and considering the global top selling PEVs over a 36 month introductory period, monthly sales of the Volt, Prius PHV and Leaf are performing better than the conventional Prius during their respective introductory periods, with the exception of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which has been outsold most of the time by the Prius HEV over their 36 month introductory periods.[222] A similar trend was found by the U.S. Department of Energy for the American market. Combined sales of plug-in hybrids and battery electric cars are climbing more rapidly and outselling by more than double sales of hybrid-electric vehicles over their respective 24 month introductory periods, as shown in the graph at the left.[218]

The following table presents the top ranking countries according to market share of total new car sales in 2013 for each of the following electric-drive egments: plug-in electric (PEV), all-electric (BEV), and plug-in hybrid (PHEV).

Top 10 countries by market share of new car sales in 2013
by electric-drive segment(1)[223]
Ranking Country PEV
market
share(%)
Ranking Country BEV
market
share(%)
Ranking Country PHEV
market
share(%)
1  Norway 6.10% 1  Norway 5.75% 1  Netherlands 4.72%
2  Netherlands 5.55% 2  Netherlands 0.83% 2  Sweden 0.41%
3  Iceland 0.94% 3  France 0.79% 3  Japan 0.40%
4  Japan 0.91% 4  Estonia 0.73% 4  Norway 0.34%
5  France 0.83% 5  Iceland 0.69% 5  United States 0.31%
6  Estonia 0.73% 6  Japan 0.51% 6  Iceland 0.25%
7  Sweden 0.71% 7   Switzerland 0.39% 7  Finland 0.13%
8  United States 0.60% 8  Sweden 0.30% 8  United Kingdom 0.05%
9   Switzerland 0.44% 9  Denmark 0.28% 9  France 0.05%
10  Denmark 0.29% 10  United States 0.28% 10   Switzerland 0.05%
Note: (1) Market share of highway-capable electric-drive vehicles in the corresponding segment as percentage of total new car sales in the country in 2013.

United States[edit]

The Chevrolet Volt is the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in the United States, with 54,552 units sold through December 2013.[224][225][226]

Over 170,000 plug-in electric cars (PEV) have been sold in the United States since December 2008 through December 2013,[5] with sales climbing from 17,800 units in 2011,[227] to more than 53,000 during 2012,[224][228] to about 96,600 in 2013, up 84% from the previous year.[229] PEV sales during 2013 represented a 0.62% market share of total new car sales, up from of 0.37% in 2012, and 0.14% in 2011.[224][229][230] As of mid 2013, 52% of American plug-in electric car registrations were concentrated in five metropolitan areas: San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, New York and Atlanta.[231] As of December 2013, cumulative sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the U.S. between December 2010 and December 2013 are led by plug-in hybrids, with 95,589 units sold representing 57.0% of all plug-in car sales, while over 72,028 all-electric cars (43.0%) have been delivered to retail customers.[232] However, in 2013 sales of pure electric cars (about 47,600) were almost even with plug-in hybrids (nearly 49,000), due to large sales of the Tesla Model S and Nissan Leaf during 2013.[229]

As of December 2013, cumulative plug-in car sales are led by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid with 54,552 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf electric car with 42,122 units. Both PEVs were released in December 2010.[224][225][226][226] Launched in the U.S. market in February 2012, the Prius PHV ranks as the third top selling plug-in electric car with 24,838 units,[224][226] followed by the all-electric Tesla Model S, released in June 2012, with about 20,600 units delivered,[233][234] and the Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid, launched in October 2012, with 9,528 units delivered through December 2013.[224][230] During 2013 sales were led by the Chevrolet Volt with 23,094 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 22,610 cars, and the Tesla Model S with almost 18,000 units.[229][234] August 2013 is the best month on record for U.S. plug-in vehicle sales, with more than 11,000 units delivered, representing a market share of 0.76% of new car sales.[235] October 2013 achieved the best-ever market share for plug-in vehicles at 0.85% of new car sales.[236]

Japan[edit]

Since July 2009, over 74,000 plug-in electric vehicles have been sold through December 2013, of which, more than 49,100 units (66.3%) are pure electric cars and light-utility vehicles.[209][237][238][239] A total of 29,716 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles were sold in 2013, representing a 0.55% market share of the 5.3 million new cars and kei cars sold during 2013.[5][240] About 9,300 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during the first quarter of 2014.[241]

As of December 2013, the Nissan Leaf is the market leader with 34,465 units sold since December 2010,[237] followed by the Prius PHV with 15,400 units since January 2012,[239] the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 9,608 units sold during 2013,[209] and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009, with cumulative sales of 9,402 i-MiEVs through December 2013.[238] During 2013 sales were led by the Nissan Leaf with 13,021 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV.[240] Combined sales of the van and truck version of the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV reached 5,249 units through December 2013.[209] The Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid is the third best selling plug-in hybrid in Japan, but sales figures are not available.[242]

China[edit]

According to the Minister of Science and Technology, there were 39,800 electric vehicles in China as of March 2013, of which, about 80% were used in public transportation, both bus and taxi services.[243][244] According a report by Mckinsey, electric vehicle sales between January 2009 and June 2012 represented less than 0.01% of new car sales in China.[245]

BYD e6 all-electric taxi in Shenzhen, China.

A total of 8,159 new energy vehicles were sold in China during 2011, including passenger cars (61%) and buses (28%). Of these, 5,579 units were all-electric vehicles and 2,580 plug-in hybrids.[246] Electric vehicle sales represented 0.04% of total new car sales in 2011.[247] Sales of new energy vehicles in 2012 reached 12,791 units, which includes 11,375 all-electric vehicles and 1,416 plug-in hybrids.[248] New energy vehicle sales in 2012 represented 0.07% of the country's total new car sales.[249] During 2013 new energy vehicle sales totaled 17,642 units, up 37.9% from 2012 and representing 0.08% of the nearly 22 million new car sold in the country in 2013. Deliveries included 14,604 pure electric vehicles and 3,038 plug-in hybrids. In addition, a total of 200,000 low-speed small electric cars were sold in 2013, most of which are powered by lead-acid batteries and not accounted by the government as new energy vehicles due to safety and environmental concerns.[206][250] Accounting for new energy vehicle sales between January 2011 and December 2013, a total of 38,592 units were sold during these 3 years, of which 81.8% (31,558 units) were pure electric vehicles.[206][246][248] A total of 6,853 new energy vehicles were sold during the first quarter of 2014, consisting of 4,095 all-electric vehicles and 2,758 plug-in hybrids.[251] As of early March 2014, the Chinese new energy vehicle stock was estimated at about 50,000 units.[252]

The top selling pure electric car in China for 2012 was the Chery QQ3 EV city car, with 5,305 units sold, followed by the JAC J3 EV with 2,485 units, and the BYD e6 with 2,091 cars.[253] A total of 1,201 BYD F3DM plug-in hybrids were sold in 2012, up from 613 in 2011.[254] As of October 2013, the QQ3 EV continues as the top selling plug-in car, with 4,207 units sold between January and October 2013, followed by the F3DM with 1,096 units and BYD e6 with 1,005 units.[255]

Europe[edit]

The Opel Ampera was the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe during 2012.[256][257]

Since 2010, over 111,000 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans have been sold in Europe through December 2013, with sales climbing from 1,614 units in 2010[258] to 11,563 during 2011,[259] 34,530 in 2012,[260] and 64,036 units during 2013.[261] The market share of electric cars in Western Europe rose from 0.09% of all new car sales in the region in 2011 to 0.20% in 2012, to 0.34% in 2013.[259][262][263] During 2013 there was a surge in sales of plug-in hybrids in the European market, particularly in the Netherlands, with 20,164 PHEVs registered during the year.[264][265] Out of the 64,036 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans sold in the region during 2013, plug-in hybrids totaled 24,260 units, representing 37.9% of the plug-in electric vehicle segment sales that year. Considering combined sales of pure electrics and plug-in hybrids, the market share of the plug-in electric segment in 2013 rises to 0.52% of the 12,3 million new cars sold in Europe that year.[261][266]

The Opel/Vauxhall Ampera plug-in hybrid was Europe's top selling plug-in electric car in 2012 with 5,268 units, closely followed by the all-electric Nissan Leaf with 5,210 units.[256] In 2013 the top selling PEV was the Leaf with 11,120 units sold,[267] followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 8,197 units.[210] Accounting for cumulative sales since 2010, the Leaf is the top selling plug-in electric car with over 18,000 units delivered,[256][267] and the Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the top selling utility van with 12,461 units.[268]

As of December 2012, the leading countries in terms of EV penetration of the total auto fleet were Norway with 4 electric car per 1,000 automobiles registered in the country, Estonia with 1 electric car for every 1,000 cars, and the Netherlands with 0.6 electric cars per 1,000 registered cars.[269] During 2013 Norway kept the leadership in market penetration with 20,486 plug-in electric vehicles registered out of 2.49 million passenger cars registered in the country through December 2013, representing an EV penetration of 8.2 plug-in electric cars per 1,000 cars registered.[5][270][271] It is expected that sometime in April 2014 Norway will become the first country with a market penetration where 1 in every 100 registered passenger cars is all-electric.[272]

During 2013 the plug-in electric-drive segment market share of new car sales in the top selling PEV markets increased significantly. Norway reached 5.6% of new car sales, the Netherlands 5.37%, Sweden 0.57% and France 0.49%. When all-electric utility vans are accounted for, the French market EV share climbs to 0.65%.[5] The following table presents the EV market share in 20 selected European countries for the combined registrations during 2011 and 2012:

Plug-in electric car market share in 20 selected European countries[273]
(Total registrations during 2011 and 2012)
Ranking Country PEV
market
share(1)
(%)
PEVs
registered
2011-12(1)
Total vehicle
registrations
Ranking Country PEV
market
share(1)
(%)
PEVs
registered
2011-12(1)
Total vehicle
registrations
1  Norway 2.275% 6,287 276,312 11  Czech Republic 0.146% 507 347,291
2  Estonia 1.723% 562 32,617 12  Slovakia 0.110% 156 142,099
3  Portugal 0.905% 2,250 248,713 13  Belgium 0.108% 1,148 1,058,948
4  Austria 0.711% 4,924 692,155 14  Germany 0.105% 6,553 6,256,138
5  Netherlands 0.570% 6,030 1,058,390 15  United Kingdom 0.084% 3,342 3,985,862
6  Poland 0.2980% 1,640 551,016 16  Spain 0.057% 863 1,507,640
7  Denmark 0.290% 987 340,799 17  Latvia 0.051% 13 25,636
8   Switzerland 0.227% 1,472 647,097 18  Bulgaria 0.036% 14 38,541
9  France 0.219% 8,989 4,102,989 19  Hungary 0.035% 34 98,162
10  Sweden 0.193% 1,128 584,883 20  Greece 0.001% 2 156,164
Note (1) Market penetration of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars, only includes pure electric cars and plug-in hybrids.
Netherlands[edit]
Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands by year between 2010 and 2013.[274]

As of December 2013, a total of 29,342 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 24,512 range-extended or plug-in hybrids, 4,161 pure electric cars, and 669 all-electric light utility vans. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 30,211 units.[274] The country's electric vehicle stock reaches 53,254 units when mopeds (3,130), electric bicycles (19,772), and microcars (141) are accounted for.[274]

The Netherlands is among the country's with the highest EV market penetration in the world. Registrations of plug-in electric car represented a 0.57% share of total new car registrations in the country during 2011 and 2012, ahead of other European countries with a larger car market, such as Germany, France, and the U.K.[273] During 2013 plug-in electric passenger car registrations totaled 22,415 units, climbing 338% from 2012, the highest rate of growth of any country in the world in 2013.[5][274] The segment's market share surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5.37% new car sales in the country during that year, the world's second highest in 2013 after Norway (5.6%). The rapid growth of segment during 2013, allowed the Netherlands to reach a market penetration for plug-in vehicles of around 1.71 vehicles per 1,000 people, second only to Norway (4.04).[5]

A total of 5,093 plug-in electric cars were registered in the Netherlands during 2012.[275][276] Sales of plug-in hybrid cars took the lead over all-electric cars during 2012. The Opel Ampera was the best selling plug-in electric car with 2,696 units sold in 2012, with the Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranking second, with 1,184 units, followed by the Chevrolet Volt with 306 units. Adding 140 Fisker Karmas sold during 2012, the plug-in hybrid segment led the Dutch market with 4,326 units sold during 2012, representing 84.9% of all plug-in electric car sales in the country during this year.[275][276] The Nissan Leaf was the top selling all-electric car in the country in 2012 with 265 units sold, and a total of 559 units since their introduction in the country by mid-2011.[275][276]

As of December 2013, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands.

In November 2013, a total of 2,736 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs were sold, making the plug-in hybrid the top selling new car in the country that month, representing a market share of 6.8% of all the new cars sold.[277][278] Again in December 2013, the Outlander P-HEV ranked as the top selling new car in the country with 4,976 units, representing a 12.6% market share of new car sales, contributing to a world record plug-in vehicle market share of 23.8% of new car sales.[279][280] The Netherlands is the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales.[277][278][280] The strong increase of plug-in car sales during the last months of 2013 was due to the end of the total exemption of the registration fee for corporate cars, which is valid for 5 years. From January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee.[281]

The dominance of plug-in hybrids in the Netherlands is reflected by the fact that, accounting for cumulative registrations up to December 2013, four out of the top five selling plug-in electric models are plug-in hybrids. Dutch PEV sales through December 2013 are led by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,038), followed by the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (6,283), Opel Ampera (4,922 units), and Prius PHV (3,891). Ranking fifth is the Tesla Model S with 1,192 units, which passed the Chevrolet Volt with 1,058 units in December 2013.[274][282] As of December 2013, out of 28,673 plug-in passenger cars registered in the Netherlands, plug-in hybrids represent 85.5% of total plug-in electric car registrations through 2013.[274]

France[edit]
Registration of highway capable all-electric vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2013.[283][284][285]

Since January 2010, a total of 28,560 highway-capable all-electric vehicles have been registered in France through December 2013. Of these, 17,256 are electric cars and 11,304 are electric utility vans.[283][284][285] Electric car registrations increased from 184 units in 2010 to 2,630 in 2011. Sales in 2012 increased 115% from 2011 to 5,663 cars,[283][286][287] allowing France to rank 4th among the top selling EV countries, with an 11% market share of global all-electric car sales in 2012.[211] Registrations reached 8,779 electric cars in 2013, up 55.0% from 2012,[284] and the EV market share of total new car sales went up to 0.49% from 0.3% in 2012.[287][288]

In addition to battery electric cars, 5,175 electric utility vans were registered in 2013, up 42% from 2012,[284] and represented a market share of 1.4% of all new light commercial vehicles sold in 2013.[288] Sales of electric passenger cars and utility vans totaled 13,954 units in 2013,[284] capturing a combined market share of 0.65 of these two segments new car sales.[5] Combined sales of pure electric cars and light utility vehicles positioned France as the leading European country in the all-electric market segment in 2012 and 2013.[5][284][289][290]

The Renault Zoe led electric car sales in France in 2013, and became the country's best selling all-electric car accounting for registrations since 2010.[283][284]

In the French market plug-in hybrids or rechargeable hybrids are classified and accounted together with conventional hybrid electric vehicles. Almost 1,500 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012 and 2013, 666 units in 2012,[291] and 808 units in 2013.[292][293] When plug-in hybrids sales in 2013 are accounted for, a total of 14,762 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2013.[284][292][293]

During 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bolloré Bluecar with 1,543 units.[294] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. was the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012, representing a market share of 82% of the segment.[289][290] The Renault Twizy electric quadricycle, launched in March 2012, sold 2,232 units during 2012, surpassing the Bolloré Bluecar, and ranked as the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Kangoo Z.E.[295] During 2013, registrations of pure electric cars were led by the Renault Zoe with 5,511 units, representing 62.8% of total EV sales.[284] Registrations of all-electric light utility vehicles were led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 4,174 units, representing 80.7% of the segment sales.[284] With a total of 7,826 Kangoo ZEs registered in the country through December 2013, the electric van is the French leader in the all-electric vehicle segment accounting for sales since 2010.[284][289][296]

Norway[edit]
Registration of all-electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2013.[270]

As of December 2013, a total of 20,486 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Norway since 2003.[5][270] The country's plug-in electric drive stock consist of 19,799 all-electric passenger and light-duty vehicles and 687 plug-in hybrids.[297] Out of the total all-electric stock, over 1,440 units are heavy quadricycles, such as the Kewet/Buddy and the REVAi.[298] Registrations include more than 2,450 used imports from neighboring countries, of which, 2,159 were imported in 2013.[270][299] The Norwegian fleet of electric cars is also one of the cleanest in the world because almost 100% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower.[300] Due to its population size, Norway is the country with the largest EV ownweship per capita in the world,[301][302] reaching 4.0 plug-in electric vehicles per 1,000 people in 2013, a market penetration nine times higher than the U.S., the world's largest plug-in electric car market.[5]

Also, Norway was the first country to have electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. The Tesla Model S was the top selling new car twice in 2013, first in September and again in December.[303][304] The Nissan Leaf also has topped the monthly new car sales ranking twice, first in October 2013 and again in January 2014.[305][306] Both the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S were listed among the Norwegian top 20 best selling new cars in 2013, with the Leaf ranking third with 4,604 units and a 3.2% market share; and the Model S ranking 20th with a 1.4% market share of new car sales in 2013.[307] The Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales is the highest in the world, the EV segment market share rose from 1.6% in 2011, to 3.1% in 2012,[299] and reached 5.6% of new car sales in 2013.[270] Only the Netherlands, with 5.37% in 2013, has achieved a similar market share for the plug-in electric drive segment.[5] During the first quarter of 2014 all-electric car sales reached a record 14.5% market share of new car sales during the quarter.[308] Accounting for sales of plug-in hybrids, the market share of the plug-in electric segment increases 1.2% for a total market share of 15.7% out of the 36,492 new passenger cars sold during first quarter of 2014.[308][309][310]

Electric cars have access to bus lanes in Norway. Shown a Nissan Leaf, the top selling plug-in electric car in the country since 2012.

Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 10,769 units in 2013, of which used imports represented 20%. This total includes 387 plug-in hybrids and 355 all-electric light commercial vans, together representing 6.9% of total 2013 registrations, and reflecting the continued dominance of pure electric vehicles in the Norwegian market.[270] The plug-in electric drive segment in Norway grew 129% from 2012 to 2013, achieving one of the highest EV rates of growth in the world, second only to the Netherlands (338%).[5]

During 2013, the Leaf continued as the top selling plug-in electric car, with 4,604 new units sold during the year, which represent 58.4% of plug-in electric car sales in 2013. The Tesla Model S ranked second with 1,986 units (25.2% share), followed by the Volkswagen e-Up! with 580 units (7.4% share).[311] Since September 2011, a total of 7,275 new Leaf cars have been sold in the country through December 2013.[312][313] Accounting for used Leafs imported from neighboring countries, of which, 1,608 units were registered during 2013, a total of 9,080 Leafs have been registered in Norway through December 2013,[314] representing 9.4% of the 96,847 Leafs delivered worldwide through December 2013.[207] In January 2014, the Leaf topped for a second time the ranking of top selling new cars in Norway, with 650 units sold, representing a 5.7% of new car sales that month.[306]

In March 2014, with 26,886 plug-in electric vehicles registered in the country, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 registered passenger cars is plug-in electric,[315] out of a fleet of over 2.52 million registered passenger cars.[310][316] Also in March 2014 the Tesla Model S topped for a third time the ranking of top selling new cars in Norway, and also broke the 28 year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, with 1,493 units sold, surpassing the Ford Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986.[308][317] The Model S, with 2,056 units sold during the first quarter of 2014, is Norway's best selling new car during 2014 so far, capturing a 5.6% market share of new car sales during this period. During the same quarter, the Nissan Leaf ranked as the best third selling new car with 1,559 units, capturing a 4.3% market share of new car sales.[308][310][315]

Germany[edit]

More than 10,400 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Germany since January 2010 through September 2013, including all-electric car and utility vans, plug-in hybrids, and vehicles registered by the automobile industry for research and field testing purposes.[318][319][320] During 2011, a total of 2,154 pure electric cars were registered in the country, up from 541 units in 2010.[318] All-electric car sales for 2011 were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family with 683 i-MiEVs, 208 Peugeot iOns and 200 Citroën C-Zeros, representing 50.6% of all electric car registrations in 2011.[318] Plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 266 units in 2011, 241 Opel Amperas and 25 Chevrolet Volts, for a total of 2,420 plug-in electric vehicles registered in 2011.[321]

As of September 2013, the Smart electric drive is the top selling plug-in electric car in Germany.

A total of 2,956 all-electric vehicles were registered in Germany during 2012, a 37.2% increase over 2011.[319] When 901 registered plug-in hybrids are accounted for, 2012 registrations climb to 3,857 units,[319][322] and sales of plug-in electric car represented a 0.12% market share of new passenger vehicles sold in the country in 2012.[323] Most sales in the country were made by corporate and fleet customers and 1,493 all-electric vehicles were registered by the automobile industry, as demonstration or research vehicles.[319] Registrations of plug-in electric-drive vehicles were led by the Opel Ampera extended-range electric car with 828 units, followed by the Smart electric drive with 734 units.[322][324] In addition, a total of 2,413 Renault Twizys were sold during 2012, making Germany the top selling European market for the electric quadricycle.[295][325]

During the first nine months of 2013 a total of 3,628 plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany, led by the Smart ED with 1,237 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 721 units and the Renault Zoe with 708.[320][326] Accounting for registrations of plug-in electric cars between January 2010 and September 2013, the leading model is the Smart electric drive with 2,405 units registered, followed by the Opel Ampera with 1,354 and the Nissan Leaf with 1,179 units.[318][319][320][321][322]

United Kingdom[edit]
Before 2011, the G-Wiz quadricycle was the top selling EV in the UK for several years.[327]

Since 2006, a total of 8,380 plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the UK up until December 2013, including all-electric cars, utility vans and plug-in hybrids.[328][329][330][331] Registrations between 2006 and December 2010 totaled 1,096 electric vehicles,[328] with the G-Wiz, a heavy quadricycle, listed as the top-selling EV for several years.[332] Electric car sales grew from 138 units in 2010 to 1,082 units during 2011.[329][333]

During 2012, a total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in the UK, of which, 1,262 were pure electrics, and sales were led by the Nissan Leaf with 699 units, followed by the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid and the Vauxhall Ampera, with 470 and 455 units sold, respectively, in 2012.[330][334][335] Vehicles eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant accounted for 0.1% of total new car sales in 2012, with pure electric cars representing only 0.06%.[336]

During 2013, plug-in electric car registrations totaled 3,584 units, up 59.0% from 2012.[330][337] Of these, 2,512 were pure electric cars, up 99.0% from 2012, and 1,072 plug-in hybrids, up 8.1% from 2012.[330] Plug-in car sales represented a 0.16% market share of the 2.26 million new cars sold in the UK in 2013.[337] The top selling plug-in electric car during 2013 was the Nissan Leaf, with over 1,650 units sold,[338] and the Prius PHV ended 2013 as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 509 units, up 8.5% from 2012.[337] As of December 2013, the top selling plug-in electric car in the UK continued to be the Nissan Leaf with over 3,000 units sold since its introduction in March 2011.[338][339][340]

Top selling PEV models[edit]

The Nissan Leaf is the world's top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car in history, with global sales of 100,000 units by mid January 2014.[6]

The world's top selling highway-capable all-electric car is the Nissan Leaf, with global sales of 100,000 units by mid January 2014, capturing a 45% market share of worldwide pure electric vehicles sold since 2010.[6] Global sales are led by the United States with 42,122 units sold through December 2013,[224][225][226] Japan with 34,465 units,[237] followed the European market with over 18,000 units delivered.[256][267] European sales are led by Norway with 7,275 new Leafs registered through December 2013.[311][314] The world's top selling all-electric light utility vehicle is the Renault Kangoo Z.E., with global sales of 12,490 units delivered through December 2013, mostly in Europe.[268]

The Volt/Ampera family is the world's best selling plug-in hybrid and second best selling plug-in electric car, with combined sales of about 70,000 units worldwide as of January 2014.[7] Volt sales are led by the United States with 54,552 units sold through December 2013,[224][225][226] and Ampera sales are led by the Netherlands with 4,922 units registered through December 2013.[274]

The following table presents market launch date, global sales and main country markets of the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles produced between 2008 and December 2013 and still available for retail sales. The table includes plug-in passenger cars and plug-in utility vans with around or over 10,000 units sold.

Global sales of
the best selling PEVs available for retail sales or leasing
(available for retail sales as of December 2013)
Model Market
launch
Global sales Top selling markets
Country Sales Comment
Nissan Leaf December
2010
Over
100,000
Global sales by mid January 2014.[6]
 US 42,122 Sales through December 2013.[224][225][226]
 Japan 34,465 Sales through December 2013.[237]
 Norway 7,275(1) Sales through December 2013.[311][314]
 UK 3,146 Sales through December 2013.[338][341]
 France 2,045 Sales through December 2013.[283]
 Germany 1,306 Sales through December 2013.[322][342]
 Netherlands 1,021 Sales through December 2013.[343][344]
 Canada 880 Sales through December 2013.[345]
 Spain 476 Sales through December 2013.[346][347][348]
 Italy 474 Sales through December 2013.[349][350][351]
 Sweden 446 Sales through December 2013.[352][353]
 Belgium 315 Sales through December 2013.[354]
 Denmark 296 Sales through December 2013.[355]
  Switzerland 291 Sales through December 2013.[356]
 Australia 284 Sales through December 2013.[357][358]
 China 216(2) Sales through December 2013.[359]
Chevrolet Volt December
2010
About
70,000
Combined global sales of Volt and Ampera models by January 2014.[7] Includes
over 8,500 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe through December 2013.[274][360]
 US 54,552 Volts sold through December 2013.[224][225][226]
 Netherlands 5,980 4,922 Amperas and 1,058 Volts through December 2013.[274]
 Canada 2,431 Volts sold through December 2013.[361]
 Germany 1,477 1,404 Amperas and 73 Volts through December 2013.[321][322][342]
 UK 699 609 Amperas and 90 Volts through June 2013.[341][362]
  Switzerland 535 346 Amperas and 189 Volts through December 2013.[356]
 France 304 247 Amperas and 57 Volts through December 2013.[291][292]
 Belgium 241 201 Amperas and 40 Volts through December 2013.[354][363]
 Norway 230 229 Amperas and 1 Volt through December 2013.[299][311]
 Austria 226 207 Amperas and 19 Volts through December 2013.[364]
 Australia 181 Holden Volts sold through December 2013.[357][358]
 Sweden 149 109 Amperas and 40 Volts through December 2013.[353][365]
Toyota Prius PHV January
2012
48,600 Global sales through December 2013.[239]
 US 24,838 Sales through December 2013.[224][226]
 Japan 15,400 Sales through December 2013.[239]
 Netherlands 3,891 Sales through December 2013.[274]
 UK 979 Sales through December 2013.[337][366]
 Sweden 875 Sales through December 2013.[352][353]
 France 806 Sales through December 2013.[291][292]
 Norway 327 Sales through December 2013.[299][311]
 Canada 275 Sales through December 2013.[367]
 Finland 118 Sales through December 2013.[368]
 Spain 109 Sales through December 2013.[348][369]
Mitsubishi i MiEV July
2009
Over
28,000
Global sales of i-MiEV family vehicles through December 2013
 Japan 9,402 i-MiEVs sold since 2009 through December 2013.[238]
 France 4,455 2,256 iOns, 2,087 C-Zeros, and 102 i-MiEVs through December 2013.[283]
 Norway 4,241 2,176 i-MiEVs, 1,084 iOns, and 981 C-Zeros through December 2013.[311][314]
 Germany 2,307 933 C-Zeros, 854 i-MiEVs, and 520 iOns through December 2013.[321][322][342]
 US 1,697 Sales through December 2013.[370]
 UK 862 401 iOns, 260 i MiEVs, and 201 C-Zeros through June 2013.[341][371][372]
 Austria 704 332 C-Zeros, 254 i MiEVs, and 118 iOns through December 2013.[373][374][375]
  Switzerland 615 342 i-MiEVs, 155 C-Zeros and 118 iOns through December 2013.[356]
 Netherlands 563 266 iOns, 166 C-Zeros, and 131 i MiEVs through December 2013.[343][344]
 Denmark 550 227 iOns, 202 C-Zeros, and 121 i MiEVs through December 2013.[376][377]
 Spain 546 204 iOns, 196 i-MiEVs and 146 C-Zeros through December 2013.[346][347][348]
 Italy 540 295 C-Zeros, 189 iOns and 56 i-MiEVs through December 2013.[349][350][351]
 Estonia 507(3) i MiEVs registered through December 2012.[269][378]
 Canada 387 Sales through December 2013.[370]
 Russia 260 Sales through December 2013.[379]
 Australia 252 Sales through December 2013.[357][380][381]
Tesla Model S June
2012
Over
25,000
Global sales through December 2013.[382][383]
Includes both 60 and 85 kW·h battery pack models.
 US ~20,555 Sales through December 2013.[234][384]
 Norway 1,986 Registered through December 2013.[313]
 Netherlands 1,192 Registered through December 2013.[274]
 Canada 733 Sales through December 2013.[385]
  Switzerland 213 Registered through December 2013.[356]
 Germany 191 Registered through December 2013.[386]
 Belgium 148 Sales through December 2013.[354]
 Denmark 112 Registered through December 2013.[377]
 Austria 50 Registered through December 2013.[375]
 France 35 Registered through December 2013.[387]
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV January
2013
Over
17,800
Sales through December 2013, of which, 8,197 were sold in Europe.[209][210]
 Japan 9,608 Sales through December 2013.[209]
 Netherlands 8,038 Sales through December 2013.[274]
 Sweden 96 Sales through December 2013.[353]
Renault Kangoo Z.E. October
2011
12,490 Global sales through December 2013.[268]
 France 7,826 Registrations since 2010 through December 2013.[284][289][296]
 Germany 792 Sales through October 2012.[388]
 UK 267 Sales through October 2012.[372]
 Italy 234 Sales through October 2012.[349]
 Sweden 229 Sales through October 2012.[389]
 Austria 196 Sales through October 2012.[373]
 Belgium 183 Sales through October 2012. Includes Luxembourg.[390]
Renault Zoe December
2012
Over
10,000
Global sales by January 2014, mostly in Europe.[391]
 France 5,559 Sales through December 2013.[283]
 Germany 1,019 Sales through December 2013.[342]
 Netherlands 547 Sales through December 2013.[344]
 Austria 369 Sales through December 2013.[375]
  Switzerland 342 Sales through December 2013.[356]
 Italy 203 Sales through December 2013.[351]
 Spain 182 Sales through December 2013.[348]
 UK 132 Sales through June 2013.[371]
Ford C-Max Energi October
2012
9,727 Global sales through December 2013.
 US 9,528 Sales through December 2013.[224][226]
 Canada 199 Sales through December 2013.[392]
Chery QQ3 EV March
2010[393]
9,512  China 9,512 Sales since January 2012 through October 2013.[248][255]
Notes:

(1) Norwegian figures are registrations not new car sales, except for the Nissan Leaf. A total of 9,080 Leafs have been registered in Norway through December 2013, including over 1,800 used imports.[314]
(2) Chinese sales correspond to the rebagded Venucia Morning Wind (e30).
(3) These cars were an exchange as part of CO2 emission permits the country traded with Mitsubishi in 2011.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  232. ^ Electric Drive Transportation Association(EDTA) (2014-01-07). "Electric drive vehicle sales figures (U.S. Market) - EV sales". EDTA. Retrieved 2014-01-18.  Sales reported do not include the Fisker Karma.
  233. ^ Domenick Yoney (2013-02-20). "Tesla delivered 2,650 Model S EVs last year, Musk confident of profit in Q1 and beyond". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2014-01-04.  Around 2,650 Model S cars were delivered by Tesla during 2012, mostly in the U.S. and some units delivered in Canada.
  234. ^ a b c Mark Rogowsky (2014-01-16). "Tesla Sales Blow Past Competitors, But With Success Comes Scrutiny". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-17.  Almost 18,000 units were sold in the U.S. in 2013.
  235. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-08-05). "August 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-08-05.  See the section: U.S. Plug-in Electric sales for 2013: A total of 59,537 PEVS had been sold between January and August 2013.
  236. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-11-04). "October 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-11-10.  See the section: October 2013 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers: A total of 77,965 plug-in electric cars were sold in the U.S. between January and October 2013, of which, 10,191 were delivered in October.
  237. ^ a b c d Mark Kane (2014-01-30). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 17% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  238. ^ a b c Mark Kane (2014-01-14). "Sales Of Mitsubishi MiEV in Japan Fell Off Sharply in 2013; Battery Production Constraints Probable Cause". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-14. 
  239. ^ a b c d Toyota News (2014-01-15). "トヨタ自動車、 ハイブリッド車のグローバル累計販売台数が600万台を突破" [Toyota cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceeded 6 million] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 2014-02-18.  As of December 2013, cumulative sales in Japan totaled 15,400 units and global sales reached 48,600 units.
  240. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2014-01-30). "Japan December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  Excludes sales of Nissan NMC units (45), which is a low-speed neighborhood vehicle.
  241. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-04-23). "Japan March 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  242. ^ Naoki Watanabe (2014-02-12). "Plug-in hybrids quickly becoming Japan's favorite way to drive green". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  243. ^ Jiang Xueqing (2013-08-05). "New energy vehicles await fuel injection". China Daily. Retrieved 2013-08-11. 
  244. ^ Jack Perkowski (2013-06-24). "The Reality Of Electric Cars In China". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  245. ^ Wang Chao (2012-10-26). "Electric vehicle industry in the slow lane". China Daily Europe. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  246. ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (2012-01-16). "5,579 electric cars sold in China in 2011". Wind Energy and Electric Vehicle Review. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  247. ^ Philippe Crowne (2012-11-23). "China To Sell Over 4 Million Electrified Vehicles in 2020". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  248. ^ a b c Cars21.com (2013-02-13). "EV sales increase 103.9% in China in 2012- Electric China Weekly No 17". Cars21.com. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  249. ^ China Daily (2013-02-28). "China needs electric cars more than hybrid". China Economic Net. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  250. ^ Staff (2014-01-10). "Plug-in EV Sales in China Rose 37.9% to 17,600 in 2013". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  251. ^ Tim Harrup (2014-04-16). "Sales of EV's surge in China". Global Fleet. Retrieved 2014-04-21. 
  252. ^ Reuters (2014-03-03). "Chinese cities open up green car markets as government battles pollution". Global Post. Retrieved 2014-04-20. 
  253. ^ China Auto Web (2013-03-25). "Chinese EV Sales Ranking for 2012". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  254. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-01-14). "China Full Year 2012: Ford Focus triumphs". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2013-04-21. A total of 613 units were sold during 2011 and 1,201 units in 2012.
  255. ^ a b Colum Murphy and Rose Yu (2013-11-27). "China Hopes Cities Can Help Boost Electric Car Sales". The Wall Street Journal (China Real Time). Retrieved 2013-11-30.  A total of 4,207 QQ3 EVs, 1,096 F3DMs and 1,005 e6s were sold between January and October 2013.
  256. ^ a b c d Mat Gasnier (2013-02-10). "Europe Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 models & Top 60 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-13.  A total of 1,728 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2011 and 5,210 in 2012.
  257. ^ "Opel Ampera – a Pioneer of Green Mobility Europe's Most Successful Passenger EV". The European Financial Review. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  258. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Europe 18 à fin Oct. (2010-2012) 2012" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Europe 18 through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-06. Only pure electric cars are reported.
  259. ^ a b Neil Winton (2012-02-06). "Europe's electric car sales stutter and stall; will 2012 be much better?". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  260. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-02-03). "Europe Full Year 2012". EV sales. Retrieved 2013-01-12.  A total of 9,013 Twizys were excluded as these EVs are not highway-capable.
  261. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2014-01-26). "Europe December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-03-15.  A total of 2,990 Twizys were excluded as these EVs are not highway-capable.
  262. ^ Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-01-25). "Europe's electric car market fails to take off". AID. Retrieved 2013-02-13.  AID sales figures include all-electric cars and range-extenders vehicles in Germany.
  263. ^ Neil Winton (2014-02-06). "Electric Car Sales In Western Europe Spurt, But From Miniscule Base". Automotive Industry Data (AID). Forbes. Retrieved 2014-03-16.  AID sales figures (38,617 units) include all-electric cars and range-extenders vehicles in Germany.
  264. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (March 2014). "Cijfers elektrich vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  265. ^ Zachary Shahan (2014-02-26). "Top European Countries For 100%-Electric Car Sales & Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car Sales (Charts)". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  266. ^ Henk Bekker (2014-01-20). "2013 (Full Year) Europe: Best-Selling Car Manufacturers, Brands and Models". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2014-03-16.  A total of 12,308,215 new cars were sold in Europe in 2013.
  267. ^ a b c Nissan Newsroom Europe (2014-02-12). "Nissan LEAF the best-selling EV in Europe in 2013". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  A total of 11,120 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2013.
  268. ^ a b c Renault (2014-01-21). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2014-01-22.  Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" and Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 226 Ko)" to download the files for 2012 and 2013 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Sales for 2011 are shown together with 2012 sales in the file "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)"
  269. ^ a b "Estonia goes electric with new car charger network". Reuters. 2013-02-20. Retrieved 2013-02-22. 
  270. ^ a b c d e f Staff (2014-01-08). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  271. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2014). "Statistikk-Ladbare biler i Norge" [Vehicle population in 2013] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  As of 31 December 2013, there were 2,487,353 passenger cars registered in Norway.
  272. ^ Sidsel Overgaard (2014-02-01). "Norway Takes The Lead In Electric Cars (With Generous Subsidies)". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 
  273. ^ a b Mark Rowney, Will Straw (2013-04-15). "Leading the Charge - Can Britain Develop a Global Advantage in Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicles". Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved 2013-04-16.  pp.20
  274. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2013). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer (30-12-2013)" [Figures electric transport (30-12-2013)] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  275. ^ a b c RAI. "Verkoopstatistieken -nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2013-02-02.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112") and 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212").
  276. ^ a b c The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (2013-01-18). "Best verkochte elektrische auto's 2012 Opel Ampera verkooptopper" [Best selling electric cars in 2012- Opel Ampera top selling] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  277. ^ a b Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-12-17). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV top seller". AID. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  278. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-12-04). "Netherlands November 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander shoots up to pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  279. ^ Jose Pontes (20114-01-04). "Netherlands December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  280. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-12-04). "Netherlands November 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander shoots up to pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  281. ^ Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS) (2013-12-24). "Forse toename elektrische auto's" [Major increase in electric car sales]. NOS (in Dutch). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  282. ^ RAI (January 2014). "Verkoopstatistieken - nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-01-25.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112"), in 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212"), 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201311").
  283. ^ a b c d e f g Automobile Propre. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2014-02-08.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2013.
  284. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l AVERE-France (2014-01-08). "Baromètre AVERE-France Janvier 2014" [Barometer AVERE-France January 2014] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  285. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-07). "Novembre 2012 - Ventes de véhicules électriques (CCFA)" [November 2012 - Sales of electric vehicles (CCFA)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-16.  See table Bilan annuel des ventes de véhicules électriques (Annual sales of electric vehicles) for detailed sales by category during 2010 and 2011.
  286. ^ Laurent Meillaud (2012-01-14). "2630 voitures électriques immatriculées en 2011" [2630 electric cars registered in 2011] (in French). MSN France. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  287. ^ a b Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" [Electric car sales in France increased 115% in 2011] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  288. ^ a b Mark Kane (2014-01-15). "Sales of Battery Electric Cars In France Rose By 50% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  289. ^ a b c d France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" [Record Registrations for 2012] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  290. ^ a b "2012, une année record pour les véhicules électriques" [2012 a record year for electric vehicles] (in French). Atlante & Cie. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  291. ^ a b c Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-15). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Hybrid Cars - The balance of 2012 registrations in France] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  292. ^ a b c d Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  293. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2014-01-24). "France December 2013 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  294. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-09). "Voitures électriques – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Electric Cars - The balance of registrations in France 2012] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  295. ^ a b Renault (2013-04-17). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.  Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" and "Ventes mensuelles (mars 2013) (xlsx, 223 Ko)" to download the files for 2012 and 2013 sales, and open the tab TWIZY.
  296. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL France à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in France through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  14 units were registered in 2010 and 768 in 2011.
  297. ^ "Ladbare biler i Norge des 2013" [Recahrgeable cars in Norway December 2013] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-19.  Click on the bar graph "Salgstall pr. 2013" (Sales figures 2013) for registrations for each year (including new and used imports) and "Utvikling" for sales split between all-electric and plug-in hybrids by year.
  298. ^ Norsk Elbilforening (2013-10-22). "Så mange elbiler er det i Norge nå" [So many electric cars are in Norway's reach] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  299. ^ a b c d "Over 10.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 10,000 plug-in cars in Norwegian roads] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-02-10.  A total of 2.298 new Leafs and 189 used-imports were registered in Norway during 2012. Total cumulative sales do not include the imports registered in 2012.
  300. ^ Alister Doyle and Nerijus Adomaitis (2013-03-13). "Norway shows the way with electric cars, but at what cost?". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  301. ^ Agence France-Presse (2011-05-15). "Electric cars take off in Norway". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  302. ^ AVERE (2012-06-07). "Norwegian Parliament extends electric car initiatives until 2018". AVERE. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  303. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-10-05). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  304. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-04). "Tesla Model S Again #1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  305. ^ Reuters (2013-11-01). "Nissan Leaf tops Norway Oct. car sales, beats Toyota Auris, VW Golf". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  306. ^ a b Mark Kane (2014-02-10). "Nissan LEAF Is Best Selling Car In Norway Again In January!". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  307. ^ Mat Gasnier (2014-01-05). "Norway Full Year 2013: VW Golf #1, Nissan Leaf on podium!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  308. ^ a b c d Ståle Frydenlund (2014-04-02). "Tesla knuste 28 år gammel rekord" [Tesla broke 28 year-old record] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  309. ^ Mark Kane (2014-04-03). "Pure Electric Vehicles Capture 20% Of Automotive Market In Norway In March". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
  310. ^ a b c Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (April 2014). "Bilsalget i mars" [Car sales in March] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2014-04-06.  A total of 36,492 new passenger cars were registered in Norway during the first quarter of 2014.
  311. ^ a b c d e f Staff (2014-01-08). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  312. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-01-09). "Norway Full Year 2012: VW Tiguan and Nissan Leaf impress". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-02-15.  A total of 373 new units were sold in 2011 and 2,298 units in 2012.
  313. ^ a b Ståle Frydenlund (2014-01-02). "7.882 nye elbiler registrert i 2013" [7882 new electric cars registered in 2013] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-01-20.  Sales during 2013 totaled 4,604 new Leafs.
  314. ^ a b c d e "Ladbare biler i Norge des, 2013" [Recahrgeable cars in Norway December 2013] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-20.  Click on the bar graph "Salgstall" for total Leaf registrations for each year (including new and used imports): 381 in 2011, 2,487 in 2012 and 6,212 in 2013. Click "Utvikling" for sales split between all-electric and plug-in hybrids by year
  315. ^ a b Staff (2014-04-02). "Elbilsalget i mars slo alle rekorder" [Electric vehicle sales in March broke all records] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  316. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2014). "Statistikk-Ladbare biler i Norge" [Vehicle population in 2013] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2013-04-06.  As of 31 December 2013, there were 2,487,353 passenger cars registered in the country.
  317. ^ John D. Stoll (2014-04-02). "Tesla Breaks Norway's All-Time Sales Record". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  318. ^ a b c d Autobild (2012-01-12). "2011 Full Year Best-Selling Electric Cars in Germany in 2011". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2012-10-31.  Cumulative number of registered electric cars was 4,541 as of January 1, 2012. All-electric car and van registrations in 2010 totaled 541 units and 2,154 in 2011..
  319. ^ a b c d e Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (2013-01-31). "Neuzulassungen E-Mobilität 2012-Kaum Zuwachs wegen Twizy" [Registrations E-mobility - Low growth due to Twizy]. Auto Bild (in German). Retrieved 2013-02-14.  A total of 2,956 all-electric cars were registered in Germany during 2012.
  320. ^ a b c Jose Pontes (2013-10-14). "Germany September 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-10-21.  A total of 3,628 highway-capable plug-in electric cars were sold during the first nine months of 2013. Twizy sales are not accounted.
  321. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2011 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2011 by segment and model lines] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2012-10-15. A total of 241 Amperas and 25 Volts were sold through December 2011.
  322. ^ a b c d e f Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2013). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2012 nach Marken und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2012 by make and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  323. ^ Hans Håvard Kvisle (2013-02-12). "Europeisk salg av elbiler 2012" [European sales of electric cars in 2012] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  324. ^ BestSellingCars.com (2013-05-03). "2012 (Full Year) Germany: Best-Selling Electric Car Models". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  325. ^ Mat Gasnier (2012-09-27). "Europe: Renault Twizy sales update". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  326. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes(KBA) (2013-10-08). "Neuzulassungen vonPersonenkraftwagen im September 2013 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [Newregistrations of passenger cars in September 2013 by segment and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  327. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2013-08-30). "TLC needed: Can cars like the G-Wiz still have a purpose in life?". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  328. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (April 2011). "Motor Industry Facts 2011". SMMT. Retrieved 2012-01-14.  Download the pdf report. Data available by year in Table: AFV Registrations, pp.15. Data shows all type of EVs, including quadricycles.
  329. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2012-01-06). "December 2011 – EV and AFV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  330. ^ a b c d Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2014-01-07). "December 2013 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2014-01-12.  A total of 3,584 registered plug-in electric cars were eligible for the Plug-in Grant in 2013.
  331. ^ Department for Transport (DfT) (2013-10-16). "Plug-in Van Grant". DfT. Retrieved 2014-01-12.  As of September 2013, a total of 364 claims had been made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme.
  332. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2013-08-30). "TLC needed: Can cars like the G-Wiz still have a purpose in life?". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  333. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT). "Motor Industry Facts 2012". SMMT. Retrieved 2013-10-10.  Download the pdf report. Data available by year in Table: Alternatively-fuelled vehicle registrations by fuel type, pp.24. Data shows highway-capable EVs.
  334. ^ Jon LeSage (2013-01-08). "Toyota Prius Plug-In wins 2012 sales battle in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2013-02-10. A total of 470 Prius PHV were sold in 2012.
  335. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2013). "New Car CO2 Report 2013". SMMT. Retrieved 2013-03-17.  See Table 5: New car CO2 emissions and registrations by fuel type (pp.8) SMMT reports 1,262 electric cars, 522 range extenders and 470 plug-in hybrids for a total of 2,254 PEVs sold in 2012.
  336. ^ Duncan Kay, Nikolas Hill and Dan Newman (Ricardo-AEA) (April 2013). "Powering Ahead - The future of low-carbon cars and fuels". RAC Foundation. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  337. ^ a b c d Faye Sunderland (2014-01-07). "Plug-in car sales boom on back of recovering car market". The Green Car Website. Retrieved 2014-01-12.  509 Prius PHVs were sold 2013.
  338. ^ a b c Fleet News (2014-01-23). "Nissan set a new UK sales record in 2013". Fleet News. Retrieved 2014-02-09.  1,812 Leafs were sold during 2013.
  339. ^ Philippe Crowe (2013-12-16). "Over 3,000 Nissan Leafs On UK Roads". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-12-16. 
  340. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-02-01). "UK Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 All-models ranking!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-16.  A total of 635 Leafs were sold in 2011 and 699 in 2012.
  341. ^ a b c Mat Gasnier (2013-02-01). "UK Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 All-models ranking!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  342. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2014). "Neuzulassungen von Personenkraftwagen im Dezember 2013 nach Segmenten und Modellreihen" [New registrations of passenger cars in December 2013 by segment and model series] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  343. ^ a b RAI (January 2012). "Verkoopstatistieken 2011 - nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics 2011 - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-01-23.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112").
  344. ^ a b c RAI (2014-01-24). "Verkoopstatistieken - nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2014-01-24.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212"), and 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201312").
  345. ^ "Nissan Leaf Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  346. ^ a b "Ventas en España de coches híbridos y eléctricos en 2011" [Hybrid and electric car sales in Spain in 2011] (in Spanish). Motor Pasión Futuro. 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  347. ^ a b Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2013). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2012 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2012 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2013-01-19.  Download the file DossierAutomóviles diciembre12.xls with current month and cumulative sales for 2012.
  348. ^ a b c d Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
  349. ^ a b c Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Italie à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Italy through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  350. ^ a b Luca Moroni (2013-01-03). "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2012 in Italia" [Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2012] (in Italian). Green Start. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
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  352. ^ a b Henk Bekker (2013-07-02). "2013 (Half Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars and Plug-in Hybrids". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2013-07-07. 
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  354. ^ a b c Jose Pontes (2014-01-18). "Belgium December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  355. ^ De Danske Bilimportører (January 2014). "Statistik - Personbiler: 2013- Hele Hele året/januar-december 2013" [Statistics - Passenger cars: 2013- January-December 2013] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  Select year and click on Pr. model for details of sales by brand and model.
  356. ^ a b c d e Vereinigung Scheweizer Automobil-Importeure. "Autoverkäufe nach Modellen" [Passenger cars by model - Statistic by model cars in 2013] (in German). Auto Schweiz Suisse. Retrieved 2014-02-09.  Under "Modellstatistik" download the xls file for "Januar–Dezember 2013" cumulative sales are presented in tabs by month: Dez (2013). Click the tabs "2012 Statistik" and "2011 Statistik" to download the files with 2012 and 2011 sales by model.
  357. ^ a b c Mat Gasnier (2013-01-05). "Australia Full Year 2012: Mazda3 leads again in record market, no local model on podium for the first time since 1930s!". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  358. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2014-01-16). "Australia Q4 2013: Jeep Grand Cherokee shines". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  359. ^ Mat Gasnier (2014-01-14). "China December 2013: Focus on the all-new models". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  360. ^ Opel Media Europe (2013-11-20). "Opel provides some market and customer data about the Opel Ampera extended range EV". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-11-23. 
  361. ^ "Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  362. ^ Jay Nagley (2013-09-16). "Price cut to jolt Vauxhall Ampera sales". Autocar. Retrieved 2013-10-02.  150 Amperas and 23 Volts were sold during the first half of 2013.
  363. ^ "Belgium November 2012: Discover the Top 338 All-models ranking". Best Selling Car Blog. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2012-12-07. 
  364. ^ KFZ- Wirtschaftsverlag (2014-01-01). "Aktuelle Zulassungsstatistik" [current registration statistics] (in German). Automotive.co.at. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  See data for "Jän - Dez 2013" and "Jän - Dez 2012"
  365. ^ "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  366. ^ Jon LeSage (2013-01-08). "Toyota Prius Plug-In wins 2012 sales battle in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  367. ^ Timothy Cain (January 2014). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  368. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-15). "Finland December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  369. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-01-13). "Spain Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-06-29.  58 units sold in 2012.
  370. ^ a b "Mitsubishi i MiEV Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  371. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2013-10-09). "UK June 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  372. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Royaume-Uni à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in the United Kingdom through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-06. 
  373. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Autriche à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Austria through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  374. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-01-19). "Austria Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
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  376. ^ De Danske Bilimportører (January 2013). "Statistik - Personbiler: 2011- Hele Hele året/januar-december 2012" [Statistics - Passenger cars: 2011- All year/January-December 2012] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2013-01-22.  Select year and click on Pr. model for details of sales by brand and model.
  377. ^ a b De Danske Bilimportører (January 2014). "Statistik - Personbiler: 2013- Hele Hele året/januar-september 2013" [Statistics - Passenger cars: 2013- January-September 2013] (in Danish). Bilimp. Retrieved 2014-02-15.  Select year and click on Pr. model for details of sales by brand and model.
  378. ^ Ott Tammik (2011-03-03). "State Buys 507 Electric Cars, Builds Charging Network". ERR. 
  379. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-02-19). "Rusia December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  380. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-01-05). "Australia Full Year 2012: Mazda3 leads again in record market, no local model on podium for the first time since 1930s!". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  381. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-18). "Australia December 2013". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  382. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-08-07). "Tesla Announces Q2 Financial Results". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-11-05.  Cumulative sales through June 2013 totaled 12,700 units.
  383. ^ Ucilia Wang (2013-11-05). "Tesla Makes Record Delivery Of Model S, Promises A 'Pioneering Approach' To Servicing Its Cars". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-11-05. Over 5,500 units delivered during 3Q 2013.
  384. ^ Tesla Motors (2013-02-20). "Tesla Motors, Inc. –Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2012 Shareholder Letter". Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2013-02-13.  Most of the remaining Tesla Roadsters were sold during the 4Q 2012, and about 2,650 Model S vehicles during 2012.
  385. ^ Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-02-10). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, Jan 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  Model S sales based on Polk data.
  386. ^ Havard Mount Wilson (2014-02-11). "Oppgang i europeisk elbilsalg" [Growth in European electric vehicle sales] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  387. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-15). "Tesla Model S - Plus de 22.000 ventes dans le monde en 2013" [Tesla Model S - More than 22,000 sales worldwide in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  388. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Allemagne à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Germany through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  389. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Suede à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Sweden through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  390. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL Belux à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in Belux through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-01-19.  Includes sales in Belgium and Luxembourg.
  391. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-29). "Voiture électrique – La Renault Zoé souffle sa première bougie" [Electric car - the Renault Zoe celebrates its first birthday] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  392. ^ Matthew Klippenstein. "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada for 2013". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  393. ^ Chery Press Release (2010-07-01). "The first QQ EV was delivered to customer". Chery. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 

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