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Antilope cervicapra from velavadar.JPG
A blackbuck at the Blackbuck National Park in Gujarat, India.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Genus: Antilope
Species: A. cervicapra
Binomial name
Antilope cervicapra
(Linnaeus, 1758)

A. c. cervicapra
A. c. rajputanae

Blackbuck male and subadult mock fighting in Tal Chappar
Blackbuck about to take off in Tal Chappar
Blackbuck landing in Tal Chappar

The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) is an ungulate species of antelope native to the Indian subcontinent that has been listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List since 2003, as its range has decreased sharply during the 20th century. The native population is stable, with an estimated 50,000 individuals as of 2001.[1]

Taxonomy and evolution[edit]

The scientific name of the blackbuck is Antilope cervicapra. It was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758. The blackbuck is the sole extant species of the genus Antilope.[2][3] Its generic name stems from the Latin word antalopus, a horned animal.[4] The specific name cervicapra is composed of the Latin words capra, she-goat and cervus, deer.[5]

A 1997 study found lower protein polymorphism in Antilope in comparison with Antidorcas, Eudorcas and Gazella. This was attributed to a history of rapid evolution of an autapomorphic phenotype of Antilope. This might have been aided by a particularly strong selection of a few dominant males due to its lekking behaviour.[6]

Two subspecies are recognized,[7] although it they might be independent species.[8]

  • A. c. cervicapra (nominate subspecies)
  • A. c. rajputanae

Phylogeny and genetics[edit]

Antilope, Eudorcas, Gazella and Nanger may form a clade within the tribe Antilopini. A 1995 study of the detailed karyotype of Antilope revealed that within this clade, Antilope has the closest relation with the Gazella subgutturosa group.[9] A 1999 phylogenetic analysis showed that Antilope is the closest sister taxon to Gazella,[10] although the earliest phylogeny, proposed in 1976, placed Antilope as sister to Nanger.[11]

The blackbuck has 30 male chromosomes and 31 female chromosomes.[8] Unusually large sex chromosomes had earlier been described only in a few species, all of which belonged to Rodentia. However, in 1968, a study found that two artiodactyls, the blackbuck and the sitatunga, too showed this abnormality. Generally the X chromosome constitutes 5 percent of the haploid chromosomal complement; but the X chromosome of the blackbuck this percentage is 14.96. Portions of both peculiarly large chromosomes show delayed replication.[12]


Male and female blackbucks

Blackbucks generally resemble gazelles found on the Arabian peninsula. Blackbucks are slender with a head-to-body length of about 120 cm (47 in). They are about 73.7 to 83.8 cm (29.0 to 33.0 in) high at the shoulder.[3] Males are larger than females. Adult males range in weight from 34 to 45 kg (75 to 99 lb); females weigh 31 to 39 kg (68 to 86 lb).[13] Their tail is short and compressed. Both sexes are white around the eyes, on the belly, and on the inside of the legs. They differ in the coloration of the head and back. Female and young blackbucks are yellowish-fawn coloured on the back and on the outside of the limbs; the lower parts are white. The two colours are sharply divided by a distinct pale lateral band. Old bucks are blackish brown on the back, the sides, and the front of the neck. They become almost black with age; only the nape remains brownish rufous, and the pale lateral band disappears. Only males have horns that are diverging, cylindrical, spiral, and ringed throughout. The rings are closer together near the skull. The turns of the spiral vary from less than three to five.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Antelope jumping in Hyderabad

In the 19th century, blackbucks ranged in open plains from the base of the Himalayas to the area of Cape Comorin, and from the Punjab to Lower Assam. They were abundant in the North-Western Provinces, Rajputana, parts of the Deccan, and on the plains near the coast of Orissa and Lower Bengal. Herds occasionally comprised several thousand animals of both sexes and all ages.[2]

Today, the blackbuck population is confined to areas in Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka, with a few small pockets in central India. They occur in several protected areas of India including:[14]

In Nepal, the last surviving population of blackbucks is found in the Blackbuck Conservation Area south of the Bardia National Park. In 2008, the population was estimated at 184.[20]

In Pakistan, blackbucks are irregular vagrants, moving along the border areas with India. They are kept in enclosures in the Lal Suhanra National Park for possible reintroduction. They are considered extirpated in Bangladesh.[14]

Blackbucks were introduced to Argentina and the USA. These populations numbered about 43,600 individuals at the turn of the century.[14]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Blackbuck fleeing at Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

Blackbucks generally live on open plains and open woodlands in herds of five to 50 animals with one dominant male. They are very fast. Speeds of more than 80 km/h (50 mph) have been recorded.[3]

They are primarily grazers and avoid forested areas. They require water every day and may move long distances in search of water and forage in summer. Usually, they feed during the day. Their diet consists mostly of grasses, but they have occasionally been observed browsing on acacia trees in the Cholistan Desert.[14] In the Velavadar National Park, they were observed feeding on pods of Prosopis juliflora during seasonal lows in forage quality.[15]

Their chief predator was the Asiatic cheetah, now extinct in India.[21] Currently, wolves are the main predators of both fawns and adults. Fawns are also hunted by jackals. Village dogs are reported to kill fawns, but are unlikely to successfully hunt and kill adults.[13]

The maximum lifespan recorded is 16 years and the average is 12 years.[citation needed]


Royalty hunting blackbuck with Asiatic cheetah in South Gujarat, 1812

During the last century, blackbuck range and numbers have declined sharply due to excessive hunting. Increasing numbers of livestock and humans destroy blackbuck habitat. Some blackbucks are killed illegally especially where they co-occur with nilgai.[1]

Blackbucks are hunted for their flesh and skin. Occasional incidents of poaching still occur. The remaining populations are under threat from inbreeding. The natural habitat of the blackbuck is being encroached upon by local people who need arable land and grazing ground for their livestock. Exposure to livestock also exposes them to bovine diseases.[citation needed]

Its protected status has gained publicity through a widely reported court case, in which one of India's leading film stars, Salman Khan, was sentenced to five years imprisonment for killing two blackbucks and several endangered chinkaras, in a protected area. The court case was prompted by intense protests from the Bishnoi ethnic group, which holds animals and trees sacred, and on whose land the hunting had taken place.[citation needed]

In another poaching incident, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi also killed a blackbuck,[22] and then absconded as a fugitive. He finally surrendered only when the case was transferred from the criminal court to a special environment court, where he would face lighter sentencing.[citation needed]

Threats in the past[edit]

Until the late 19th century, large herds still roamed on the open plains of North India. William Thomas Blanford knew of herds comprising several thousand individuals, but more often herds numbered 10–50 blackbucks.[23] Until India's independence in 1947, blackbucks and chinkaras were hunted in many princely states with specially trained captive Asiatic cheetahs. Today, only small herds are seen, largely inside reserves.[24] Farmers of the expanding areas of cultivation considered blackbucks as crop-raiders, and further contributed to their decline. In the 1970s, blackbucks were extinct in several areas.[25]


Male and female in Hyderabad, India
Blackbucks in Balaghat Lane KGF

In India, hunting of blackbucks is prohibited under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.[1] Blackbucks can be seen in zoos.[26]

Blackbucks are protected in

They are also found in open areas near Dindori, Madhya Pradesh, at Karopani Black Buck Conservation Area, which is located about 15 km from Dindori and also near Koppal in Koppal District about 15 km from its headquarters. In Balaghat Lane, Kolar Gold Field blackbucks are found in unprotected area.

In Pakistan, the breeding success achieved at Lal Suhanra NP is 413 animals where as from Khar time to time number of blackbucks provided to the eminent conservationists for further propagation in their private reserve. At present about 500 animals are surviving in Mir of Khairpurs Mehrano reserve, 110 at Khangur, Ghotki and 70 at New Jatoi, Nawab Shah. However at Khar Center only 35 animals remain. Additionally, some are kept in different zoos, wildlife centres and in possession of individuals. At present about 1500 blackbucks are reared in captivity in Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan. They will be released in the wild in the near future. [28][citation needed]

In culture[edit]

Blackbucks as part of the heraldry of a princely state of India. Samthar State coat of arms.

The blackbuck is known by various names, such as pulvaai, thirugumaan, velimaan, kadamaan, iralai, karinchikedai and murugumaan in Tamil. It is also known as Krishna mruga in Kannada and as Krishna jinka in Telugu, it has been declared as the state animal of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Once it was also named as the National animal of former defunct Hyderabad State. Other local names for the species include Krishnasar in Bengali, Kala Hiran, Sasin, Iralai Maan, and Kalveet in Marathi.[29]

In the Yājñavalkya Smṛti, Mahararishi Sri Yagyavalkya is quoted as having explained, "In what country there is black antelope, in that Dharma must be known."[30]

The skin of Krishna Mrugam plays an important role in Hinduism, and Brahmin boys are traditionally required to wear a strip of unleathered hide after performing Upanayanam. According to the Hindu mythology, blackbuck or Krishna Jinka is considered as the vehicle (vahana) of the Moon-god Chandrama. According to the Garuda Purana of Hindu mythology, Krishna Jinka bestows prosperity in the areas where they live.[citation needed]

Blackbucks were often a heraldic element in the official symbols of certain ancient princely states of India such as Samthar, Barwani, Jaisalmer, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Palanpur, Jaora, Radhanpur, Morvi and Nawanagar, among others.


  1. ^ a b c d Mallon, D. P. (2008). "Antilope cervicapra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  2. ^ a b Blanford, W. T. (1888–1891). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, London.
  3. ^ a b c Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1193–4. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9. 
  4. ^ Palmer, T. S.; Merriam, C. H. (1904). Antilope in: Index generum mammalium : a list of the genera and families of mammals. Government Printing Office, Washington.
  5. ^ Palmer, T. S.; Merriam, C. H. (1904). Capra in: Index generum mammalium : a list of the genera and families of mammals. Government Printing Office, Washington.
  6. ^ Schreiber, A.,; Fakler, P.; Osterballe, R. (1997). "Blood protein variation in bLackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), a lekking gazelle". Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 62 (4): 239–49. 
  7. ^ Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  8. ^ a b Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (2011). Ungulate Taxonomy. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 1-4214-0093-6. 
  9. ^ Vassart, M.; Seguela, A.; Hayes, H. (1995). "Chromosomal evolution in gazelles". Journal of Heredity 86 (3): 216–27. 
  10. ^ Rebholz, W.; Harley, E. (July 1999). "Phylogenetic relationships in the bovid subfamily Antilopinae based on mitochondrial DNA sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0586. 
  11. ^ Effron, M.; Bogart, M. H.; Kumamoto, A. T.; Benirschke, K. (1976). "Chromosome studies in the mammalian subfamily Antilopinae". Genetica 46 (4): 419–44. doi:10.1007/BF00128089. 
  12. ^ Wurster, D.H.; Benirschke, K.; Noelke, H. (February 1968). "Unusually large sex chromosomes in the sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) and the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)". Chromosoma 23 (3): 317–23. doi:10.1007/BF02451003. 
  13. ^ a b Ranjitsinh, M. K. (1989). The Indian Blackbuck. Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.
  14. ^ a b c d Mallon, D. P., Kingswood, S. C. (compilers) (2001). Antelopes: Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, Volume 4. IUCN. p. 184. ISBN 2-8317-0594-0. 
  15. ^ a b Jhala, Y. V. (1997). "Seasonal effects on the nutritional ecology of blackbuck Antelope cervicapra". Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1348–1358. doi:10.2307/2405252. JSTOR 2405252. 
  16. ^ Singh, H. S., Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009. 
  17. ^ Isvaran, K. (2007). "Intraspecific variation in group size in the blackbuck antelope: the roles of habitat structure and forage at different spatial scales". Oecologia 154 (2): 435–444. doi:10.1007/s00442-007-0840-x. PMID 17786484. 
  18. ^ Bagchi, S., Goyal, S. P., Sankar, K. (2003). "Habitat separation among ungulates in dry tropical forests of Ranthambhore National Park, Rajasthan". Tropical Ecology 44 (2): 175–182. 
  19. ^ a b Dhawa Doli Wildlife Sanctuary, Jodhpur, Jodhpur Wildlife Sanctuaries, Jodhpur Tourism, Tourist attractions in Jodhpur City, Jodhpur City Guide-Rajasthan. Retrieved on 2015-11-23.
  20. ^ Bhatta, S. R. (2008). People and Blackbuck: Current Management Challenges and Opportunities. The Initiation 2 (1): 17–21.
  21. ^ Gee, E. P. (1969). The wildlife of India. Collins, London.
  22. ^ Female black buck hunted by Nawab Pataudi with his team – Naresh Kadyan. YouTube (2008-10-18). Retrieved on 2015-11-23.
  23. ^ Blandford, W. T. (1891). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. London: Taylor & Francis. 
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  25. ^ Luna, R. K. (May 25, 2002). "Black bucks of Abohar". The Tribune. 
  26. ^ Walther, F. R.; Mungall, E. C.; Grau, G. A. (1983). Gazelles and their relatives: a study in territorial behavior. William Andrew. p. 74. ISBN 0-8155-0928-6. 
  27. ^ Steps Taken to Save Blackbucks the Hindu, Chinnai, 2011-1-6
  28. ^
  29. ^ "After Black bucks, leopards to be bred in captivity". Business Line. Nov 18, 2008. 
  30. ^ Vidyarnava, R. B. S. C. (1918). The Sacred Books of the Hindus. Volume XXI. Yājñavalkya Smṛti. Sudhindra Nath Vasu, Allahabad.

External links[edit]