Boston Dynamics

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Boston Dynamics
Artificial Intelligence
Founded1992; 29 years ago (1992)
FounderMarc Raibert
United States
Number of employees
ParentAlphabet Inc.
SoftBank Group
Hyundai Motor Group

Boston Dynamics is an American engineering and robotics design company founded in 1992 as a spin-off from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts, Boston Dynamics has been owned by the Hyundai Motor Group since December 2020.

Boston Dynamics is best known for the development of a series of dynamic highly-mobile robots, including BigDog, Spot, Atlas, and Handle. Since 2019, Spot has been made commercially available, making it the first commercially available robot from Boston Dynamics, while the company stated its intent to commercialize other robots as well, including Handle.


The company was founded by Marc Raibert, who spun the company off from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1992.[1] Early in the company's history, it worked with the American Systems Corporation under a contract from the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) to replace naval training videos for aircraft launch operations with interactive 3D computer simulations featuring characters made with DI-Guy, software for realistic human simulation.[2] Eventually the company started making physical robots—for example, BigDog was a quadruped robot designed for the U.S. military with funding from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).[3][4]

On December 13, 2013, the company was acquired by Google X (later X, a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.) for an unknown price,[5] where it was managed by Andy Rubin until his departure from Google in 2014.[6] Immediately before the acquisition, Boston Dynamics transferred their DI-Guy software product line to VT MÄK, a simulation software vendor based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[7]

On June 8, 2017, Alphabet Inc. announced the sale of the company to Japan's SoftBank Group for an undisclosed sum.[8] On April 2, 2019, Boston Dynamics acquired the Silicon Valley startup Kinema Systems.[9]

In December 2020, Hyundai Motor Group acquired an 80% stake in the company from SoftBank for approximately $880 million dollars.[10] SoftBank Group retains about 20% through an affiliate.[11] In June 2021, it was announced that Hyundai officially took a controlling stake in the company from SoftBank.[12]




BigDog was a quadrupedal robot created in 2005 by Boston Dynamics, in conjunction with Foster-Miller, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Harvard University Concord Field Station.[citation needed] It was funded by DARPA in the hopes that it would be able to serve as a robotic pack mule to accompany soldiers in terrain too rough for vehicles, but the project was shelved after BigDog was deemed too loud to be used in combat.[13][14] Instead of wheels, BigDog used four legs for movement, allowing it to move across surfaces that would defeat wheels. Called "the world's most ambitious legged robot", it was designed to carry 340 pounds (150 kg) alongside a soldier at 4 miles per hour (6.4 km/h; 1.8 m/s), traversing rough terrain at inclines up to 35 degrees.[citation needed]


The Cheetah is a four-footed robot that gallops at 28 miles per hour (45 km/h; 13 m/s), which as of August 2012 is a land speed record for legged robots.[15]

A similar but independently developed robot also known as Cheetah is made by MIT's Biomimetic Robotics Lab,[16] which, by 2014, could jump over obstacles while running.[17][18] By 2018 the robot was able to climb stairs.[19]


Released around 2010,[20] LittleDog is a small quadruped robot developed for DARPA by Boston Dynamics for research. Unlike BigDog, which is run by Boston Dynamics, LittleDog is intended as a testbed for other institutions. Boston Dynamics maintains the robots for DARPA as a standard platform.[21]

LittleDog has four legs, each powered by three electric motors. The legs have a large range of motion. The robot is strong enough for climbing and dynamic locomotion gaits. The onboard PC-level computer does sensing, actuator control and communications. LittleDog's sensors measure joint angles, motor currents, body orientation and foot/ground contact. Control programs access the robot through the Boston Dynamics Robot API. Onboard lithium polymer batteries allow for 30 minutes of continuous operation without recharging. Wireless communications and data logging support remote operation and data analysis. LittleDog development is funded by the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office.[22]


PETMAN (Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin) is a bipedal device constructed for testing chemical protection suits. It is the first anthropomorphic robot that moves dynamically like a real person.[23]


LS3 2012 prototype

Legged Squad Support System (LS3), also known as AlphaDog, is a militarized version of BigDog. It is ruggedized for military use, with the ability to operate in hot, cold, wet, and dirty environments.[24]


The Agile Anthropomorphic Robot "Atlas" is a 5-foot (152.4 cm) bipedal humanoid robot, based on Boston Dynamics' earlier PETMAN humanoid robot, and designed for a variety of search and rescue tasks.[citation needed]

In February 2016 Boston Dynamics published a YouTube video entitled "Atlas, The Next Generation" showing a new humanoid robot about 5' tall (152.4 cm). In the video, the robot is shown performing a number of tasks that would have been difficult or impossible for the previous generation of humanoid robots.[25]

A video posted to the Boston Dynamics channel of YouTube dated October 11, 2018, titled "Parkour Atlas", shows the robot easily running up 2' high steps onto a platform. Atlas is shown in a September 2019 YouTube video doing "More Parkour".[26]


In a 2018 viral promotional video, a rear part of Spot's casing falls off as it compensates to overcome interference

On June 23, 2016, Boston Dynamics revealed the four-legged canine-inspired Spot which only weighs 25 kg (55 pounds) and is lighter than their other products.[27]

In November 2017, a promotional video of the Spot using its forward claw to open a door for another robot reached #1 on YouTube, with over 2 million views. A later video the same month showed Spot persisting in attempting to open the door in the face of human interference. Viewers perceived the robot as "creepy" and "reminiscent of all kinds of sci-fi robots that wouldn't give up in their missions to seek and destroy".[28][29][30]

On May 11, 2018, CEO of Boston Dynamics Marc Raibert on TechCrunch Robotics Session 2018 announced that the Spot robot was in pre-production and preparing for commercial availability in 2019.[31] On its website, Boston Dynamics highlights that Spot is the "quietest robot [they] have built." The company says it has plans with contract manufacturers to build the first 100 Spots later that year[32] for commercial purposes, with them starting to scale production with the goal of selling Spot in 2019. However, in September 2019, journalists were informed that the robots will not be sold, but they will be given on lease to selected business partners.[33] In November 2019 Massachusetts State Police became the first law enforcement agency to use Spot mini as robot cop as well as in the unit's bomb squad.[34]

Since January 23, 2020, Spot's SDK is available for anyone via GitHub. It will allow programmers to develop custom applications for Spot to do various actions that could be used across different industries.[35] On June 16, 2020 Boston Dynamics made Spot available for the general public to purchase at a price of US$74,500.[36]

On June 23, 2020, a lone Spot named 'Zeus' was used by SpaceX at their Boca Chica Starship Test Site to help contain sub-cooled liquid nitrogen and to inspect 'Potentially Dangerous' sites at and around the Launchpad.[37]

On July 9, 2020, a team of Spot robots performed as cheerleaders in the stands at a baseball match between the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks and the Rakuten Eagles, backed by a team of SoftBank Pepper Robots.[38]

Spot performed inspection tasks on the Skarv floating production storage and offloading vessel in November 2020.[39]

In October 2021, it was announced that Boston Dynamics would collaborate with Zepth (a construction industry solution provider) to combine Spot's data collection capabilities with Zepth's technology that offers insights into the captured data, which can be used to enhance efficiency, productivity, and collaboration throughout each phase of a project lifecycle.[40]


Handle is a research robot with two flexible legs on wheels and two "hands" for manipulating or carrying objects. It can stand 6.5 feet (2 m) tall, travel at 9 miles per hour (14 km/h) and jump 4 feet (1.2 m) vertically. It uses electric power to operate various electric and hydraulic actuators, with a range of about 15 miles (25 km) on one battery charge. Handle uses many of the same dynamics, balance and mobile manipulation principles found in the other robots by Boston Dynamics but, with only about 10 actuated joints, it is significantly less complex.[41][42]


On March 29th 2021, Boston Dynamics announced via a video on their Youtube channel the Stretch robot that was designed for warehouse automation. The machine was able to lift up to 50 pound objects using a suction cup array.[43]


Pick is a robot just like Stretch but fixed in a particular place. It is designed to carry boxes. It can identify a box in less than a second. It automatically disposes of the sheet of cardboard.

Factory Safety Service Robot[edit]

The Factory Safety Service Robot was unveiled on September 17, 2021.[44][45] It was the first joint venture with Hyundai Motor Group. The robot was equipped with an AI processing service unit at the existing Boston Dynamics spot. In addition, it has functions such as artificial intelligence-based navigation, entrance control and recognition of opening and closing, and high-temperature risk detection.[46][47]

In popular culture[edit]

  • "Metalhead", a 2017 episode of Black Mirror, features killer-robot dogs resembling, and inspired by, Boston Dynamics robot dogs.[48][49]
  • In June 2019, a parody video went viral across social media in which a robot resembling Atlas was abused, before turning on its human attackers. The video turned out to be the work of Corridor Digital, who used the watermark "Bosstown Dynamics" instead of "Boston Dynamics". This video tricked many people, causing them to believe it was real.[50][51]
  • In Heroes of the Storm (2015), a multiplayer video game by Blizzard Entertainment, playable heroes are able to move quickly through the battleground by using mount called "Project: D.E.R.P.A" which references one of the Boston Dynamics' quadrupedal robots.[52]
  • The HBO Show Silicon Valley has had two prominent references to the company ‒ an episode featured a robotics company called Somerville Dynamics named after Somerville, a city that neighbors Boston,[53] as well as in the season premiere of Season 3 featured a real Boston Dynamics Spot robot, seen crossing a street.[54]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fonda, Daren (December 10, 2019). "Amazon Warehouses Could Get a Hand From an Innovative Robot". Barron's (newspaper). Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  2. ^ Foster, Sharon (November 1, 2001). "Updating Technology Without Upping the Price.(Boston Dynamics completes first phase of catapult trainer upgrade)". National Defense. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  3. ^ Hambling, David (March 3, 2006). "Robotic 'pack mule' displays stunning reflexes". New Scientist. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  4. ^ Madrick, Jeff (April 24, 2014). "Innovation: The Government Was Crucial After All". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  5. ^ "Google is trying to sell Boston Dynamics, the crazy robotics company it bought in 2013". Business Insider.
  6. ^ "Google Adds to Its Menagerie of Robots", The New York Times, December 14, 2013.
  7. ^ "DI-Guy Now Part of VT MÄK", Military Simulation and Training Magazine, December 11, 2013.
  8. ^ Lunden, Ingrid. "SoftBank is buying robotics firms Boston Dynamics and Schaft from Alphabet". TechCrunch.
  9. ^ "Boston Dynamics acquires a 3D vision startup in bid to put its robots to work". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  10. ^ "Hyundai Motor to buy controlling stake in U.S. robot firm from SoftBank". Roadshow. Reuters. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  11. ^ Campbell, Ian Carlos (December 11, 2020). "Hyundai takes control of Boston Dynamics in $1.1B deal". The Verge. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  12. ^ Szymkowski, Sean (June 21, 2021). "Spot the robot dog's owner, Boston Dynamics, officially sold to Hyundai". CNET.
  13. ^ Degeler, Andrii. "Marines' LS3 robotic mule is too loud for real-world combat". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
  14. ^ Markoff, John (April 9, 2012). "Pentagon Contest to Develop Robots to Work in Disaster Areas". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Goddard, Louis (September 6, 2012). "Cheetah robot sets 28.3 mph speed record, outrunning Usain Bolt". The Verge.
  16. ^ "MIT Cheetah Robot Runs Fast, and Efficiently". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News.
  17. ^ Biomimetics MIT (September 14, 2014). "MIT Cheetah robot 2 running fast and jump over an obstacle" – via YouTube.
  18. ^ "MIT reveals how its military-funded Cheetah robot can now jump over obstacles on its own". Business Insider.
  19. ^ Becker, Rachel (July 5, 2018). "MIT's Cheetah 3 robot can run up stairs without watching its steps". The Verge.
  20. ^ "Little Dog by Boston Dynamics". RobotShop. April 20, 2020.
  21. ^ Greenemeier, Larry "DARPA Pushes Machine Learning with Legged LittleDog Robot", Scientific American, April 15, 2008
  22. ^ Greenemeier, Larry. "DARPA Pushes Machine Learning with Legged LittleDog Robot". Scientific American. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  23. ^ "PETMAN (Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin) Humanoid Military Robot". Army Technology. June 15, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2013.[unreliable source?]
  24. ^ Schactman, Noah (October 29, 2008). "Darpa Preps Son of Robotic Mule". Wired.
  25. ^ "Google human-like robot brushes off beating by puny human – this is how Skynet starts". The Register. February 24, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  26. ^ "More Parkour Atlas" – via
  27. ^ "We're one step closer to robot butlers doing our dishes".
  28. ^ Ferris, Robert (February 13, 2018). "Boston Dynamics' robot dog that opens doors is freaking out the internet". CNBC. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  29. ^ "Boston Dynamics robot fights back against an armed man to open a door and enter a room". The Independent. February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  30. ^ "Why are robot-makers trying to outdo each other with terrifying robots?". Salon. February 22, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  31. ^ "Boston Dynamics will start selling its dog-like SpotMini robot in 2019". Techcrunch. May 11, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  32. ^ "Boston Dynamics to start selling Spot robot as soon as 2019", Dezeen, May 17, 2018
  33. ^ Brandom, Russell (September 24, 2019). "Boston Dynamics' Spot is leaving the laboratory". The Verge. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  34. ^ "Boston Dynamics Robot | Robot Dog Helps Police". Popular Mechanics. November 26, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  35. ^ "Boston Dynamics gives its robot dog a developer SDK". Engadget. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  36. ^ Stieg, Cory (June 22, 2020). "This $75,000 Boston Dynamics robot 'dog' is for sale—take a look". CNBC. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  37. ^ "Robot Dog Spot Inspects SpaceX Test Site After Catastrophic Collapse". Interesting Engineering. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  38. ^ "Robot cheerleaders support Japanese baseball team". BBC Sport. July 9, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  39. ^ "'Spot' deployed on Aker BP's Skarv FPSO". November 24, 2020.
  40. ^ Edwards, David. "Zepth and Boston Dynamics develop construction robotics solution". Robotics and Automation. Robotics and Automation. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  41. ^ Totolos, Bruce (February 28, 2017). "Boston Dynamics Reveals Handle - An Amazing Robot". French Tribune. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  42. ^ McFarland, Matt (February 28, 2017), Google officially reveals its latest robot, CNN, archived from the original on August 1, 2019, retrieved August 1, 2019
  43. ^ Vincent, James (March 29, 2021). "Boston Dynamics unveils Stretch: a new robot designed to move boxes in warehouses". The Verge.
  44. ^ "Boston Dynamics' robot dog on safety patrol duty at Kia factory". 《Koreatimes》. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  45. ^ "Hyundai Motor deploys Boston Dynamics' Spot robot at factory". 《Yonhap News Agency》. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  46. ^ "Boston Dynamics' Spot becomes robotic watchdog for Hyundai". 《CNET》. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  47. ^ "Hyundai Recruits Boston Dynamics' Robot as Watchdog". 《PCMag》. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  48. ^ "'Black Mirror' creator explains that 'Metalhead' robot nightmare". Entertainment Weekly. December 29, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  49. ^ Bishop, Bryan (January 5, 2018). "Black Mirror's Metalhead suggests technological disruption is unavoidable (and terminal)". The Verge. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  50. ^ Daniels, Andrew. "This Video of a Robot Beating Up Humans Is Extremely Satisfying". Popular Mechanics.
  51. ^ Sherry, Sophie. "A video that shows a robot turning on its creators is scary -- but also fake". CNN.
  52. ^ "Heroes of the Storm: Join the Resistance!". February 12, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2020 – via YouTube.
  53. ^ McFarland, Kevin (May 4, 2015). "Here's the Profile of Big Head Silicon Valley Claims We Did". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  54. ^ Letzter, Rafi. "'Silicon Valley' used Google's robot dog Spot in its season 3 premiere". Business Insider. Retrieved May 10, 2020.

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