Christchurch North (New Zealand electorate)

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Christchurch North is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. The electorate comprised the northern half of what is now considered the Christchurch Central City.

Population centres[edit]

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–76 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, including Christchurch North, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries.[1]

The boundaries of the Christchurch North electorate were Bealey Avenue in the north (then called North Town Belt), Fitzgerald Avenue in the east (then called East Town Belt), Worcester Street in the south (through Latimer and Cathedral Squares), and Park Terrace in the west (then called Antigua Street). The electorate thus comprised the northern half of what is now considered the central city.[2] The civic offices in Worcester Street were used as the polling station for the 1881 election, and George Leslie Lee acted as the returning officer.[3]

The 1981 census had shown that the North Island had experienced further population growth, and three additional general seats were created through the 1983 electoral redistribution, bringing the total number of electorates to 95.[4] The South Island had, for the first time, experienced a population loss, but its number of general electorates was fixed at 25 since the 1967 electoral redistribution.[5] More of the South Island population was moving to Christchurch, and two electorates were abolished, while two electorates were recreated (including Christchurch North). In the North Island, six electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated, and six electorates were abolished.[6]

History[edit]

The electorate existed three times:[7]

It was held by three Premiers or Prime Ministers, Julius Vogel (1884 to 1889),[8] Sidney Holland and Mike Moore.

Henry Thomson, a former Mayor of Christchurch, was the electorate's first representative in 1881.[9] Thomson retired at the 1884 election and was succeeded by Julius Vogel, who beat John Crewes.[10][11] Vogel returned to England in 1888, never to return to New Zealand, and his resignation became effective in early 1889.[12] Edward Wingfield Humphreys won the resulting 1889 by-election and served until the end of the parliamentary term in the following year.[13]

For the 1890 election election, a number of Christchurch electorates were amalgamated to form the three-member Christchurch electorate.[14] Humphreys came fifth in that election and was thus unsuccessful.[15]

Members of Parliament[edit]

The electorate was represented by nine members of parliament.

Key

 Independent    Liberal-Labour    Independent Liberal  

 Liberal    Reform    National    Labour  

Election Winner
1881 election Henry Thomson
1884 election Julius Vogel
1887 election
1889 by-election Edward Wingfield Humphreys[16]
(Electorate abolished 1890–1905, see Christchurch)
1905 election Charles Gray
1908 election Tommy Taylor
1911 by-election Leonard Isitt
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election Henry Holland
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election Sidney Holland
1938 election
1943 election
(Electorate abolished 1946–1984, see St Albans)
1984 election Mike Moore
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
(Electorate abolished in 1996; see Waimakariri)

Election results[edit]

1993 election[edit]

General election, 1993: Christchurch North[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Mike Moore 11,605 53.7 +3.0
National Lee Morgan 5,581 25.8
Alliance Jan Davey 3,072 14.2
NZ First Chris Fulford 726 3.3
Christian Heritage A Mann 444 2.0
McGillicuddy Serious Cecil G. Murgatroyd 108 0.5 -0.1
Natural Law C Drace 47 0.2
Majority 6,024 27.9 +18.1
Turnout 21,583

1990 election[edit]

General election, 1990: Christchurch North[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Mike Moore 11,050 50.7 -9.0
National Peter Yarrell 8,902 40.9
NewLabour J W Strange 1,205 5.5
Christian Heritage W A Smith 297 1.3
McGillicuddy Serious Cecil G. Murgatroyd 149 0.6
Democrats M B D Sadler 148 0.6
Majority 2,148 9.8 -12.7
Turnout 21,753

1987 election[edit]

General election, 1987: Christchurch North[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Mike Moore 12,420 59.7 +3.0
National B A McNeill 7,722 37.2
Democrats Mark Sadler 499 2.4
Wizard Party J W Appleby 145 0.7
Majority 4,698 22.5 -3.8
Turnout 23,520 89.9 -4.8

1984 election[edit]

General election, 1984: Christchurch North[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Mike Moore 12,350 56.7 +1.3
National D J L Dumergue 6,662 30.4
NZ Party Stephen Nicholson 2,047 9.4
Social Credit T E Langridge 679 3.1 -7.3
Values R D McArthur 101 0.4
Majority 5,728 26.3 +5.1
Turnout 23,413 94.7 +3.1

1943 election[edit]

General election, 1943: Christchurch North[20][ob 1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Sidney Holland 8,542 55.23
Labour George Manning 5,897 38.13
Democratic Labour John Thomas Lauder Hart Parry 508 3.28
Independent Lancelot Charles Walker 459 2.97
Independent Maud Trisillian Fere 61 0.39
Majority 2,645 17.10
Informal votes 189 1.21
Turnout 15,656 89.97
Registered electors 17,402

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Registered electors refers to civilian voters only; nationwide, 93,295 servicemen also cast valid votes although their names did not appear on electoral rolls.[21]

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Christchurch North[22][23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Henry Holland 5,527 45.11
Labour Elizabeth McCombs 3,450 28.16
Independent Lancelot Charles Walker 3,275 26.73
Majority 2,077 16.95
Informal votes 53 0.43
Turnout 12,305 84.75
Registered electors 14,520

1911 by-election[edit]

Christchurch North by-election, 1911[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Liberal Leonard Isitt 3,815 55.12
Reform John Dryden Hall 3,106 44.88
Majority 709 10.24
Turnout 6,921

1889 by-election[edit]

Christchurch North by-election, 1889[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Edward Humphreys 403 41.76
Independent John Ollivier 378 39.17
Independent Eden George 184 19.07
Majority 25 2.59
Turnout 965

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  2. ^ "Canterbury Electorates". The Star (4158). 18 August 1881. p. 3. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Christchurch North Election". The Press. XXXVI (5061). 26 November 1881. p. 1. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 123f.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 123.
  6. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 119–124.
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 156.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 240.
  10. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 240, 242.
  11. ^ Chalklen, Mollie. "John Crewes". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 23 April 2017. 
  12. ^ Dalziel, Raewyn. "Vogel, Julius". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  13. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 206.
  14. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 53–57.
  15. ^ "General Elections". The Star (7029). 6 December 1890. p. 4. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  16. ^ "Christchurch North Election". The Star (6577). 20 June 1889. p. 3. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  17. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. 
  18. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. 
  19. ^ a b Norton 1988, pp. 207.
  20. ^ The General Election, 1943. National Library. 1944. p. 3. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  21. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 92.
  22. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  23. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received and Polling Places Appointed". The Press. LXVII (20400). 21 November 1931. p. 23. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  24. ^ The by-election. The Timaru Herald. 18 August 1911. p. 4. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  25. ^ "Christchurch North Election". The Star (6577). 20 June 1889. p. 3. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 

References[edit]

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.