First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World; painting by Dióscoro Puebla (1862)
|Observed by||Various countries in the Americas, Italy, Spain, various Little Italys around the world.|
|Significance||Celebrations honoring Christopher Columbus's Discovery of the Americas in 1492|
|Date||October 12 (actual/traditional); second Monday in October (observed in the United States)|
|2015 date||October 12|
|2016 date||October 10|
|2017 date||October 9|
|2018 date||October 8|
|Related to||Thanksgiving in Canada, which falls on the same date|
Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries in the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492. The landing is celebrated as "Columbus Day" in the United States, as "Día de la Raza" ("Day of the Race") in many countries in Latin America and as "Día de la Hispanidad" and "Fiesta Nacional" in Spain, where it is also the religious festivity of la Virgen del Pilar. It is also celebrated as Día de las Américas (Day of the Americas) in Belize and Uruguay, as Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural (Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity) in Argentina, and as Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo or Festa Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo in Italy and in the Little Italys around the world. These holidays have been celebrated unofficially since the late 18th century and officially in various countries since the early 20th century.
- 1 United States observance
- 2 Latin American observance
- 3 Caribbean observance
- 4 Italy
- 5 Spain
- 6 Opposition to Columbus celebrations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
United States observance
Columbus Day first became an official state holiday in Colorado in 1906, and became a federal holiday in the United States in 1937, though people have celebrated Columbus's voyage since the colonial period. In 1792, New York City and other U.S. cities celebrated the 300th anniversary of his landing in the New World. President Benjamin Harrison called upon the people of the United States to celebrate Columbus Day on the 400th anniversary of the event. During the four hundredth anniversary in 1892, teachers, preachers, poets and politicians used Columbus Day rituals to teach ideals of patriotism. These patriotic rituals took themes such as citizenship boundaries, the importance of loyalty to the nation, and celebrating social progress.
Many Italian-Americans observe Columbus Day as a celebration of their heritage, the first occasion being in New York City on October 12, 1866. Columbus Day was first enshrined as a legal holiday in the United States through the lobbying of Angelo Noce, a first generation Italian, in Denver. The first statewide Columbus Day holiday was proclaimed by Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald in 1905, and it was made a statutory holiday in 1907. In April 1934, as a result of lobbying by the Knights of Columbus and New York City Italian leader Generoso Pope, Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt proclaimed October 12 a federal holiday under the name Columbus Day.
Since 1970 (Oct. 12), the holiday has been fixed to the second Monday in October, coincidentally exactly the same day as Thanksgiving in neighboring Canada fixed since 1957. It is generally observed nowadays by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service, other federal agencies, most state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. Some businesses and some stock exchanges remain open, and some states and municipalities abstain from observing the holiday. The traditional date of the holiday also adjoins the anniversary of the United States Navy (founded October 13, 1775), and thus both occasions are customarily observed by the Navy (and usually the Marine Corps as well) with either a 72- or 96-hour liberty period.
Local observance of Columbus Day
Actual observance varies in different parts of the United States, ranging from large-scale parades and events to complete non-observance. Most states celebrate Columbus Day as an official state holiday, though many mark it as a "Day of Observance" or "Recognition" and at least four do not recognize it at all. Most states that celebrate Columbus Day will close state services, while others operate as normal.
San Francisco claims the nation's oldest continuously existing celebration with the Italian-American community's annual Columbus Day Parade, which was established by Nicola Larco in 1868, while New York City boasts the largest.
As in the mainland U.S., Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. In the United States Virgin Islands, the day is celebrated as both Columbus Day and "Puerto Rico Friendship Day".
The U.S. states of Hawaii, Alaska, Oregon, South Dakota, and Vermont do not recognize Columbus Day at all; however, Hawaii, South Dakota, and Vermont mark the day with an alternative holiday or observance. Hawaii celebrates Discoverers' Day, which commemorates the Polynesian discoverers of Hawaii on the same date, the second Monday of October, though the name change has not ended protest related to the observance of Columbus' discovery. The state government does not treat either Columbus Day or Discoverers' Day as a legal holiday; state, city and county government offices and schools are open for business. Similarly, in 2016, Vermont started celebrating "Indigenous People's Day" instead of Columbus Day. Because this change was made by Governor Peter Shumlin's executive proclamation, it only applies for 2016. In the future it would have to be issued by the sitting governor on a yearly basis, or officially changed by the legislature in order to become permanent. On the other hand, South Dakota celebrates the day as an official state holiday known as "Native American Day" rather than Columbus Day. Oregon does not recognize Columbus Day, neither as a holiday nor a commemoration; schools and public offices remain open. Two additional states, Iowa and Nevada, do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official holiday, but the states' respective governors are "authorized and requested" by statute to proclaim the day each year.
Several other states have removed Columbus Day as a paid holiday for government workers while still maintaining Columbus Day either as a day of recognition or a legal holiday for other purposes. These include California and Texas.
The city of Berkeley, California, has replaced Columbus Day with Indigenous People's Day since 1992, a move which has been followed by multiple other localities including Sebastopol and Santa Cruz, California; Dane County, Wisconsin; Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota; Seattle, Washington; Missoula, Montana; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; and Phoenix, Arizona. Various tribal governments in Oklahoma designate the day "Native American Day", or name the day after their own tribe.
Latin American observance
Día de la Raza
The date Columbus arrived in the Americas is celebrated in many countries in Latin America. The most common name for the celebration in Spanish (including in some Latin American communities in the United States) is the Día de la Raza ("day of the race" or "day of the [Hispanic] people"), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans and Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917, Venezuela and Colombia in 1921, Chile in 1922, and Mexico in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad ("Hispanicity Day"), and in Venezuela until 2002, when it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance). Originally conceived of as a celebration of Hispanic influence in the Americas, as evidenced by the complementary celebrations in Spain and Latin America, Día de la Raza has come to be seen by indigenous activists throughout Latin America as a counter to Columbus Day; a celebration of the native races and cultures and of the resistance against the arrival of Europeans in the Americas.
In the U.S. Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly in the 1960s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in 1996. The name has remained in the largest Hispanic social justice organization, the National Council of La Raza.
Colombia, the only country in the world with a name originated from Columbus himself, celebrates El día de la Raza y de la Hispanidad and is taken as an opportunity to celebrate the encounter of "the two worlds" and to reflect on the richness that the racial diversity has brought to the culture.
Between 1921 and 2002, Venezuela celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American nations. The original holiday was officially established in 1921 under President Juan Vicente Gómez. In 2002, under president Hugo Chávez, the name was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement. On October 12, 2004 a crowd of pro-government activists toppled the statue of Christopher Columbus in Caracas and sprayed allusive graffiti over its pedestal. The pro-Chávez website Aporrea wrote: "Just like the statue of Saddam in Baghdad, that of Columbus the tyrant also fell this October 12, 2004 in Caracas". The famous toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue had occurred the previous year.
Since 1994, Costa Rica had changed the official holiday from Día de la Raza to Día de las Culturas (Day of the Cultures) to recognize the mix of European, American, African and Asian cultures that helped to compose Costa Rican (and Latin American) culture.
Some Caribbean countries also observe holidays related to Columbus Day. In Belize, October 12 is celebrated as Day of the Americas or Pan American Day. In the Bahamas, it was formerly known as Discovery Day, until 2001 when it was replaced with National Heroes Day.
Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas have observed the Discovery of the New World as a celebration of their heritage; Cristopher Columbus (whose original, Italian name is "Cristoforo Colombo") was an Italian explorer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa.
In Italy, Columbus Day has been officially celebrated since 2004. It is officially named Giornata nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo.
The "Lega Navale Italiana" has created a Regata di Colombo as a celebration of the Columbus achievement. Italians have celebrated their "Cristoforo Colombo" naming after him many civilian and military ships, like the ocean liner SS Cristoforo Colombo.
Since 1987, Spain has celebrated the anniversary of Columbus' arrival in the Americas as its Fiesta Nacional or "National Day". Previously Spain had celebrated the day as Día de la Hispanidad, emphasizing Spain's ties with the Hispanidad, the international Hispanic community. In 1981 a royal decree established the Día de la Hispanidad as a national holiday. However, in 1987 the name was changed to Fiesta Nacional, and October 12 became one of two national celebrations, along with Constitution Day on December 6. Spain's "national day" had moved around several times during the various regime changes of the 20th century; establishing it on the day of the international Columbus celebration was part of a compromise between conservatives, who wanted to emphasize the status of the monarchy and Spain's history, and Republicans, who wanted to commemorate Spain's burgeoning democracy with an official holiday. Since 2000, October 12 has also been Spain's Day of the Armed Forces, celebrated each year with a military parade in Madrid. Other than this, however, the holiday is not widely or enthusiastically celebrated in Spain; there are no other large-scale patriotic parades, marches, or other events, and the observation is generally overshadowed by the feast day of Our Lady of the Pillar (Fiestas del Pilar).
Opposition to Columbus celebrations
Opposition to Columbus Day dates to at least the 19th century where activists had sought to eradicate Columbus Day celebrations because of its association with immigrants and the Knights of Columbus. Some non-Catholics were afraid it was being used to expand Catholic influence. By far the more common opposition today, decrying Columbus's and Europeans' actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction until the latter half of the 20th century. This opposition was led by Native Americans and expanded upon by left-wing political parties, though it has become more mainstream. Surveys conducted in 2013 and 2015 found 26% to 38% of American adults not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day.
There are different strands of criticism, which are interrelated. One criticism refers primarily to the treatment of the indigenous populations during the European colonization of the Americas which followed Columbus's discovery. Some groups such as the American Indian Movement have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by positive Columbus myths and celebrations. These groups argue that the legacy of Columbus has been used to legitimize these actions. F. David Peat asserts that many cultural myths of North America exclude or diminish the culture and myths of Native Americans. These cultural myths include ideas expressed by Michael Berliner of the Ayn Rand Institute claiming that Western civilization brought "reason, science, self-reliance, individualism, ambition, and productive achievement" to a people who were based in "primitivism, mysticism, and collectivism", and to a land that was "sparsely inhabited, unused, and underdeveloped". American anthropologist Jack Weatherford says that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate the greatest waves of genocide of the American Indians known in history. American Indian Movement of Colorado leader and activist Ward Churchill takes this argument further, contending that the mythologizing and celebration of the European settlement of the Americas in Columbus Day make it easier for people today to avoid taking responsibility for their own actions, or the actions of their governments regarding indigenous populations. He wrote in his book Bringing the Law Back Home:
Very high on the list of those expressions of non-indigenous sensibility [that] contribute to the perpetuation of genocidal policies against [American] Indians are the annual Columbus Day celebration, events in which it is baldly asserted that the process, events, and circumstances described above are, at best, either acceptable or unimportant. More often, the sentiments expressed by the participants are, quite frankly, that the fate of Native America embodied in Columbus and the Columbian legacy is a matter to be openly and enthusiastically applauded as an unrivaled "boon to all mankind". Undeniably, the situation of American Indians will not—in fact cannot—change for the better so long as such attitudes are deemed socially acceptable by the mainstream populace. Hence, such celebrations as Columbus Day must be stopped.
A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the observation of Columbus Day in 2004, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles's Medieval and Renaissance Center. Geoffrey Symcox, the general editor of the project, asserted: "While giving the brilliant mariner his due, the collection portrays Columbus as an unrelenting social climber and self-promoter who stopped at nothing—not even exploitation, slavery, or twisting Biblical scripture—to advance his ambitions… Many of the unflattering documents have been known for the last century or more, but nobody paid much attention to them until recently… The fact that Columbus brought slavery, enormous exploitation or devastating diseases to the Americas used to be seen as a minor detail—if it was recognized at all—in light of his role as the great bringer of white man's civilization to the benighted idolatrous American continent. But to historians today this information is very important. It changes our whole view of the enterprise".
Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were "naked as the day they were born," they showed "no more embarrassment than animals." Columbus later wrote: "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold."
But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. American Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.
Most criticisms combine elements of both strains. Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon reflects in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History that many people choose to hold on to the myths surrounding Columbus whereas historians who deal with the evidence are frequently depicted as politically correct revisionists. He quotes from the logbook Columbus's initial description of the American Indians: "They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance.... They would make fine servants.... With 50 men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want". In 1495, during the Second Voyage, American Indians were transported to Spain as slaves, many dying en route. "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity", Columbus later wrote, "go on sending all the slaves that can be sold". Solomon states that the most important contemporary documentary evidence is the multi-volume History of the Indies by the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas who observed the region where Columbus was governor. In contrast to "the myth" Solomon quotes Las Casas who describes Spaniards driven by "insatiable greed" – "killing, terrorizing, afflicting, and torturing the native peoples" with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and how systematic violence was aimed at preventing "[American] Indians from daring to think of themselves as human beings." The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing [American] Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades", wrote Las Casas. "My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write".
In the summer of 1990, 350 representatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito, Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas, to mobilize against the quin-centennial celebration of Columbus Day. The following summer, in Davis, California, more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference. They declared October 12, 1992, "International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People". The largest ecumenical body in the United States, the National Council of Churches, called on Christians to refrain from celebrating the Columbus quincentennial, saying, "What represented newness of freedom, hope, and opportunity for some was the occasion for oppression, degradation and genocide for others". Among the latest places in the United States to redefine how they would celebrate the holiday to the title "Indigenous Peoples' Day" by the autumn of 2016 include communities in Massachusetts, specifically Cambridge, Amherst and Northampton, with a group naming itself the "Indigenous Peoples' Day of Massachusetts" currently attempting to do the same for the state's capital city of Boston.
- Age of Discovery
- Indigenous Peoples' Day
- L'Anse aux Meadows
- Leif Erikson Day
- World's Columbian Exposition
- Columbus Day, Giornata di Cristoforo Colombo Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Governo Italiano – Dipartimento per il Cerimoniale dello Stato". Governo.it. November 23, 2012. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
- Kubal, Timothy. 2008. Cultural Movements and Collective Memory: Christopher Columbus and the Rewriting of the National Origin Myth. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Connell, William J. (2010). "What Columbus Day Really Means". The American Scholar.
- Appelbaum, Yoni (October 8, 2012). "How Columbus Day Fell Victim to Its Own Success". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Charles Speroni, "The Development of the Columbus Day Pageant of San Francisco," Western Folklore, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Oct. 1948), pp. 325–335.U.S. State Department, Bureau of International Information Programs.
- Sale, Kirkpatrick, "The Conquest of Paradise", p. 359, ISBN 0-333-57479-6
- United States House of Representatives (April 30, 1934). "36 USC 107, ch. 184, 48 Stat. 657". United States Code. Office of the Law Revision Counsel. Archived from the original (Text) on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- American Memory (October 6, 2010). "Today in History: October 12". Today in History. Library of Congress (National Digital Library). Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "LBJ Signs Bill to Set Up Five 3-Day Holidays". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. via Google News. Associated Press. June 29, 1968. The bill in question became the Uniform Monday Holiday Act.
- Dougherty, Conor; Reddy, Sudeep (October 10, 2009). "Is Columbus Day Sailing Off the Calendar?". The Wall Street Journal.
- Gore, Leada (October 12, 2015). "Columbus Day 2015: What's Closed, What's Open on Monday, Oct. 12?". al.com. Alabama Media Group. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- "sfcolumbusday.org". sfcolumbusday.org. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "Columbus Citizens Foundation". Columbuscitizensfd.org. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "Manhattan Style 'The Annual Columbus Day Parade'". Manhattanstyle.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "PR Newswire 'Performers, Bands, and Red, White and Green on Fifth Avenue in NYC Columbus Day Parade'". New York: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- NextPage – LivePublish. "Title 1 Virgin Islands Code Section 171". Michie.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "LIS > Code of Virginia > 2.2-3300". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
- "Hawaii Revised Statutes, Section 8-1.5". Hawaii.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
- "Alaska Statutes: AS 44.12.010. Legal Holidays". Touchngo.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "Idea of Discoverers' Day Insults Native Americans", Mary Adamski, Honolulu Star-Bulletin, October 13, 1998.
- "State Observed Holidays – Department of Human Resources Development". Hawaii.gov. Archived from the original on September 20, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
- Evans, Brad (October 7, 2016). "Vermont ditches Columbus Day for Indigenous Peoples' Day". mynbc5.com.
- South Dakota Codified Laws.
- "Chapter 187 – Holidays; Standard of Time; Commemorations". State of Oregon. Oregon Legislative Website. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "California Government Code, Section 6700". Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Dougherty, Conor; Reddy, Sudeep (October 10, 2009). "Is Columbus Day Sailing Off the Calendar?". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- Ortiz, Joe (February 4, 2010). "Schwarzenegger's Dropping Two State Holidays is Legal, California judge rules". The Sacramento Bee. Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Texas Government Code § 662.044. Columbus Day". Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- Richard C. Paddock (January 13, 2008). "UC Berkeley's bones of contention". Los Angeles Times.
- "Cambridge City Council Meeting - June 6, 2016 Agenda". rwinters.com. Retrieved 2016-06-08.
- "News: UW Group Offers Alternative to Columbus". The Badger Herald. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- Sattin, Brad. "Mpls. City Council Passes Indigenous Peoples Day Resolution". KSTP/ABC-5 Eyewitness News. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
- "Columbus Day in Seattle no Longer: Now Indigenous Peoples' Day". Retrieved October 6, 2014.
- "Columbus Day changed to Indigenous People's Day in Vermont and city of Phoenix". cbsnews.com.
- Clifton Adcock (October 13, 2008). "Holiday Not Celebrated by Tribes: American Indians See Columbus Day As a Reminder of Harsh Treatment Ages Ago". Tulsa World.
- "3rd Annual Dia de la Raza Celebration". Retrieved September 13, 2011.
- "Derriban la Estatua de Cristóbal Colón en Caracas" (in Spanish). Iblnews.com. October 13, 2004.
- Robin Nieto (October 13, 2004), Columbus Statue Toppled in Venezuela on Day of Indigenous Resistance
- "Ley del Día de las Culturas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Mep.go.cr.
- "San Pedro to Celebrate Belize's Rich Culture on Pan-American Day". The San Pedro Sun. October 7, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Belize celebrates Pan American Day". Breaking Belize News. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Holidays Act (Chapter 289)" (PDF). Laws of Belize. Government of Belize. 2000. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Regata della "Giornata Nazionale di Cristoforo Colombo"". Lega Navale Italiana.
- Prakke, L.; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004). Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States. Kluwer. p. 748. ISBN 90-13-01255-8. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- Molina A. de Cienfuegos, Ignacio; Martínez Bárcena, Jorge; Fuller, Linda K. (ed.) (2004). "Spain: National Days throughout the History and the Geography of Spain". National Days/National Ways: Historical, Political, and Religious Celebrations around the World. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-275-97270-7. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- Kubap, Timothy (2008). Cultural movements and collective memory: Christopher Columbus and the rewriting of the national origin myth. Macmillan. pp. 33–36. ISBN 978-1-4039-7577-5.
- "Why Do We Still Celebrate Columbus Day?". Liberal America. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Why do Liberals Hate Columbus Day?". Death and Taxes. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Indigenous People's Opposition to Celebration and Glorification of Colonial Pirate Christopher Columbus". Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "History.com: Columbus Day Alternatives". Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "Columbus Day: A Celebration of Heroism, Patriotism, and Italian and Latino Pride". New Boston Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Holley, Peter. "More Cities Celebrating 'Indigenous Peoples Day' Amid Effort to Abolish Columbus Day". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "58% Think America Should Still Honor Christopher Columbus". Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Edwards-Levy, Ariel. "Americans Are Split Over Whether Columbus Deserves A Holiday". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Blackfoot Physics: A Journey into the Native American Universe, by F. David Peat, Weiser, 2005, ISBN 1-57863-371-0, p. 310
- Weatherford, Jack. "Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus". hartford-hwp.com. Baltimore Evening Sun, reprinted by Clergy and Laity Concerned. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- UC Newsroom (October 6, 2004). "'Repertorium Columbianum' Makes Landfall".
- Zinn, Howard (1980). "A People's History of the United States".
- Solomon, Norman (October 1995). "Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History". Media Beat. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009.
- A Faithful Response to the 500th Anniversary of the Arrival of Christopher Columbus in A Resolution of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA, paragraph 1.
- "Several Massachusetts towns, cities honor indigenous peoples over Columbus". WHDH. Associated Press. October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
Several Massachusetts towns and cities have for the first time opted to celebrate indigenous people rather than explorer Christopher Columbus' 1492 arrival in the Americas.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Columbus Day.|
- Berkeley's Indigenous Peoples Day—History of the annual celebration, pow wow and Native American market
- Today in History: October 12—An article about Columbus Day at the Library of Congress
- Transform Columbus Day Alliance—Denver-based organization with background on opposition to Columbus Day
- Columbus Day Celebrates Western Culture—Frontpagemag.com