Formoterol

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Formoterol
Formoterol.svg
Formoterol ball-and-stick model.png
Formoterol (top),
(R,R)-(−)-formoterol (center) and
(S,S)-(+)-formoterol (bottom)
Clinical data
Trade names See below
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Inhalation (capsules for oral inhalation, DPI, MDI)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 61% to 64%
Metabolism Hepatic demethylation and glucuronidation (CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 involved)
Elimination half-life 10 h
Excretion Renal and fecal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.131.654 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H24N2O4
Molar mass 344.405 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Chirality Racemic mixture
  (verify)

Formoterol (INN) or eformoterol (former BAN) is a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) used in the management of asthma and COPD. It is marketed in three forms: a dry-powder inhaler, a metered-dose inhaler and an inhalation solution, under various trade names including Atock, Atimos/Atimos Modulite, Foradil/Foradile, Oxeze/Oxis, and Perforomist. It is also marketed in the combination formulations budesonide/formoterol and mometasone/formoterol.

Formoterol has an extended duration of action (up to 12 h) compared to short-acting β2 agonists such as salbutamol (albuterol), which are effective for 4 h to 6 h. LABAs such as formoterol are used as "symptom controllers" to supplement prophylactic corticosteroid therapy. A "reliever" short-acting β2 agonist (e.g., salbutamol) is still required, since LABAs are not recommended for the treatment of acute asthma.

Mechanism of action[edit]

Inhaled formoterol works like other β2 agonists, causing bronchodilation by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airway so as to treat the exacerbation of asthma.

Safety[edit]

In November 2005, the US FDA released a health advisory alerting the public to findings that show the use of long-acting β2 agonists could lead to a worsening of wheezing symptoms in some patients.[1]

At the current time, available long-acting β2 agonists include salmeterol, formoterol, bambuterol, and sustained-release oral salbutamol.

Combinations of inhaled steroids and long-acting bronchodilators are becoming more widespread – combination preparations include fluticasone/salmeterol and budesonide/formoterol.

Additional potential uses[edit]

Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis[edit]

Formoterol may also help stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is related to many degenerative diseases — particularly neurodegenerative disorders.[2]

Treatment for Down syndrome[edit]

Preliminary research offers hope that formoterol may be a useful treatment in Down syndrome. In a mouse model of the disease, the drug strengthened nerve connections in the hippocampus, a brain center used for spatial navigation, paying attention and forming new memories.[3]

Trade names[edit]

Inhaler for a powder based in budesonide and formoterol

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Advair Diskus, Advair HFA, Brovana, Foradil, Perforomist, Serevent Diskus, and Symbicort Information (Long Acting Beta Agonists)". Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. 
  2. ^ Wills, Lauren P; Trager, Richard E; Beeson, Gyda C; Lindsey, Christopher C; Peterson, Yuri K; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G (April 6, 2012). "The β2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 342 (1): 106–118. doi:10.1124/jpet.112.191528. ISSN 1521-0103. PMC 3383035Freely accessible. PMID 22490378. 
  3. ^ Dang, Van; Medina, Brian; Das, Devsmita; Moghadam, Sarah; Martin, Kara J.; Lin, Bill; Naik, Priyanka; Patel, Devan; Nosheny, Rachel; Wesson Ashford, John; Salehi, Ahmad (February 2014). "Formoterol, a Long-Acting β2 Adrenergic Agonist, Improves Cognitive Function and Promotes Dendritic Complexity in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome". Biological Psychiatry. 75 (3): 179–188. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.024. ISSN 1873-2402. PMID 23827853.