|Trade names||Visken, others|
|By mouth, intravenous|
|Bioavailability||50% to 95%|
|Elimination half-life||3–4 hours|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||248.321 g/mol|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Pindolol, sold under the brand name Visken among others, is a beta blocker which is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It is also an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, preferentially blocking inhibitory 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and has been researched as an add-on therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of depression, though with little or no effectiveness ultimately seen.
Pindolol is used for hypertension in the United States, Canada, and Europe, and also for angina pectoris outside the United States. When used alone for hypertension, pindolol can significantly lower blood pressure and heart rate, but the evidence base for its use is weak as the number of subjects in published studies is small. In some countries, pindolol is also used for arrhythmias and prophylaxis of acute stress reactions.[medical citation needed]
Similar to propranolol with an extra contraindication for hyperthyroidism. In patients with thyrotoxicosis, possible deleterious effects from long-term use of pindolol have not been adequately appraised. Beta-blockade may mask the clinical signs of continuing hyperthyroidism or complications, and give a false impression of improvement. Therefore, abrupt withdrawal of pindolol may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, including thyroid storm.
|Values are Ki (nM), unless otherwise noted. The smaller the value, the more strongly the drug binds to the site.|
Pindolol is a non-selective beta blocker or β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with partial agonist activity and also possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. This means that pindolol, particularly in high doses, exerts effects like epinephrine (adrenaline) or isoprenaline (increased pulse rate, increased blood pressure, bronchodilation), but these effects are limited. Pindolol also shows membrane-stabilizing effects like quinidine, possibly accounting for its antiarrhythmic effects. It also acts as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor weak partial agonist (intrinsic activity = 20–25%) or functional antagonist.
Pindolol is rapidly and well absorbed from the GI tract. It undergoes some first-pass-metabolization leading to an oral bioavailability of 50-95%. Patients with uremia may have a reduced bioavailability. Food does not alter the bioavailability, but may increase the resorption. Following an oral single dose of 20 mg peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1–2 hours. The effect of pindolol on pulse rate (lowering) is evident after 3 hours. Despite the rather short halflife of 3–4 hours, hemodynamic effects persist for 24 hours after administration. Plasma halflives are increased to 3-11.5 hours in patients with renal impairment, to 7–15 hours in elderly patients, and from 2.5–30 hours in patients with liver cirrhosis. Approximately 2/3 of pindolol is metabolized in the liver giving hydroxylates, which are found in the urine as gluconurides and ethereal sulfates. The remaining 1/3 of pindolol is excreted in urine in unchanged form.
Pindolol has been investigated as an add-on drug to antidepressant therapy with SSRIs like fluoxetine in the treatment of depression since 1994. The rationale behind this strategy has its basis in the fact that pindolol is an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor. Presynaptic and somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors act as inhibitory autoreceptors, inhibit serotonin release, and are pro-depressive in their action. This is in contrast to postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, which mediate antidepressant effects. By blocking 5-HT1A autoreceptors at doses that are selective for them over postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, pindolol may be able to disinhibit serotonin release and thereby improve the antidepressant effects of SSRIs. The results of augmentation therapy with pindolol have been encouraging in early studies of low quality. However, a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials found no overall significant benefit. There were also no significant differences in tolerability or safety. Pindolol may be able to accelerate the onset of the antidepressant effects of SSRIs, however.
- Pindolol is a potent scavenger of nitric oxide. This effect is potentiated by sodium bicarbonate. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis has an anxiolytic effect in animals.
- Augmentation therapy of premature ejaculation: According to a recent study, pindolol can be effectively added to a standard anti-premature-ejaculation therapy, which usually consists of daily doses of an SSRI antidepressant such as fluoxetine or paroxetine. Augmentation of pindolol results in substantial increase of ejaculatory latency, even in those who previously did not experience in an improvement with the SSRI monotherapy.
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