|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|Metabolism||N-desmethylation to norzotepine (30-40%)|
|Biological half-life||13.7-15.9 hours, 12 hours (Norzotepine)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Zotepine (brand names: Losizopilon (JP), Lodopin (ID, JP), Setous (JP), Zoleptil (CZ, PT, TR, UK†); where † indicates a formulation that has been discontinued) is an atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for acute and chronic schizophrenia. It has been used in Germany since 1990 (although it has been discontinued in Germany) and Japan since 1982.
Zotepine is not approved for use in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada or New Zealand.
Zotepine's primary use is as a treatment for schizophrenia although clinical trials have been conducted (with positive results) into its efficacy as an antimanic agent in patients with acute bipolar mania. In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectivity in treating schizophrenic symptoms, zotepine demonstrated medium-strong effectivity. Less effective than clozapine, slightly less effective than olanzapine and risperidone, approximately as effective as paliperidone, and slightly more effective than haloperidol, quetiapine, and aripiprazole.
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Weight gain (produces a similar degree of weight gain to that seen with clozapine and olanzapine treatment)
- Somnolence (2nd highest effect size for causing sedation out of fifteen antipsychotics compared in a recent meta-analysis)
- Extrapyramidal side effects [EPSE] (2nd largest odds ratio for causing EPSE out of fifteen antipsychotics compared in a recent meta-analysis, second only to haloperidol)
- Xerostomia (dry mouth)
- Blurred vision
- Hypersalivation (drooling)
- Sexual dysfunction
- Influenza-like symptoms
- Flushing dry skin
- Angle-closure glaucoma
- Abdominal enlargement
- Deep vein thrombosis
- Paralytic ileus
- Tardive dyskinesia
- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
- Laryngeal edema
- Urinary retention
- Seizure (dose-dependent risk)
- Metabolic syndrome
- Diabetes mellitus type II
- Increased liver enzymes
The antipsychotic effect of zotepine is thought to be mediated through antagonist activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors. Zotepine has a high affinity for the D1 and D2 receptors. It also affects the 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. In addition, its active metabolite, norzotepine, serves as a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.
|Macromolecule (Receptor or transporter protein)||Ki [nM]|
The most common dosage used is 150 mg daily. It is suggested that zotepine therapy starts at 75 mg to 150 mg divided into three daily doses. Some people may need to have their dosage increased to 300 mg.
- Carbinoxamine Diphenhydramine Doxylamine Orphenadrine the termination chain is the same
- Toll-like receptor 4 investigating probable antagonistic (antiinflammatory) property of several TCA based molecules
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- Leucht, Stefan; Cipriani, Andrea; Spineli, Loukia; Mavridis, Dimitris; Örey, Deniz; Richter, Franziska; Samara, Myrto; Barbui, Corrado; Engel, Rolf R; Geddes, John R; Kissling, Werner; Stapf, Marko Paul; Lässig, Bettina; Salanti, Georgia; Davis, John M (September 2013). "Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis". The Lancet. 382 (9896): 951–962. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60733-3.
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- Shobo, M; Kondo, Y; Yamada, H; Mihara, T; Yamamoto, N; Katsuoka, M; Harada, K; Ni, K; Matsuoka, N (June 2010). "Norzotepine, a Major Metabolite of Zotepine, Exerts Atypical Antipsychotic-Like and Antidepressant-Like Actions through Its Potent Inhibition of Norepinephrine Reuptake" (PDF). The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 333 (3): 772–781. PMID 20223878. doi:10.1124/jpet.110.166264.