History of video game consoles (fourth generation)
|Part of a series on the:|
|History of video games|
In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of games consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of Nippon Electric Company's (NEC) PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America). Although NEC released the first fourth generation console, and was second to the SNES in Japan, this era's sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Mega Drive (named the Sega Genesis in North America due to trademark issues). Nintendo was able to capitalize on its previous success in the third generation and managed to win the largest worldwide market share in the fourth generation as well. Sega was extremely successful in this generation and began a new franchise, Sonic the Hedgehog, to compete with Nintendo's Mario series of games. Several other companies released consoles in this generation, but none of them were widely successful. Nevertheless, several other companies started to take notice of the maturing video game industry and began making plans to release consoles of their own in the future.
Some features that distinguished fourth generation consoles from third generation consoles include:
- More powerful 16-bit microprocessors
- Multi-button game controllers (3 to 8 buttons)
- Complex parallax scrolling, multi-layer tilemap backgrounds, with pseudo-3D scaling & rotation
- Large sprites (up to 64×64 or 16×512 pixels), scalable on-the-fly, with pseudo-3D scaling & rotation
- Elaborate color, 64 to 4096 colors on screen, from palettes of 512 (9-bit) to 65,536 (16-bit) colors
- Flat-shaded 3D polygon graphics
- CD-ROM format, allowing larger storage space and full motion video playback
- Stereo audio, with multiple channels and digital audio playback (PCM, ADPCM, streaming CD-DA audio)
- Advanced music synthesis (FM synthesis and 'wavetable' sample-based synthesis)
- 1 Home systems
- 2 Handheld systems
- 3 Software
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
Initially, the PC Engine was quite successful in Japan, partly due to titles available on the then-new CD-ROM format. NEC released a CD add-on in 1990 and by 1992 had released a combination TurboGrafx and CD-ROM system known as the Turbo Duo.
In the USA, NEC used Bonk, a head-banging caveman, as their mascot and featured him in most of the TurboGrafx advertising from 1990 to 1994. The platform was well received initially, especially in larger markets, but failed to make inroads into the smaller metropolitan areas where NEC did not have as many store representatives or as focused in-store promotion.
The TurboGrafx-16 failed to maintain its sales momentum or to make a strong impact in North America. The TurboGrafx-16 and its CD combination system, the Turbo Duo, ceased manufacturing in North America by 1994, though a small amount of software continued to trickle out for the platform.
In Japan, a number of more adult titles were also available for the PC-Engine, such as a variety of strip mahjong games (such as the Super Real Mahjong series), which set it apart from its competitors.
Mega Drive/Sega Genesis
The Mega Drive was released in Japan on October 29, 1988. The console was released in New York City and Los Angeles on August 14, 1989 under the name Sega Genesis, and in the rest of North America later that year. It was launched in Europe and Australia on November 30, 1990 under its original name.
Sega built their marketing campaign around their new mascot Sonic the Hedgehog, pushing the Genesis as the "cooler" alternative to Nintendo's console and inventing the term "Blast Processing" to suggest that the Genesis was capable of handling games with faster motion than the SNES. Their advertising was often directly adversarial, leading to commercials such as "Genesis does what Nintendon't" and the "'SEGA!' scream".
When the arcade game Mortal Kombat was ported for home release on the Mega Drive and Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Nintendo decided to censor the game's gore, but Sega kept the content in the game, via a code entered at the start screen (A,B,A,C,A,B,B). Sega's version of Mortal Kombat received generally more favorable reviews in the gaming press and outsold the SNES version three to one. This violence also led to Congressional hearings to investigate the marketing of violent video games to children, and to the creation of the Interactive Digital Software Association and the Entertainment Software Rating Board. Sega concluded that the superior sales of their version of Mortal Kombat were outweighed by the resulting loss in consumer trust, and cancelled the game's release in Spain to avoid further controversy. With the new ESRB rating system in place, Nintendo reconsidered its position for the release of Mortal Kombat II, and this time became the preferred version among reviewers. The Toy Retail Sales Tracking Service reported that during the key shopping month of November 1994, 63% of all 16-bit video game consoles sold were Sega systems.
The console was never popular in Japan (being regularly outsold by the PC Engine), but still managed to sell 40 million units worldwide. By late 1995, Sega was supporting five different consoles and two add-ons, and Sega of Japan chose to discontinue the Mega Drive in Japan to concentrate on the new Sega Saturn. While this made perfect sense for the Japanese market, it was disastrous in North America: the market for Genesis games was much larger than for the Saturn, but Sega was left without the inventory or software to meet demand.
Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System
Nintendo executives were initially reluctant to design a new system, but as the market transitioned to the newer hardware, Nintendo saw the erosion of the commanding market share it had built up with the Famicom (called Nintendo Entertainment System outside Japan). Nintendo's fourth-generation console, the Super Famicom, was released in Japan on November 21, 1990; Nintendo's initial shipment of 300,000 units sold out within hours.[better source needed] The machine reached North America as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System on August 23, 1991,[cn 1] and Europe and Australia in April 1992.
Despite stiff competition from the Mega Drive/Sega Genesis console, the Super Famicom/SNES eventually took the top selling position, selling 49.10 million units worldwide, and would even remain popular well into the 32-bit generation. Nintendo's market position was defined by their machine's increased video and sound capabilities, as well as exclusive first-party franchise titles such as Super Mario World, The Legend of Zelda: A Link To The Past and Super Metroid. Later titles such as Star Fox and Donkey Kong Country would keep the Super Famicom/SNES relevant well into the "fifth generation" era of 32- and 64-bit consoles.
Compact Disc Interactive (CD-i)
The CD-i format was announced in the late 80s, with the first machines compatible with the format being released in 1991. The Phillips CD-i main selling point was that it was more than a game machine and could be used for multimedia needs. Due to an agreement between Nintendo in Philips about an abortive CD add-on for the SNES, Philips also had rights to use some of Nintendo franchises. The CD-i was a commercial failure and was discontinued in 1998. Selling only 1 million units world wide despite a lot of partners and multiple versions of the device, some made by other manufacturers.
Released by SNK in 1990, the Neo Geo was a home console version of the major arcade platform. Compared to its console competition, the Neo Geo had much better graphics and sound, but the prohibitively expensive launch price of US$649.99 and games often retailing at over $250 made the console only accessible to a niche market. A less expensive version, retailing for $399.99, did not include a memory card, pack-in game or extra joystick.
Nintendo, NEC and Sega also competed with hardware peripherals for their consoles in this generation. NEC was the first with the release of the TurboGrafx CD system in 1990. Retailing for $499.99 at release, the CD add-on was not a popular purchase, but was largely responsible for the platform's success in Japan. Sega made two attempts: the Mega-CD (renamed Sega CD in North America) and the Sega 32X. The Sega CD was plagued by a high price tag ($300 at its release) and a limited library of games. The 32X faced a number of problems, primarily technical and commercial: the peripheral would occasionally not work with some consoles, and some retailers were not able to meet the initial demand for the add-on, leading to shortages. A unique add-on for the Sega console was Sega Channel, a subscription based service hosted by local television providers. It required hardware that plugged into a cable line and the Genesis.
Nintendo also made two attempts: the Satellaview and the Super Game Boy. The Satellaview was a satellite service released only in Japan and the Super Game Boy was an adapter for the Super Famicom and SNES that allowed Game Boy games to be displayed on a TV in color. Nintendo, working along with Sony, also had plans to create a CD-ROM drive for the SNES (plans that resulted in a prototype called the "Play Station"), but eventually decided not to go through with that project, opting to team up with Philips in the development of the add-on instead (contrary to popular belief, the CD-i was largely unrelated to the project). Sony decided to go ahead with the CD-ROM development and used the name "PlayStation" for their own standalone CD-based console, overseen by former Super Famicom sound-chip engineer, Ken Kutaragi. That console would be released in the 5th generation of consoles.
European and Australian importing
The fourth generation was also the era when the act of buying imported US games became more established in Europe, and regular stores began to carry them. The PAL region has a refresh rate of 50 Hz (compared with 60 Hz for NTSC) and a vertical resolution of 625 interlaced lines (576 effective), compared with 525/480 for NTSC. This means that a game designed for the NTSC standard without any modification would run 17% slower and have black bars at the top and bottom when played on a PAL television.[further explanation needed] Developers often had a hard time converting games designed for the American and Japanese NTSC standard to the European and Australian PAL standard. Companies such as Konami, with large budgets and a healthy following in Europe and Australia, readily optimized several games (such as the International Superstar Soccer series) for this audience, while most smaller developers did not.
Also, few RPGs were released in Europe because they would have needed to be translated into many different languages. RPGs tend to contain much more text than other genres, so one of the biggest problems was simply fitting all of the full translations into one cartridge. The cost of creating multiple full translations was also prohibitive. Only the UK and Australia saw any number of RPG releases, and even then the number was a fraction of what was being released in Japan. For the Mega Drive, there were numerous PAL releases of RPGs. Examples include Phantasy Star II, III and IV, Shining in the Darkness and its sequels Shining Force I and II, Sword of Vermilion, Super Hydlide, Landstalker, Story of Thor, Soleil and Light Crusader. A few of them received French and German translations.
Popular US games imported at this time included Final Fantasy IV (known in the USA as Final Fantasy II), Final Fantasy VI (known in the USA as Final Fantasy III), Secret of Mana, Street Fighter II, Chrono Trigger, and Super Mario RPG. Secret of Mana and Street Fighter II would eventually receive official release in Europe.
|Name||PC-Engine/TurboGrafx-16||Sega Mega Drive/Genesis||Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System||Neo Geo AES|
|Manufacturer||NEC, Hudson Soft||Sega||Nintendo||SNK|
|Launch prices (USD)||US$199.99 (equivalent to $380.00 in 2015)||US$189.99 (equivalent to $361.00 in 2015)||US$199.99 (equivalent to $346.00 in 2015)||US$649.99 (Gold version) (equivalent to $1.13 thousand in 2015)
US$399.99 (Silver version) (equivalent to $693.00 in 2015)
|Best-selling games||Bonk's Adventure||Sonic the Hedgehog (15 million)||Super Mario World, 20 million (as of June 25, 2007)||Samurai Shodown|
|Backward compatibility||N/A||Sega Master System (using Power Base Converter)||Nintendo Entertainment System (unlicensed, using Super 8)||N/A|
|Sony APU (Audio Processing Unit)
|Audio||Stereo audio with:
|Stereo audio with:
|Stereo audio with:
||Stereo audio with:|
Worldwide sales standings
|Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System||49.10 million|
|Mega Drive/Sega Genesis||40 million[cn 2]|
|PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16||10 million|
|Neo Geo AES||980,000|
The first handheld game console released in the fourth generation was the Game Boy, on April 21, 1989. It went on to dominate handheld sales by an extremely large margin, despite featuring a low-contrast, unlit monochrome screen while all three of its leading competitors had color. Three major franchises made their debut on the Game Boy: Tetris, the Game Boy's killer application; Pokémon; and Kirby. With some design (Game Boy Pocket, Game Boy Light) and hardware (Game Boy Color) changes, it continued in production in some form until 2008, enjoying a better than 18-year run.
The Atari Lynx included hardware-accelerated color graphics, a backlight, and the ability to link up to sixteen units together in an early example of network play when its competitors could only link 2 or 4 consoles (or none at all), but its comparatively short battery life (approximately 4.5 hours on a set of alkaline cells, versus 35 hours for the Game Boy), high price, and weak games library made it one of the worst-selling handheld game systems of all time, with less than 500,000 units sold.
The third major handheld of the fourth generation was the Sega Game Gear. It featured graphics capabilities roughly comparable to the Master System (better colours, but lower resolution), a ready made games library by using the "Master-Gear" adaptor to play cartridges from the older console, and the opportunity to be converted into a portable TV using a cheap tuner adaptor, but it also suffered some of the same shortcomings as the Lynx. While it sold more than twenty times as many units as the Lynx, its bulky design - slightly larger than even the original Game Boy; relatively poor battery life - only a little better than the Lynx; and later arrival in the marketplace - competing for sales amongst the remaining buyers who didn't already have a Game Boy - hampered its overall popularity despite being more closely competitive to the Nintendo in terms of price and breadth of software library. Sega eventually retired the Game Gear in 1997, a year before Nintendo released the first examples of the Game Boy Color, to focus on the Nomad and non-portable console products.
Other handheld consoles released during the fourth generation included the TurboExpress, a handheld version of the TurboGrafx-16 released by NEC in 1990, and the Game Boy Pocket, an improved model of the Game Boy released about two years before the debut of the Game Boy Color. While the TurboExpress was another early pioneer of color handheld gaming technology and had the added benefit of using the same game cartridges or 'HuCards' as the TurboGrafx16, it had even worse battery life than the Lynx and Game Gear - about three hours on six contemporary AA batteries - selling only 1.5 million units.
List of handheld consoles
|Console||Game Boy||Atari Lynx||Sega Game Gear||TurboExpress|
US$89.95 (equivalent to $169.33 in 2015)
|US$189.99 (equivalent to $359.58 in 2015)||¥14,500
US$149.99 (equivalent to $257.99 in 2015)
A$155 (equivalent to $249.00 in 2015)
|US$299.99 (equivalent to $517.72 in 2015)|
|Release date|| April 21, 1989
July 31, 1989
| October 11, 1989
| October 6, 1990
April 26, 1991
April 26, 1991
| November 16, 1990
|Units sold||118.69 million (as of December 31, 2009), including Game Boy Color units||Under 1 million||11 million||1.5 million|
|Best-selling games||Tetris, 35 million (pack-in / separately).
||RoadBlasters||Sonic the Hedgehog 2||Bonk's Adventure|
|Backward compatibility||N/A (Original Cartridges compatible with later models)||N/A||Sega Master System (using Cartridge Adapter)||TurboGrafx-16 (HuCard only)|
4 MHz maximum, average 3.6 MHz
"Suzy", custom CMOS chip
|HuC6280A (modified 65SC02)
1.79 or 7.16 MHz
|Memory||8 KiB internal S-RAM, up to 32 KiB
8 KiB internal video RAM
|64 KiB DRAM||8 KiB main RAM
16 KiB video RAM
|8 KiB work RAM
64 KiB video RAM
4 shades of olive green
16 simultaneous colors per scanline; can be increased by changing palettes after each scanline
4096 color palette
32 simultaneous colors
4096 color palette
64 sprites, 16 per scanline
482 simultaneous colors (241 each for backgrounds and sprites)
512 color palette
|Audio||Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
||Stereo audio with:
||Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
||Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
Released in 1992
Mega Duck/Cougar Boy
Released in 1993
Hartung Game Master
Released in 1990
- Chrono Trigger (SNES) by Square is frequently listed among the greatest video games of all time.
- Dragon Quest V and VI (SFC) by Chunsoft, Heartbeat, and Enix were released on the Japanese Super Famicom, as well as remakes of the first three games originally released for the NES and a dungeon crawler spin-off: Torneko's Great Adventure, which started Chun Soft's popular Fushigi no Dungeon series.
- Donkey Kong Country (SNES) by Rare Ltd. and Nintendo turned the tide of the console war in favor of Nintendo and became the best-selling game since Super Mario Bros. 3, largely due to its impressive graphics.
- Final Fantasy V was released only in Japan, while Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy VI (SNES) by Square were released in North America with their original numeration shifted. While the series was very successful in Japan early on, it was not until the release of Final Fantasy VII on the PlayStation that it reached blockbuster status outside Japan.
- Gunstar Heroes (Genesis) by Treasure and Sega is considered one of the best action games of the generation.
- John Madden Football (1990) (Genesis, SNES) by Park Place Productions and EA Sports played an important role in the early success of both the Genesis console and Electronic Arts.
- Super Metroid (SNES) by Nintendo Research & Development 1 and Nintendo is still regarded by many gaming organizations as one of the "best games of all time."
- Mortal Kombat (Arcade, Genesis, SNES) by Midway Games garnered heated controversy over its violent themes, with the uncensored Genesis version outselling the SNES version by nearly three-to-one, ultimately leading to a U.S. Congressional hearing and the creation of the Entertainment Software Rating Board.
- NHLPA Hockey '93 (Genesis, SNES) by Park Place Productions and EA Sports is considered one of the most outstanding sports games ever made.
- Phantasy Star II (Genesis) by Sega Consumer Development Division 2 and Sega has been cited as one of the best and most influential console RPGs.
- Secret of Mana (SNES) by Square reintroduced the Seiken Densetsu series, originally conceived as a Final Fantasy spin-off, to Europe and North America.
- Shining Force 2 (Genesis) by Sonic! Software Planning and Sega has been cited as one of the greatest games ever made.
- Sonic the Hedgehog (Genesis) by Sonic Team and Sega was Sega's bid to compete head-to head with Nintendo's Mario franchise, played a critical role in the success of the Genesis, and received widespread critical acclaim as one of the greatest games ever made.
- Street Fighter II (Arcade, Genesis, SNES) by Capcom was the second game in the series to produce a lasting fanbase and set many of the trends seen in fighting games today, most notably its colorful selection of playable fighters from different countries across the globe. As of 2008, it is Capcom's best-selling consumer game of all time.
- Streets of Rage 2 (Arcade, Genesis) by Sega AM7 and Sega is considered the best beat 'em up of the generation.
- Super Monaco GP (Arcade, Genesis) by Sega set a new standard for realism in console racing games.
- Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island (SNES) by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis & Development (Nintendo EAD) and Nintendo is considered perhaps the finest 2D platformer.
- The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past (SNES) by Nintendo EAD and Nintendo courted popularity that was larger than that of its predecessors on the NES. It was one of the few action-adventures to be released early in the SNES's lifecycle. Zelda II on the NES had been mostly action-based and was side-scrolling, while A Link to the Past drew more inspiration from the original Zelda game with its top-down adventure format.
- Ys Book I & II (TurboGrafx) by Nihon Falcom was among the first video games mass released on CD-ROM, when released in Japan in 1989 and in North America in 1990. In addition to receiving praise for its story and gameplay, the game pioneered several technical features, such as voice acting, animated cut scenes, and pre-recorded soundtracks, which would become industry standards later in the decade.
- According to Stephen Kent's The Ultimate History of Video Games, the official launch date was September 9. Newspaper and magazine articles from late 1991 report that the first shipments were in stores in some regions on August 23, while it arrived in other regions at a later date. Many modern online sources (circa 2005 and later) report August 13.
- United States: 20 million, Rest of the world: 15 million, Tec Toy: 3 million, Majesco: 2 million, Sega Nomad: 1 million
- Console Database Staff. "Sega Mega Drive/Genesis Console Information". http://www.consoledatabase.com. Console Database/Dale Hansen. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 404–405. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 424–431. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 434, 448–449. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- "The Essential 50 Part 28: Sonic the Hedgehog". www.1up.com. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 405. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kohler, Chris (July 29, 2009). "July 29, 1994: Videogame Makers Propose Ratings Board to Congress". Wired (Condé Nast Publications). Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "International Outlook". Electronic Gaming Monthly (53) (EGM Media, LLC). December 1993. p. 90.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 461–480. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Ray Barnholt (2006-08-04). "Purple Reign: 15 Years of the Super NES". 1UP.com. p. 4. Retrieved 2007-07-13.
- Semrad, Ed (March 1994). "Sega Sets the Pace for 1994!". Electronic Gaming Monthly (56) (EGM Media, LLC). p. 6.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 508, 531. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 413–414. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 422–431. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Kent (2001), p. 434. Kent states September 1 was planned but later rescheduled to September 9.
- Campbell, Ron (1991-08-27). "Super Nintendo sells quickly at OC outlets". The Orange County Register.
Last weekend, months after video-game addicts started calling, Dave Adams finally was able to sell them what they craved: Super Nintendo. Adams, manager of Babbages in South Coast Plaza, got 32 of the $199.95 systems Friday.Based on the publication date, the "Friday" mentioned would be August 23, 1991.
- "Super Nintendo It's Here!!!". Electronic Gaming Monthly (Sendai Publishing Group) (28): 162. November 1991.
The Long awaited Super NES is finally available to the U.S. gaming public. The first few pieces of this unit hit the store shelves on August 23rd, 1991. Nintendo, however, released the first production run without any heavy fanfare or spectacular announcements.
- "New products put more zip into the video-game market" (ABSTRACT). Chicago Sun-Times. 1991-08-27. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
On Friday, area Toys R Us stores [...] were expecting Super NES, with a suggested retail price of $199.95, any day, said Brad Grafton, assistant inventory control manager for Toys R Us.Based on the publication date, the "Friday" mentioned would be August 23, 1991.
- Ray Barnholt (2006-08-04). "Purple Reign: 15 Years of the Super NES". 1UP.com. p. 2. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- "Super Nintendo Entertainment System". N-Sider.com. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region". Nintendo. 2010-01-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- Danny Allen (2006-12-22). "A Brief History of Game Consoles, as Seen in Old TV Ads". PC World. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- Jeremy Parish (2005-09-06). "PS1 10th Anniversary retrospective". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
- Guardiana, the Mega Drive Kingdom :: Bienvenue sur Guardiana - Actualité et mises à jour
- Santulli, Joe (2005). Digital Press Collectors Guide. USA: Digital Press. ISBN 978-0-9709807-0-0.
- "Bonk's Adventure Virtual Console Review - Wii Review at IGN". Wii.ign.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- Sonic the Hedgehog GameTap Retrospective Pt. 3/4. Event occurs at 1:21.
- Edge (2007-06-25). "The Nintendo Years". The Nintendo Years. Next-Gen.biz. p. 2. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- MacDonald, Charles. "Neo*Geo MVS Hardware Notes". Retrieved 2012-01-26.
- Charles MacDonald. "Sega Master System VDP documentation". Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
- Sega Programming FAQ October 18, 1995, Sixth Edition - Final at the Wayback Machine (archived January 22, 2005)
- Blake Snow (2007-07-30). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2007-05-08. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
- "Super NES". Classic Systems. Nintendo. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-12-04.
- Stephanie Strom (1998-03-14). "Sega Enterprises Pulls Its Saturn Video Console From the U.S. Market". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Ken Polsson. "Chronology of Sega Video Games 1952-1993".
Total North American sales in its lifetime: 14 million. Total world sales: 29 million.
- Théo Azevedo (2012-07-30). "Vinte anos depois, Master System e Mega Drive vendem 150 mil unidades por ano no Brasil" (in Portuguese). jogos.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- Alucard em Quarta-feira (2005-08-31). "A História do Mega Drive" (in Portuguese). gamehall.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- Blake Snow (2007-07-30). "The 10 Worst-Selling Handhelds of All Time". GamePro.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Blake Snow (2007-07-30). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro. p. 1. Archived from the original on 2007-05-08. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
- Consoles +, issue 73
- "The Atari Lynx". ataritimes.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-08-10. Retrieved 2006-08-20.
- Beuscher, Dave. "allgame ( Atari Lynx > Overview )". Allgame. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
One drawback to the Lynx system is its power consumption. It requires 6 AA batteries, which allow four to five hours of game play. The Nintendo Game Boy provides close to 35 hours use before new batteries are necessary.
- Bauscher, Dave. "allgame ( Sega Game Gear > Overview )". Allgame. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
While this feature is not included on the Game Boy it does provide a disadvantage -- the Game Gear requires 6 AA batteries that only last up to six hours. The Nintendo Game Boy only requires 4 AA batteries and is capable of providing up to 35 hours of play.
- "Game Boy History". Nintendo. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- Douglas C. McGill (5 June 1989). "Now, Video Game Players Can Take Show on the Road". The New York Times.
- Melanson, Donald (2006-03-03). "A Brief History of Handheld Video Games". Engadget. Retrieved 2009-01-27.
- "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region". Nintendo. 2010-01-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
- "Game Boy". A Brief History of Game Console Warfare. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- "Did you know?". Nintendo. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- "Japan Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- "US Platinum Videogame Chart". The Magic Box. Retrieved 2007-11-26.
- Gamate Archive, Video Game Gazette. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
- IGN staff (2006). "The Top 100 Games Ever". IGN. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- IGN staff (2007). "The Top 100 Games Ever". IGN. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- IGN staff (2008). "IGN Top 100 Games 2008 – 2 Chrono Trigger". IGN. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Cork, Jeff (2009-11-16). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- GameSpot editorial team, ed. (2006-04-17). "The Greatest Games of All Time". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2006-04-23. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Campbell, Colin (March 3, 2006). "Japan Votes on All Time Top 100". Edge online. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Ashcraft, Brian (March 6, 2008). "Dengeki Readers Say Fav 2007 Game, Fav of All Time". Kotaku. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "The 100 best games of all time". GamesRadar. April 20, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 497. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Thomas, Lucas (2006-12-11). "Gunstar Heroes Virtual Console Review". IGN. Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 407–410. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- "100 Games Of All Time". gamers.com. Archived from the original on 2003-06-11. Retrieved 2006-09-03.
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 466–80. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- Cork, Jeff (2009-11-16). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Semrad, Steve (2006-02-02). "The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- Kaiser, Rowan (July 22, 2011). "RPG Pillars: Phantasy Star II". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2011-11-30. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Kasavin, Greg. "The Greatest Games of All Time: Phantasy Star II – Features at GameSpot". GameSpot. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- "Time Machine: Phantasy Star". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. January 2, 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- IGN's Top 100 Games of All Time (#48)
- Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 428–431. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
- "CAPCOM - Platinum Titles".
- Thomas, Lucas M. (May 30, 2007). "Streets of Rage 2 Review: The definitive console brawler". IGN. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- "Super Monaco GP – Sega Megadrive – Mean Machines review". Meanmachinesmag.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
- Harris, Craig (2002-09-24). "Yoshi's Island: Super Mario Advance 3". IGN.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18.