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Donkey Kong Country

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Donkey Kong Country
North American box art
North American box art
Developer(s)Rare
Publisher(s)Nintendo
Director(s)
Designer(s)Gregg Mayles
Programmer(s)Chris Sutherland
Artist(s)
Writer(s)
Composer(s)
SeriesDonkey Kong
Platform(s)
Release
  • SNES
    • NA: 21 November 1994
    • EU: 24 November 1994
    • JP: 26 November 1994
Genre(s)Platform
Mode(s)Single-player, multiplayer

Donkey Kong Country[a] is a 1994 platform game developed by Rare and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). It is a reboot of Nintendo's Donkey Kong franchise and follows the gorilla Donkey Kong and his nephew Diddy Kong as they set out to recover their stolen banana hoard from King K. Rool and the Kremlings. Over 40 levels, the player collects items, defeats enemies and bosses, and finds secrets on their journey to defeat K. Rool. In the multiplayer modes, two players can work together cooperatively or race each other.

After developing numerous Nintendo Entertainment System games in the 1980s, Rare, a British studio founded by Tim and Chris Stamper, purchased Silicon Graphics workstations to render 3D models. Nintendo, seeking a game to compete with Sega's Aladdin (1993), purchased a large minority stake in the company. Tasked with reviving the dormant Donkey Kong franchise, Rare assembled 12 developers to work on Donkey Kong Country over 18 months. Donkey Kong Country was inspired by the Super Mario series and was one of the first home console games to feature pre-rendered graphics, achieved through a compression technique that allowed Rare to convert 3D models into SNES sprites without losing much detail. It was also the first Donkey Kong game neither produced nor directed by creator Shigeru Miyamoto, though he contributed design ideas.

Donkey Kong Country was highly anticipated, backed by a major marketing campaign that cost US$16 million in America alone. It was released in November 1994 to acclaim and sold over nine million copies worldwide, making it the third-bestselling SNES game. Critics praised its gameplay, replay value, and groundbreaking visuals. Donkey Kong Country won numerous year-end accolades. Although some retrospective critics have called it overrated, Donkey Kong Country is frequently cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. It has been ported to numerous platforms, including Game Boy consoles and online distribution services.

Donkey Kong Country was key in maintaining the SNES's popularity when players were moving to more advanced consoles, such as Sony's PlayStation. It also helped establish Rare as one of the video game industry's leading developers and re-establish Donkey Kong as a cultural icon. Rare developed two sequels for the SNES, Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest (1995) and Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble! (1996). After a 14-year hiatus, during which Rare was acquired by Nintendo competitor Microsoft, Retro Studios revived the series with Donkey Kong Country Returns (2010) for the Wii and Donkey Kong Country: Tropical Freeze (2014) for the Wii U.

Gameplay[edit]

The player character, Diddy Kong, jumping on a Kremling in Donkey Kong Country's first level, "Jungle Hijinks"

Donkey Kong Country is a side-scrolling platform game in which the player must complete 40 levels[1] to recover the Kongs' banana hoard, which has been stolen by the crocodilian Kremlings. The game features both single-player and multiplayer game modes. In single-player, the player controls one of two characters: the gorilla Donkey Kong or his chimpanzee nephew Diddy Kong, switching between the two as necessary. Both characters offer different attributes: Donkey is stronger and can defeat enemies more easily, whilst Diddy moves faster and is more agile.[1][2] Both playable Kongs can walk, run, jump, roll, pick up and throw certain objects, while Donkey can pound the terrain to defeat enemies or find items.[3] Multiplayer modes include the competitive "Contest" mode or the cooperative "Team" mode.[1] In Contest, each player controls a different set of Kongs and take turns playing each level as quickly as possible; the objective is to complete the most levels in the fastest time. In Team mode, each player takes the role of one of the two Kongs and play as a tag team.

The player navigates through the game via two game screens: the overworld map and a side-scrolling playfield which comprises the majority of the game. The overworld map displays an overhead representation of Donkey Kong Island and provides access to levels. Each level on the map is marked with an icon: unfinished levels are marked by Kremlings, whilst completed areas are marked by Donkey or Diddy. The overworld also grants the player the opportunity to visit other members of the Kong family: Funky Kong operates flight services which allows the player to travel back and forth between different areas of the game, jumping in Candy Kong's "save barrels" gives the player the chance to save their progress, and encountering Cranky Kong in his cabins provide the player with tips and fourth wall-breaking humour.[4]

The majority of the game takes place in linear levels, populated with various obstacles and enemies, which mostly involve the player traversing the stages by running, jumping, or defeating enemies by jumping on their heads or rolling into them. If the player is hit by an enemy, the leading Kong runs off-screen, automatically enabling the player to take control of the other. They will only be able to control that Kong unless they free the other Kong from a barrel. The player is given a number of lives, which are lost if both Donkey and Diddy come into contact with an enemy or fall into bottomless pits. The game ends when the player runs out of lives, although they may continue their game from the most recent save point. Some levels feature unique mechanics such as riding in mine carts, launching out of barrel cannons, or swinging from vine to vine. Each level features various items for the player to collect; these include bananas, golden letters that spell out K–O–N–G, extra life balloons, and golden animal tokens that lead to bonus stages. Collecting 100 bananas or all four K-O-N-G letters will give the player an extra life respectively. There are also secret paths that lead to bonus games where the player can earn additional lives or other items, as well as gain possible shortcuts through the level.[4] Each section of the map has one boss at the end, which must be defeated to advance through different parts of the overworld.

In certain levels, the player can gain assistance from the Kong's five "animal buddies" found by breaking open unique crates. Animals provide boons such as extra speed or jump height. Each animal can be found in an appropriately themed level: for example, Enguarde, a swordfish that can defeat enemies with its bill, can only be found underwater, while Squawks, a parrot that carries a lantern, is found in one cave level. Other "animal buddies" include Rambi, a powerful rhinoceros that can charge into enemies and break open secret doors, Expresso, an ostrich which enables the Kongs to jump high and glide through the air, and Winky, a frog that can leap higher than any animal. The player can use each animal for the entirety of a level unless they are hit by an enemy.[4][2]

Plot[edit]

Donkey Kong Country is a reboot of the Donkey Kong franchise,[5] set long after the events of Donkey Kong (1981) and Donkey Kong Jr. (1982). The original Donkey Kong grows old, moves to Donkey Kong Island, and takes on the moniker Cranky Kong, passing the "Donkey Kong" mantle down to his grandson.[6] One night, the Kremlings, led by King K. Rool, invade Donkey Kong Island and steal the Kongs' hoard of bananas. Donkey, alongside his nephew Diddy, sets out on a journey to reclaim the banana hoard and defeat the Kremlings.[4]

The two Kongs travel throughout Donkey Kong Island, battling the Kremlings and their henchmen, before reaching K. Rool's pirate ship, the Gang-Plank Galleon. The two take on K. Rool and seemingly defeat him, initiating a mock credits roll claiming that the Kremlings developed the game, but K. Rool gets back up to continue the fight.[7] However, the Kongs persevere, defeat K. Rool, and reclaim the banana hoard.[8]

Development[edit]

Background and conception[edit]

Rare founders Tim and Chris Stamper in 2015

Prior to Donkey Kong Country, Nintendo's Donkey Kong franchise had been largely dormant since the unsuccessful release of Donkey Kong 3 in 1983. The 1987 Official Nintendo Player's Guide advertised a revival for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), The Return of Donkey Kong, that was never released.[9] Aside from occasional cameo appearances in other games and a 1994 remake of the original Donkey Kong for Nintendo's handheld game console, the Game Boy, the Donkey Kong character had not been seen in video games for nearly a decade. Journalist Jeremy Parish, writing for USGamer, described this as "quite an ignominious twist for a character who had once been one of the medium's most recognizable faces".[10]

In 1985, brothers Tim and Chris Stamper, British developers who previously founded the British computer game studio Ultimate Play the Game, established Rare to focus on the burgeoning Japanese video game console market.[11] Nintendo had rebuffed the brothers' efforts for a partnership in 1983, which led Chris Stamper to study the NES hardware for six months.[12] Nintendo had claimed it was impossible to reverse engineer the NES, but Rare managed to do so, prepared several tech demos and showed them to Nintendo executive Minoru Arakawa in Kyoto. Impressed, Nintendo granted Rare an unlimited budget.[13] Rare went on to develop over 60 NES games, which included the Battletoads series and ports of games such as 1982's Marble Madness. Rare's NES output generated enormous profits, but demonstrated little creativity.[13][14]

When the NES's successor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), was released in 1991, Rare decided to limit its output and, around 1992, invested its NES profit in Silicon Graphics (SGI) workstations to render 3D models.[13][15] Rare took significant financial risks in purchasing the SGI workstations, as they cost £80,000 each.[16] The move made Rare the most technologically advanced developer in the UK and situated it high in the international market.[13] Rare tested the SGI technology with Battletoads Arcade (1994)[15][14] and began developing a boxing video game, Brute Force, using PowerAnimator. At the time, Nintendo wanted a game to compete with Sega's Aladdin (1993), which featured graphics by Disney animators, so Rare informed Nintendo of its SGI experiments.[17][14] Nintendo was stunned by Brute Force[17] and bought a 25 per cent stake in the company that gradually increased to 49 per cent—making Rare a second-party developer and leading to the development of Donkey Kong Country.[13] According to character designer Kevin Bayliss, after a meeting, Tim Stamper informed him that Nintendo wanted to revive Donkey Kong for a modern-day audience.[17]

Some sources, including character designer Steve Mayles and head programmer Chris Sutherland, indicate that Donkey Kong Country's development began after Nintendo offered Rare its catalogue of characters to create a game using the SGI technology, and the Stampers chose Donkey Kong.[13][15][16] Conversely, lead designer and Steve Mayles' brother Gregg Mayles recalled that it was Nintendo that requested a Donkey Kong game.[18] Donkey Kong Country was the first Donkey Kong game that was neither directed nor produced by franchise creator Shigeru Miyamoto,[1] who was working on Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island (1995) at the time.[19] Despite this, Miyamoto was still involved with the project and provided "certain key pieces of input".[20] Nintendo has a reputation for being proactive to protect its intellectual properties but was relatively uninvolved with Donkey Kong Country, leaving most of the work to Rare.[16][18] Tim Stamper and Gregg Mayles were the only Rare employees who had significant ties to Nintendo during the project.[17]

Character design[edit]

The development of Donkey Kong's redesign for the game: Miyamoto's sketch, Rare's sketch and the final render.

Bayliss was in charge of redesigning Donkey Kong for Donkey Kong Country, and wanted the new design to be "simplified" and "compact".[17] The character's features were enlarged to make them clearer, while his eyes were taken from Bayliss' Battletoad designs. Steve Mayles also contributed to the design—specifically his mouth, which formed the basis for the other character designs.[17] The red tie was a design choice suggested by Miyamoto in an illustration he faxed Rare,[17][18] as Miyamoto wanted the character to have a distinctive article of clothing like Mario's hat.[21] To develop Donkey Kong's movements, Rare staff spent hours at the nearby Twycross Zoo watching and videotaping gorillas.[16] They found that on the rare occasions when the gorillas moved, their movements were "completely unsuitable for a fast-paced videogame [sic]", and chose to use other animals' movements as a base.[18] Donkey Kong's animations in the final game were loosely based on a horse's gallop.[18] Donkey Kong originally had only three fingers per hand, but Steve Mayles had to add a fourth because Nintendo informed Rare that individuals with three fingers are commonly associated with the yakuza in Japan.[15]

The idea of Donkey Kong having a companion grew out of Rare's intent to have a game mechanic akin to the Super Mario series' power-up system; Gregg Mayles said "we thought a second character could perform this function, look visually impressive and give the player a feeling that they were not alone in the game".[18][21] Gregg Mayles initially intended for the partner to be Donkey Kong Jr. and created Diddy Kong as a redesign of the character.[17][18] However, Nintendo considered the redesign too great a departure from the original one, and asked that Rare either present it as a new character or rework it to match Donkey Kong Jr.'s original appearance. Mayles felt the redesign perfectly suited the updated Donkey Kong universe, so he chose the former.[18] Naming the character was a challenge;[18] Mayles settled on "Dinky Kong" at first, but renamed him Diddy due to a copyright issue with Dinky Toys.[17]

Steve Mayles created the other new Kong characters using the Donkey Kong model as a base.[15] For instance, he created Funky Kong by taking Donkey Kong's model and adding teeth, sunglasses and a bandanna.[22] Gregg Mayles said the team did not put too much thought into creating the characters, simply wanting a diverse cast.[21] The animal companions, such as Rambi the Rhino (who was Rare's "take on a horse"), were an extension of Diddy's function as a power-up.[17][21] A number of animal companions were created but did not appear in the finished product. One, an owl who provided tips, was retooled into Cranky Kong. Cranky, who Rare considered the Donkey Kong character from the arcade games, was intended to be a character who "hark[ened] back to the old times", while his "very dry, sarcastic sense of humour" was influenced by Rare's British background.[17] Cranky's lines were written by Gregg Mayles and Tim Stamper.[21] Rare avoided mentioning that Cranky was the original Donkey Kong in the game and its marketing materials because the team feared that Nintendo would disapprove of the change.[17][23]

As the Donkey Kong franchise did not have much of an established universe, Nintendo gave Rare considerable freedom in expanding its lore.[21] This included having to create new villains.[17] Rare initially considered using the Super Mario character Wario as the main antagonist and developed a storyline in which he stole a time machine from Mario, but Nintendo instructed Rare to create original characters instead.[21] King K. Rool and the Kremlings were originally created for Jonny Blastoff and the Kremling Armada, a cancelled point and click adventure game Rare planned to develop for Macintosh computers. When development of Donkey Kong Country began, Steve Mayles reworked the Kremling designs to fit in the Donkey Kong universe. The Kremlings were originally going to use realistic weapons, such as guns, but Rare decided against this idea because it conflicted with the game's lighthearted tone.[17] Gregg Mayles also wanted K. Rool and the Kremlings to seem somewhat incompetent,[17][21] similar to the cartoon characters Dick Dastardly and Muttley.[21]

Production[edit]

Donkey Kong Country was developed over the course of 18 months,[16] with work beginning around August 1993.[15] Rare assembled a team of 12 people to work on the game, and according to product manager Dan Owsen, 20 people worked on Donkey Kong Country throughout the development cycle.[18][24] The first demo was playable by November 1993.[17] The staff chose to make Donkey Kong Country a side-scrolling platformer because they had grown up playing Nintendo's Super Mario games and wanted to deliver their own "modern" take.[21] At the time, Donkey Kong Country "boast[ed] the most man hours ever invested in a single video game (a total of 22 years shared out across the development team)".[20] In 2019, Gregg Mayles stated that the number of hours the team put into Donkey Kong Country would be impossible in the modern video game industry.[17] He noted that game development was more of a hobby at the time,[17][21] as much of the Rare staff was young and "just felt like we'd been given an opportunity to make something pretty cool, and that's all we were trying to do".[21]

The level design was heavily influenced by that of Super Mario Bros. 3 (1988). Gregg Mayles said: "For me, Super Mario Bros. 3 was the ultimate pinnacle for 2D platform games. We wanted the same kind of structure, but we also wanted it to be extremely flowing – where a skilled player could move effortlessly through the levels at great speed".[18] He wanted to make a game that was "easy to pick up" but was designed to flow seamlessly if a player practiced.[21] As such, objects such as enemies, swinging ropes and barrel cannons were carefully placed so players could continually move through a level as if they were walking up steps. Levels were designed using Post-it Notes that the team pieced together. Gregg Mayles noted that the Post-it Notes kept design "fluid" and made it easy to scrap mistakes.[17] The team began designing levels by establishing a predominant feature (e.g. swinging ropes), before determining the uses of said feature. As Gregg Mayles said, "it was kind of done by getting the framework in place first, and then filling the gaps in later".[17] Secret areas were added while designing levels on Post-it Notes and were inspired by Super Mario and the Indiana Jones films.[21]

Although Donkey Kong creator Shigeru Miyamoto (pictured in 2007) did not work directly on Donkey Kong Country, he was involved throughout the development process and contributed design ideas.

The player character's attacks changed considerably during development. Gregg Mayles said that the team wanted moves that would be "iconic".[17] Because he wanted the game to be fast-paced, the attacks needed to suit fast gameplay. Choosing a satisfactory attack proved to be a challenge; Gregg Mayles recalled that the team considered at least six different attacks, such as a slide and a "leapfrog" attack.[17][21] One attack, in which Donkey Kong smashed his fist on an enemy's head to leap, was cut because it interrupted the game's flow. Cutting moves became so common that whenever the team did, Steve Mayles would play the Queen song "Another One Bites the Dust" on a CD.[17] Rare finally settled on the roll, which Gregg Mayles noted worked similarly to a bowling ball. The ability to jump in midair while rolling was implemented because the developers found it was easy to accidentally fall off a ledge during the attack. Gregg Mayles found the change useful, so he incorporated it into the level design.[21]

Donkey Kong Country was one of the first games for a mainstream home video game console to use pre-rendered 3D graphics,[16] a technique used in the earlier 1993 Finnish game Stardust for the Amiga.[24] Rare developed a compression technique that allowed the team to incorporate more detail and animation for each sprite for a given memory footprint than had been previously achieved on the SNES, which better preserves the pre-rendered graphics. Nintendo and Rare called the technique for creating the game's graphics Advanced Computer Modelling (ACM).[18] The ACM process pushed the SNES hardware to its limits and there was concern that it would be impossible to compress the SGI-rendered models, which used millions of colours, into 15-colour SNES sprites.[15] A single SGI screen took up more memory than an entire 32 MB SNES cartridge; Gregg Mayles compared it to turning a million-piece jigsaw puzzle into a 1,000 or 100 piece one.[17][21] He described transferring the backgrounds into the game as "the bane of the project"[18] and spent "thousands of hours" trying to split the images into tiles to fit in an SNES cartridge.[21] The team's mentality was to attempt to compress SGI visuals and implement them even if it seemed impossible.[21]

The artists began by rendering the characters in NURBS using PowerAnimator and adding textures. They would then create the animations and render them frame by frame, before compressing them for use in the game. The ACM process was handled by a designated computer that had a proprietary utility similar to Deluxe Paint.[14] Adapting to the then-cutting-edge SGI workstations was a tense challenge;[16] Steve Mayles said they had "a really steep learning curve".[17] Three programmers handled using the machines with little knowledge of what they could accomplish besides a massive user guide that "wasn't written from an artist point of view".[17] Sutherland noted that the internet did not exist at the time, so Rare essentially had to work from scratch.[14] A single model took "ages" to render;[14] the team would often go home at 11PM, and by the next morning the images they were rendering at the time may have completed.[16] Sometimes, artists would shut down other artists' computers in the middle of the rendering process so they could render their models.[14] The SGI machines required a massive air conditioning unit to prevent overheating, whilst the team worked in the summer heat without relief.[16] A popular rumour suggested that Rare was investigated by the Ministry of Defence for the amount of advanced workstations the studio had; although Gregg Mayles said this was false, Rare did receive complaints regarding the amount of power the SGI hardware used. The Rare farmhouse where the game was developed also frequently lost power, to the puzzlement of the electricity board.[17] Sutherland was responsible for implementing the graphics in-game and found having to reduce characters' frames of animation challenging.[14]

The visuals proved to be a significant focus of development.[15] To showcase the graphical fidelity and immerse the player in the game world, Rare chose not to include a heads-up display, with information—such as the player's banana and life counts—only appearing when relevant.[15][21] The pre-rendered graphics allowed for a more realistic art style, so the team incorporated what would have been simply floating platforms in the Super Mario games into the surrounding environment. For instance, platforms took on the appearance of trees in jungles or walkways in mines to incorporate a sense of believability. Rare also attempted to keep the look of the levels consistent so completely different landscapes would not be right next to each other.[21] Tim Stamper, who maintained constant contact with Nintendo of America and spoke with them every night, encouraged the team "to go to the extremes in terms of visuals"; Steve Mayles recalled that Stamper told the team that he wanted the game to still look good two decades in the future.[15] Programmer Brendan Gunn added that, in addition to Stamper's pushing, the team was also under significant pressure to finish the game in time for Thanksgiving due to Nintendo's competition with Sega.[16]

Simultaneous cooperative gameplay was planned but scrapped due to time and hardware constraints. According to Gregg Mayles, having two players on a single screen was challenging, while split-screen multiplayer was unfeasible. Simultaneous multiplayer also conflicted with his vision of fast gameplay. Mayles has said that if he was to remake Donkey Kong Country, he would want to implement the simultaneous gameplay.[21] Additionally, Donkey Kong was going to wear a hard hat in mine levels, but this feature was replaced by Squawks the Parrot due to the palette limitations imposed by the ACM process, as well as animation difficulties.[15] Sutherland also had to cut down many of K. Rool's animations for the final boss fight so the game could run at a good frame rate, to the chagrin of Steve Mayles.[15] Gunn referred to most of Donkey Kong Country's scrapped concepts as minor, with his "one big regret" being that Donkey Kong walks across "very lazy" dotted lines instead of paths on the world map.[16]

A few weeks into development, Rare, at the point when the team had established how the game would look, presented a demo to Nintendo in Japan. Rare's audience included Miyamoto, Game Boy creator Gunpei Yokoi, and future Nintendo president Genyo Takeda. According to Gregg Mayles, Nintendo was impressed, though Yokoi said that he was concerned the game was "too 3D" to be playable. Mayles attributed this to the "shock" Yokoi felt by seeing such advanced graphics.[17] Upon reviewing the initial product, Nintendo directed Rare to significantly reduce the difficulty because it wanted the game to appeal to a broad audience; Nintendo thought the numerous secrets would provide sufficient challenge to hardcore gamers. At this point, Miyamoto made some last-minute suggestions, such as Donkey Kong's "hand-slap" move, that were incorporated into the final game.[24] In retrospect, Gregg Mayles called Nintendo's input supportive and helpful, as the Rare staff was inexperienced.[21]

Audio[edit]

David Wise composed most of Donkey Kong Country's soundtrack.[26] Wise started composing as a freelance musician; he originally assumed his music would be replaced with compositions by Koji Kondo, the Super Mario series' composer, because he understood the importance of the Donkey Kong licence to Nintendo.[25][27] Rare asked Wise to record three jungle demo tunes that were merged to become the "DK Island Swing", the first level's track. Wise said, "I guess someone thought the music was suitable, as they offered me a full time position at Rare".[27] Rare allocated 32 kilobits to Wise.[25] Prior to composing, Wise was shown the graphics and given an opportunity to play the level they would appear in, which gave him a sense of what music he would compose.[15][28] After he figured out what the music would entail, Wise then chose the samples and optimised the music to work on the SNES.[28]

Donkey Kong Country features atmospheric music that mixes natural environmental sounds with prominent melodic and percussive accompaniments.[29] Its 1940s swing music-style soundtrack[30] attempts to evoke the game's environments[29] and includes music from levels set in Africa-inspired jungles, caverns, oceanic reefs, frozen landscapes, and industrial factories.[16] Wise cited Kondo's music for the Super Mario and Legend of Zelda games, Tim and Geoff Follin's music for Plok (1993), synthesizer-based film soundtracks released in the 1980s, early-to-mid-1990s rock and dance music, and his experience with brass instruments as influences.[27][30] Wise wanted to imitate the sound of the Korg Wavestation synthesiser.[29] He originally had "all these wild visions of being able to sample pretty much everything", but could not due to memory restrictions.[25] Wise worked separately from the rest of the team[16] in a former cattle shed,[28] with Tim Stamper occasionally visiting in case he had ideas.[16]

Since Donkey Kong Country featured advanced pre-rendered graphics, Wise wanted to push the limits in terms of audio to create "equally impressive" music and make the most of the small space he was working with.[30][28] He wanted the audio to stand out from other SNES games, just like the visuals.[25] "Aquatic Ambience", the music that plays in the underwater levels, took five weeks to create[28] and was the result of Wise's relentless experimentation to create a "waveform sequence" on the SNES using his Wavestation.[30][28] Wise composed "Aquatic Ambience" after he realized he could use the Wavestation,[25] and considers the track his favorite in the game and its biggest technological accomplishment in regards to the audio.[28] The minimalist "Cave Dweller Concert", which features only a marimba, drums, and synths, was heavily influenced by Stamper, who wanted the track to be abstract and reflect the feeling of uncertainty associated with exploring dark caves.[25][30] Stamper was also the driving force behind incorporating sound effects in the music, as he wanted them to play in levels but was limited by the SNES hardware.[30] The "DK Island Swing" was inspired by jungle and tropical-themed music Wise had been listening to,[25] while K. Rool's theme was heavily influenced by the work of Iron Maiden.[28] The title screen theme, added towards the end of development, is a remix of Nintendo's original Donkey Kong theme and was written to demonstrate how Donkey Kong had evolved since his debut.[28]

Composing Donkey Kong Country helped Wise establish his musical style. Wise noted that when he composed video game music in the 1980s, he was limited by the NES's technological restrictions. When he heard Nintendo's composers create music around the NES's limitations, it encouraged him to go back and refine. Such restrictions helped him understand the importance of a console's sound channels and what would be important to do when composing video game music, so these lessons helped him when he worked on Donkey Kong Country.[17] Wise faced numerous challenges due to the technological restraints of the SNES, such as being unable to directly use a keyboard. As such, Wise composed a "rough" track using the keyboard before transcribing the track in hexadecimal to input in MIDI. Wise had to keep music consistent across the SNES's eight sound channels, noting that if there "was two minutes of music on one of these channels, there had to be exactly two minutes on the other seven channels".[17] Wise noted this was a challenging, time-consuming process.[17] However, it was easier than composing for the NES due to the larger number of sound channels.[16] Wise noted that it likely would have been impossible to create the soundtrack if Rare was developing on the Sega Mega Drive, which had an inferior FM sound chip.[25]

Additionally, Eveline Fischer contributed seven tracks.[26] Fischer was less experienced than Wise, who helped teach her as they worked together. She attempted "to give a feeling of the place you were in [and] a sense of the momentum you needed" through her compositions, which she felt were more atmospheric than Wise's.[30] Funky Kong's theme had originally been written by Robin Beanland for an internal progress video about another Rare game, Killer Instinct (1994). Nintendo decided to use the track in a Donkey Kong Country promotional trailer;[31] Tim Stamper liked the track and wanted to include it in the game itself,[31] so Wise adopted it.[16] Meanwhile, character voice clips were provided by various Rare employees. The chomping noises made by the Klaptrap enemy came from an artist who continually snapped his teeth as he worked, while Mark Betteridge provided the playable Kongs' voice clips and Sutherland voiced the Kremlings.[17] During visits to the Twycross zoo, Wise attempted to record real animal noises for inclusion, but they proved too quiet to be captured by his microphone.[16]

A soundtrack CD, DK Jamz, was released via news media and retailers in November 1994 as a promotional item.[32] A standalone release came in 1995.[33] DK Jamz was one of the earliest video game soundtrack albums that was released in the United States, a practice uncommon at the time.[34]

Release[edit]

Nintendo published Donkey Kong Country for the SNES in November 1994. The North American release came first on 21 November, followed by the European release on 24 November and the Japanese release on 26 November.[35] In Japan, the game was released under the title Super Donkey Kong.[36] According to Rare, the game released two weeks ahead of schedule.[20] Donkey Kong Country was released around the same time as Sega's Sonic & Knuckles for the SNES's chief competitor, the Sega Mega Drive. The Los Angeles Times called the coinciding releases a "battle" as both advertised revolutionary technological advances (lock-on technology for Sonic & Knuckles and 3D-rendered graphics for Donkey Kong Country).[37]

Marketing[edit]

Nintendo of America chairman Howard Lincoln unveiled Donkey Kong Country at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, which lasted from 23 to 25 June 1994.[38] According to Bayliss, Rare spent about a month preparing for the reveal.[14] The unveiling showcased various gameplay sequences and did not reveal that Donkey Kong Country was an SNES game until the end of the presentation, fooling the audience into believing that it was supposed to be for Nintendo's then-upcoming Nintendo 64.[17][21] Steve Mayles considered the shock that the audience felt after learning it would release for the SNES the "proudest moment in my game-making career".[17] Donkey Kong Country was backed by an exceptionally large marketing campaign. According to the Los Angeles Times, Nintendo spent US$16 million on Donkey Kong Country marketing in America alone; at the time, significant game releases typically had a much smaller average marketing budget of US$5 million.[37] It was also one of the flagship titles of Nintendo's Play It Loud! marketing campaign.[14]

Comedian Josh Wolf, who hosted the Donkey Kong Country: Exposed promotional VHS tape

Nintendo sent a promotional VHS tape, Donkey Kong Country: Exposed, to subscribers of Nintendo Power magazine.[1][39] Exposed, hosted by comedian Josh Wolf, provides a "behind-the-scenes" glimpse of the Treehouse, the Nintendo of America division where games are tested.[1][39] Nintendo World Report's Justin Berube wrote that Exposed was "probably the first time most people outside of Nintendo learned about the [Treehouse]" and "allowed players to see a game in action at home before it was released... the path to learning about upcoming games was no longer confined to magazines".[39] Exposed also features gameplay tips and interviews.[1][39] It concludes with a segment reminding viewers that the game is available only on the 16-bit SNES, not on rival 32-bit and CD-ROM-based consoles (such as Sega's Mega-CD and 32X) that boasted superior processing power.[39]

In October 1994, Nintendo of America held an online promotional campaign through the internet service CompuServe. The campaign included downloadable video samples of the game, a trivia contest in which 800 people participated, and an hour-long online chat conference attended by 80 people, in which Lincoln, president Minoru Arakawa and vice president of marketing Peter Main answered questions. Nintendo's CompuServe promotion marked an early instance of a major video game company using the internet to promote its products.[40] Nintendo of America also partnered with Kellogg's for a promotional campaign in which the packaging for Kellogg's breakfast cereals featured Donkey Kong Country character art and announced a prize giveaway. The campaign ran from the game's release in November 1994 until April 1995.[41]

David DiRienzo, writing for Hardcore Gaming 101, described Nintendo's Donkey Kong Country promotion as "marketing blitzkrieg": "it was everywhere. You couldn’t escape it. It was on the cover of every magazine. It was on gigantic, imposing displays and marquees at Wal-Mart and Babbages... For kids of the era, November 20th seemed like the eve of a revolution."[42] The emphasis on Donkey Kong Country's SGI-rendered visuals built anticipation for the release.[43] The Exposed VHS tape also contributed significantly to the hype[44] and Nintendo would repeat the strategy with future releases such as Star Fox 64 (1997).[39] Nintendo anticipated to sell approximately two million Donkey Kong Country units in one month; Main acknowledged this was an unprecedented expectation but said "it's based on the off-the-chart reactions we've received from game players and retailers. It's something they haven't seen enough of, in terms of breakthrough components, that advances the state of game-play, visuals and audio".[37]

Rereleases[edit]

An alternate, competition-oriented version of Donkey Kong Country was sold through Blockbuster Video. Its changes include a time limit for the playable levels and a scoring system, which had been used in the Nintendo PowerFest '94 and Blockbuster World Video Game Championships II competitions. It was later distributed in limited quantities through Nintendo Power. The competition version of Donkey Kong Country is the rarest licensed SNES game, with only 2,500 cartridges known to exist.[42]

Different versions of Donkey Kong Country: the SNES original (top left), the Game Boy Color version (top right), and the Game Boy Advance version (bottom)

In 2000, Rare developed a port of Donkey Kong Country for Nintendo's Game Boy Color (GBC) handheld console. The port was developed alongside the GBC version of Perfect Dark[45] and many assets, including graphics and audio, were re-used from Rare's Game Boy Donkey Kong games.[42] Aside from graphical and sound-related downgrades due to the GBC's weaker 8-bit hardware, the port is mostly identical to the original release.[46] One level was redesigned while another was added.[42] It also adds bonus modes, including two minigames that supplement the main quest and support multiplayer via the Game Link Cable, as well as Game Boy Printer support.[47][46] Gregg Mayles was not involved with the port but was impressed that it was possible to recreate the entire game on the GBC.[21]

Although Rare was acquired by Nintendo competitor Microsoft in 2002, the studio continued to produce games for Nintendo's Game Boy Advance (GBA) since Microsoft did not have a competing handheld.[13] As such, it developed a version of Donkey Kong Country for the GBA, released in the West in June 2003 and in Japan the following December[48] as part of Nintendo's line of SNES rereleases for the GBA.[49] According to Tim Stamper, the GBA Donkey Kong Country was developed from scratch—using SNES emulators to rip the artwork—because the original materials were stored on floppy disks with outdated file formats.[50] The GBA version adds a new animated introductory cutscene,[51] redesigned user interfaces and world maps,[42] the ability to save progress anywhere, minigames, and a time trial mode.[51] However, it features downgraded graphics and sound,[42][51] the former due to the GBA's lack of a backlit screen.[14]

The SNES version of Donkey Kong Country has been digitally rereleased for later Nintendo consoles via the Virtual Console service. It was released for the Wii Virtual Console in Japan and Europe in December 2006, and in North America in February 2007.[52] In September 2012, the game was delisted from the Virtual Console catalogue; the exact reason is unknown, though Kotaku's Jason Schreier noted it may have been related to licensing issues with Rare.[53] Donkey Kong Country returned to the Wii U's Virtual Console in February 2015[54] and was added to the New Nintendo 3DS Virtual Console in March 2016.[55] It was also included in the Super NES Classic Edition, a dedicated console Nintendo released in September 2017,[56] and is set for release on the Nintendo Switch for Nintendo Switch Online subscribers in July 2020.[57]

Reception[edit]

Reception
Aggregate scores
AggregatorScore
GameRankings(SNES) 89%[58]
(GBC) 90%[59]
(GBA) 79%[60]
Metacritic(GBA) 78%[61]
Review scores
PublicationScore
AllGame(SNES) 4.5/5 stars[62]
(GBA) 3.5/5 stars[63]
EGM(SNES) 9.25 of 10
Eurogamer(GBA) 8/10[64]
Famitsu(SNES) 31 of 40[65]
Game Informer(SNES) 9.5 of 10[58]
GameSpot(GBC) 9.1/10[49]
(GBA) 7.7/10[47]
IGN(SNES) 8.5 of 10[2]
(GBC) 9.0 of 10[46]
(GBA) 8.0 of 10[51]
Jeuxvideo.com(SNES) 9/10[3]
Next Generation(SNES) 4/5 stars[66]
Nintendo Life(SNES) 9/10[67]
Nintendo Power(GBC) 8.3 of 10[68]
Nintendo World Report(GBA) 8/10[48]
USgamer(SNES) 4/5 stars[69]
AGM(SNES) 10/10[70]
Cubed3(SNES) 9/10[71]
Entertainment Weekly(SNES) A+[72]
Nintendojo(SNES) 9.8/10[73]
Top Secret(SNES) 5/5 stars[74]

Donkey Kong Country was very successful upon release in November 1994. Within a month of its launch in the United States, its sales reached nearly 500,000 copies.[75] According to some critics, the game "saved" the SNES, which faced growing competition from more technically proficient consoles like the Sega CD and the PlayStation.[2] At review aggregator GameRankings, the SNES version received an 89% score, the Game Boy Color version 90%, and the Game Boy Advance version 79%.[58][59][60]

The game's novel use of pre-rendered 3D models and visuals were universally lauded among critics, with many citing that its graphics were the first of its kind and helped set it far apart from its contemporaries. Lucas Thomas from IGN and Scott Marriott from AllGame both commended the game's advanced visual techniques and expressed surprise that Nintendo's 16-bit system could deliver such vitality,[2][62] while GameSpot's Frank Provo felt that Donkey Kong Country's graphical prowess rivalled that of the forthcoming 32-bit consoles.[47] Nadia Oxford from USGamer similarly acknowledged that the game's visual allure helped Nintendo save face in a period of uncertainty for cartridge-based games and gave praise to Rare's execution of 3D rendering.[69] Michel Garnier from Jeuxvideo further complimented the game's captivating use of rendering by saying it offered a new depth of unprecedented realism.[3] In retrospect, Nintendo Life's Alex Olney declared that the game's pioneering graphics would survive the test of time,[67] while Oxford was more sceptical, saying that despite the "unholy coupling" of Donkey Kong Country's pre-rendered graphics and the SNES processor, the game featured a variety of "paper thin" backgrounds.[69] Writing for Entertainment Weekly, Bob Strauss labelled the game's backgrounds "movie-like" and praised its "monster" textures and impressive three-dimensional characters, although he mistakenly thought the game was produced from 32-bit technology.[76] Vera Brinkmann from Aktueller Software Markt considered the graphics to be the best she had ever seen on a home console, giving particular praise to Donkey and Diddy Kong's fluid running animations.[70] Jeff Pearson of Nintendojo also appreciated the immersive background mattes and asserted Donkey Kong Country as being a visual masterpiece and best looking game on the SNES,[73] while Alexi Kopalny from Top Secret thought the game's visuals were superior to that of Doom and even likened the graphics to "witchcraft".[74] Shortly before the release of its sequel, Chet McDonnell from Next Generation wrote that Donkey Kong Country featured the best ever graphics on a home console, bolstered by the "superior" colour palette the SNES offered.[66]

Although contemporary critics had praise for the game's fluid and fast-paced platforming, some retrospective reviewers have since taken a more critical stance and described its gameplay as overrated. Thomas felt that Donkey Kong Country's visuals sacrificed gameplay in favour of fast sales and a "short-run attention grab" which did not live up to the standards of some of Miyamoto's more "polished" gameplay designs.[2] Marriott echoed this by criticising the game's lack of originality and Donkey and Diddy Kong's shallow range of attacking moves, while Provo, despite noting acknowledging its addictive appeal, felt it had "straightforward" gameplay.[62][47] McDonnell opined that Donkey Kong Country's gameplay held it back from being a Nintendo blockbuster in its own right.[66] Oxford was one of the retrospective critics who appreciated its fast-flowing gameplay, writing that its levels featured a "surprisingly oppressive" atmosphere which eschewed other platformers' idyllic backdrops.[69] Strauss thought it was wise that Nintendo opted not to emulate the arcade-style gameplay of the original Donkey Kong, while Olney considered the game's new rope swinging and barrel blasting mechanics to be a welcome variation.[76][67] The game's plethora of secrets invited praise among both contemporary and retrospective reviewers: Garnier considered the game's diversity in "animal buddies" and secret collectables to be one of its main strengths, saying that the goal of attaining a 101% completion rate through finding all of the secrets adds a "delightful" replay value.[3] Marriott and Thomas concurred, opining that its hidden bonus levels add a new layer of playability through constantly arousing curiosity in the player.[2][62] Karn Bianco from Cubed3 considered the task of finding the game's wealth of secrets "never too tedious", although he noted its spike in difficulty may instil frustration in some. Donkey Kong Country's boss fights also garnered complaints among critics: Oxford, Olney, Pearson and Bianco all found the bosses lacklustre, uninspiring and repetitive.[67][69][73][71]

Wise's atmospheric soundtrack attracted universal acclaim. Oxford considered the game's soundtrack lends favourably to its "oppressive" vibe and commended Wise's debut to the series, while Marriott felt his rendition offered some of the richest sounds on the SNES.[69][62] Garnier gave particular praise to the soundtrack's diversity, lauding the rhythmic oscillation between levels and distinctive sound effects, in which some add "perfectly" to the game's darker environments.[3] Likewise, Strauss complimented the "CD-quality" music while Kopalny thought that Wise's "captivating" soundtrack asserted itself as a masterpiece in its own right.[76][74] Pearson praised each level's unique musical theme and considered each of them an accurate reflection of their respective environments, while remarking that it pushes the SNES' audio chip to the limit, along with its graphical prowess.[73]

The GBC and GBA iterations were met with general praise. Reviewers commended the fluid and fast-paced gameplay of both versions,[63][51][64] although some considered the Game Boy Advance graphics disappointing. Reviewing the GBA version, Marriott felt that its visuals were "slightly above average" for the handheld console but was not as impressive as those showcased on the SNES,[63] while Eurogamer's Tom Bramwell said that the game appeared slightly "muddier" on the small GBA screen, but nevertheless looked ostensibly the same as the original.[64] Craig Harris of IGN criticised the game's graphical implementation, insisting that the developers could have produced better looking visuals for the system rather than merely "[bumping] up the contrast" of character sprites.[51] Similarly, Ben Kosmina from Nintendo World Report remarked that the GBA's sprites did not live up to the standard of those featured on the SNES.[48] Conversely, the visuals of the Game Boy Color version were more warmly received by critics, considering the console's meagre hardware capabilities. In a positive examination from Nintendo Power, the reviewer felt that the visuals were "still worth going ape over" despite lacking the detail of the original,[68] while Harris lauded Rare's efforts to keep the "CG look" in light of the restrictive graphical limitations.[46] Provo similarly praised Rare's "valiant" effort for trying to keep the design, visuals and sound as faithful as possible with the SNES original.[49]

Awards[edit]

The game was awarded GamePro's best graphic achievement award at the 1994 Consumer Electronics Show.[77] It won several awards from Electronic Gaming Monthly, including Best SNES Game, Best Animation, Best Game Duo, and Game of the Year, in their 1994 video game awards.[78] It also received a Nintendo Power Award for Best Overall Game of 1994 and two Kids' Choice awards in 1994 and 1995 for Favorite Video Game.[79] It is the only video game listed in Time's top ten "Best Products" of 1994.[80] However, Time later included the game in its 2005 list of the most overrated games of all time.[81] The game also rated ninth in GameSpy's 2003 list of the 25 most overrated games of all time.[82] Although described as "overrated" by some critics, the game has appeared on many best video games of all-time lists.[83][84][85][86][87][88] Donkey Kong Country was also ranked as the 90th-best game made for a Nintendo system in Nintendo Power's Top 200 Games list in 2006.[89]

Legacy[edit]

Donkey Kong Country is considered a major factor in keeping sales of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (pictured) high late in its lifecycle.

Donkey Kong Country was a major factor in keeping sales of the SNES high at a time when the next generation of consoles, including the Sony PlayStation and the Sega Saturn, were being released. The game sold six million units in its first holiday season.[10] After selling nine million units, Donkey Kong Country became the third-bestselling SNES game[14] and set the record for the fastest-selling video game at the time.[90] In the United States alone, the GBA rerelease sold 960,000 copies and earned $26 million by August 2006. Between January 2000 and August 2006, it was the 19th highest-selling game launched for a Nintendo handheld console in the US.[91]

Both contemporary and retrospective critics cohesively asserted that Donkey Kong Country's visual appeal helped increase the lifespan of Nintendo's then-fledgling SNES; Matthew Castle from the Official Nintendo Magazine noted that the game brought next-generation graphics to the console just 12 days before the rival PlayStation's Japanese launch, proving to consumers that an immediate upgrade was unnecessary.[92] Lucas Thomas from IGN similarly avowed that the game had "saved the SNES" and helped revitalise sales by bringing back many lapsed fans.[2] Conversely, Eurogamer's Tom Bramwell felt that many fans gave undue attention to the Donkey Long Country's lifespan and remarked that it became "fashionable" to dislike the game's appearance.[64] Parish described Donkey Kong Country as Nintendo's "bluff" to make the SNES seem as if it could compare to the superior hardware that the PlayStation and Saturn offered.[10] Its visual fidelity obscured what Parish felt was the fact that it was inferior gameplay-wise to SNES launch titles like Super Mario World (1990).[10]

In the years following the game's release, rumours spread that Miyamoto disliked Donkey Kong Country and found it amateurish,[10][93] provoking him to create the hand-drawn art style of Yoshi's Island.[10][94] He was allegedly quoted as telling Electronic Games magazine in 1995 that "Donkey Kong Country proves that players will put up with mediocre gameplay as long as the art is good".[95] However, in 2010, Miyamoto denied these rumours, saying: "I was very involved in [the game]. And even emailing almost daily with Tim Stamper right up until the end."[93] Video game journalist Frank Cifaldi checked the issues and found they contained no such quote.[96]

Influence[edit]

Rare's redesign of the Donkey Kong character has been used in all future Nintendo games featuring him, including his appearances in the Super Smash Bros. series and various Mario spinoff titles.[18] Donkey Kong Country spawned two sequels for the SNES: Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest was released in 1995 to critical acclaim and Donkey Kong Country 3: Dixie Kong's Double Trouble! debuted in 1996 as the SNES's lifespan came to a close.[97] In addition to starring in Donkey Kong Country 2, Diddy Kong featured in his own spin-off, Diddy Kong Racing (1997) for the Nintendo 64. Diddy Kong Racing received critical acclaim and became the console's eighth bestselling game.[16][98] Diddy also joined Donkey Kong as a Super Smash Bros. character in Super Smash Bros. Brawl (2008), while King K. Rool debuted as a Smash character in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate (2018).[99]

Donkey Kong Country's success helped solidify Rare as one of the video game industry's leading developers. Rare's relationship with Nintendo continued into the following generation and resulted in numerous critically and commercially successful games for the Nintendo 64, such as GoldenEye 007 (1997) and Banjo-Kazooie (1998). Rare also continued to support the Donkey Kong franchise with games such as the Donkey Kong Land trilogy—which condensed Donkey Kong Country's platforming for the handheld Game Boy[100]—and Donkey Kong 64 (1999).[97] After Microsoft acquired Rare in 2002, the rights to the franchise reverted to Nintendo. Retro Studios revived the Donkey Kong Country series in 2010 with Donkey Kong Country Returns for the Wii, followed by Donkey Kong Country: Tropical Freeze (2014) for the Wii U and Nintendo Switch; both games were critical and commercial successes.[97]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Known in Japan as Super Donkey Kong (Japanese: スーパードンキーコング, Hepburn: Sūpā Donkī Kongu)

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]