Handley Page Hampden

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HP.52 Hampden
Handley Page Hampden in the air.jpg
Hampden Mk.I of No. 455 Squadron RAAF (May 1942)
Role Medium bomber
Manufacturer Handley Page
Designer Gustav Lachmann
First flight 21 June 1936
Introduction 1938
Retired 1943
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Soviet Naval Aviation
Royal Australian Air Force
Produced 1936–1941
Number built 1,430

The Handley Page HP.52 Hampden was a British twin-engine medium bomber of the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was one of a trio of then-large twin-engine bombers procured for the RAF, the other two being the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and Vickers Wellington. The newest of the three medium bombers, the Hampden, was often referred to by aircrews as the "Flying Suitcase" because of its cramped crew conditions.[1]

The Hampden served in the early stages of Second World War, bearing the brunt of the early bombing war over Europe, taking part in the first night raid on Berlin and the first 1,000-plane raid on Cologne. As the war went on, it became clear that the Hampden was unsuited to combat missions in the modern air war and, after a period of mainly operating at night, it was retired from RAF Bomber Command service in late 1942.

While the Hampden was powered by Bristol Pegasus radial engines, a short-lived variant known as the Handley Page Hereford instead featured in-line Napier Daggers.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

In 1932, the Air Ministry issued Specification B.9/32 seeking a twin-engined day bomber as higher performance than any preceding bomber aircraft.[2] Accordingly, Handley Page responded with their design to meet the requirements of B.9/32; this same specification also drew other submissions from rival aircraft manufacturer such as Vickers, who would proceed to develop the Wellington bomber to it. The design team, led by G.R. Vokert, drafted an extremely radical aircraft, initially centering upon the politically-favoured Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine; however, by mid-1934, development of the Goshawk looked less promising and thus the Air Ministry acted to relax the tare weight requirement of the specification, allowing for the use of heavier and more powerful radial engines such as the Bristol Perseus and Bristol Pegasus. According to aviation author Philip J.R. Moyes, the Handley Page design soon found support with the Air Ministry in part due to it was judged to represent a fair compromise between range, payload, and speed.[2]

During early 1936, the first prototype, designated as the HP.52 and given the serial number K4240, was completed. On 21 June 1936, the prototype, powered by a pair of Bristol Pegasus P.E.5S(A) engines, conducted its maiden flight from Radlett Aerodrome, Hertfordshire, piloted by Handley-Page Chief Test Pilot Major J. L. H. B. Cordes.[2] In late June 1936, the prototype was put on public display at New Types Park, Hendon, London. In August 1936, in response to the successful flight trials performed by K4240, the Air Ministry issued an initial production order for the type, ordering 180 production aircraft to be manufactured to meet Specification B.30/36; a second order for 100 aircraft powered by the Napier Dagger, for which Belfast-based Short & Harland were to be responsible for producing, was also issued at the same time.[3]

In early 1937, a second prototype, which received the serial number L7271, was completed; this second prototype had several differences from the first, including the pitot tube being repositioned below the fuselage, a more rounded ventral gun turret, and a slightly modified nose.[4] L7271 later received a pair of Dagger engines and was accordingly re-designated as the HP.53; on 1 July 1937, it performed its first flight after having received the new engines. Another prototype, L4032, was produced to serve as the production-standard prototype; on 24 June 1938, the third prototype conducted its maiden flight.[4] L4032 differed from the previous two prototypes in that is was powered by a pair of Pegasus XVIII engines, the nose incorporated an optically-flat bomb-aiming panel, as well as the ventral and dorsal gun positions being revised.[4]

Handley Page elected to name their new aircraft after John Hampden, a 17th-century British politician and defender of civil liberties.[2] On 24 June 1938, L4032 was officially christened by Lady Katharine Mary Montagu Douglas Scott, Viscountess Hampden, at a ceremony held in Radlett Aerodrome, the same day on which its first flight took place.[4][5] L4032 and L4033, which was the second production-standard Hampden to be produced, would be later assigned to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at RAF Martlesham Heath, Suffolk.[6] On 20 September 1938, the third production Hampden, designated L4034, following the completion of handling trials conducted by the Central Flying School at Upavon Aerodrome, Wiltshire, become the first aircraft to enter RAF squadron service, being delivered to No. 49 Squadron.[7]

Production[edit]

By late 1938, the mass manufacturing plans for the Hampden had been formalised. In addition to Handley-Page's own production line, the type was to be built under subcontract by English Electric at their factory in Preston, Lancashire; on 6 August 1938, English Electric was awarded an initial contract to manufacture 75 Hampdens.[7] In addition, Canadian interest in domestic production of the type had resulted in the establishment of the joint Anglo-Canadian Canadian Associated Aircraft company, which promptly received an initial order from the RAF for 80 Hampdens to be completed in Canada; this facility would effectively act as a shadow factory during wartime.[7] On 1 September 1938, in response to interest expressed by the Royal Swedish Air Force (RSAF) in the Hampden, including in a potential licence production arrangement for 70 aircraft to be built in Sweden, a single production Hampton was supplied to Sweden. Designated P.5 by the RSAF, it was operated by the service through to November 1945, after which it was sold to Svenska Aeroplan AB (SAAB) to serve as a flying testbed before being retired in late 1947.[7]

On 22 February 1940, the first Preston-built Hampden, P2062, conducted its maiden flight. English Electric would go onto manufacture a total of 770 Hampdens, more than any other company, prior to delivering its final aircraft on 15 March 1942.[8] In July 1940, Handley-Page terminated its own production line for the Hampden upon the completions of its 500th aircraft.[8] On 9 August 1940, the first Canadian-built Hampden, P5298, made its first flight; by October 1940, Canadian production had risen to 15 aircraft per month.[8] A total of 160 Hampdens were completed by Canadian Associated Aircraft, many of which were ferried to the United Kingdom for wartime service, the final Canadian-built aircraft was deliver in late 1941.[9]

Design[edit]

The Hampden Mk I had a crew of four: pilot, navigator/bomb aimer, radio operator and rear gunner. Conceived as a fast, manoeuvrable, "fighting bomber", the Hampden had a fixed .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine gun in the forward fuselage. To avoid the weight penalties of powered turrets, the Hampden had a curved Perspex nose fitted with a manual .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers K machine gun and a .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers K installation in the rear upper and lower positions. The layout was similar to the all-guns-forward cockpits introduced about the same time in the Luftwaffe's own medium bombers, notably the Dornier Do 17. During the Norwegian Campaign, these guns proved to be thoroughly inadequate for self-defence for daylight raids; in response, the single guns were rapidly replaced by twin Vickers K guns under a retrofit program spearheaded by Commadore Arthur Harris of RAF Bomber Command during 1940.[10]

The Hampden used a flush-rivetted stressed skin design, which was reinforced with a mixture of bent and extruded sections. The structure employed an full-metal monocoque design.[11] A split-assembly construction technique was employed, sections were prefabricated and then joined together, to enable rapid and economic manufacturing to be performed.[4] The fuselage was in three major sections – front, centre and rear - that were built using jigs.[11] The centre and rear sections were themselves made of two halves, which meant that the sections could be fitted out in part under better working conditions prior to assembly. All possible assembly work was performed at the benches prior to installation upon each aircraft.[4]

The Hampden's cockpit

In a similar fashion to the fuselage, the wings were made up of three large units: centre section, port outer wing and starboard outer wing, which were in turn subdivided.[12] Each section was built up around a main girder spar, leading edge section and trailing edge section.[11] The wing made use of wingtip slots and hydraulically-actuated trailing edge flaps; both the flaps and ailerons incorporated stress-baring D-spars.[11] According to Moyes, the configuration of the wing was a key feature of Hampden, being highly tapered and designed to exert low levels of drag; these attributes were responsible for the aircraft's high top speed for the era of 265 MPH while retaining a reasonably low landing speed of 73 MPH.[4]

The Hampden's flying qualities were typically described as being favourable; Moyes described it as being "extraordinarily mobile on the controls".[13] Pilots were provided with a high level of external visibility, assisting the execution of steep turns and other manoeuvers. The control layout required some familiarisation, as some elements such as the hydraulic controls were unassuming and unintuitive.[13] Upon introduction, the Hampden exhibited greater speeds and initial climb rates than any of its contemporaries while still retaining favourable handling qualities.[4]

The slim and compact fuselage of the aircraft was quite cramped, wide enough only for a single person. The navigator sat behind the pilot and access in the cockpit required folding down the seats. Once in place, the crew had almost no room to move and were typically uncomfortable during long missions.[13] Aircrews came to refer to the Hampden by various nicknames due to this, such as Flying Suitcase, Panhandle, and Flying Tadpole.[4]

I did my first flight and first tour on Hampdens. A beautiful aeroplane to fly, terrible to fly in! Cramped, no heat, no facilities where you could relieve yourself. You got in there and you were stuck there. The aeroplane was like a fighter. It was only 3 feet wide on the outside of the fuselage and the pilot was a very busy person. There were 111 items for the pilot to take care of because on the original aircraft he had not only to find the instruments, the engine and all that, but also he had all the bomb switches to hold the bombs.

— Wilfred John 'Mike' Lewis[14]

Operational history[edit]

UK service[edit]

Scale comparison diagram of the trio of British twin-engined medium bombers at the outbreak of the Second World War; the Hampden (yellow), the Vickers Wellington (blue) and the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley (pink)

In September 1938, No. 49 Squadron received the first Hampdens; by the end of the year, both 49 and 83 Squadrons at RAF Scampton had re-equipped with the type.[15] A total of 226 Hampdens were in service with ten squadrons by the start of the Second World War, with six forming the operational strength of 5 Group of Bomber Command based in Lincolnshire.[15][16]

With the outbreak of war in 1939, Hampdens were initially used to perform armed aerial reconnaissance missions, observing German naval activity during daylight.[17] However, despite its speed and manoeuvrability, the Hampden proved to be no match for Luftwaffe fighters; in December 1939, Bomber Command is claimed to have concluded to have discarded the belief that aircraft such as the Hampden could realistically operated by day and instead chose to predominantly deploy them under the cover of darkness during nighttime operations.[17] During 1940, Hampdens of 5 Group conducted 123 nighttime airborne leaflet propaganda missions, losing only a single aircraft in the process.[17]

On 13 April 1940, days after Germany's invasion of Norway, a large number of Hampdens were dispatched on night-time mine-laying (code-named "gardening") flights in the North Sea in areas deemed unapproachable by British shipping. According to Moyes, this activity proved highly effective, experiencing a low casualty rate of less than 1.9 aircraft per sortie.[17] The Hampden also saw a return to its use as a daytime bomber during the Norwegian Campaign, but quickly proved to be under-gunned to fend off German fighters.[10]

On 19 March 1940, Hampdens took part in the first deliberate bombing of German soil in a nighttime raid upon the seaplane hangers and slipways in Hörnum, Sylt.[8] The type continued to operate at night on bombing raids over Germany. Flight Lieutenant Rod Learoyd of 49 Squadron, was awarded the Victoria Cross for the attack that he led on the Dortmund-Ems canal on 12 August 1940.[18] On 25 August 1940, Hampdens from various squadrons participated on the RAF's first bombing raid on Berlin.[19] Sergeant John Hannah was the wireless operator/air gunner of an 83 Squadron Hampden and was awarded the Victoria Cross on 15 September 1940, when he fought the flames of the burning aircraft, allowing the pilot to return it to base.[18]

In April 1942, the Hampden-equipped 144 Squadron and 455 Squadron RAAF were transferred from Bomber Command to Coastal Command to perform the torpedo bomber role. Later that year, detachments from both squadrons were dispatched to Vaenga, Murmansk, Russia, to help safeguard the Arctic convoys in the vicinity.[19] A total of four squadrons assigned to Coastal Command would be equipped with Hampdens; these squadrons continued to be use the type into late 1943, on 10 December 1943, the last Coastal Command squadron transitioned from the type.[20]

Almost half of the Hampdens built, 714, were lost on operations, taking with them 1,077 crew killed and another 739 missing. German flak accounted for 108, one hit a German barrage balloon, 263 Hampdens crashed because of "a variety of causes" and 214 others were classed as "missing". Luftwaffe pilots claimed 128 Hampdens, shooting down 92 at night.[21] Guy Gibson spent most of the first two years of his wartime service flying Hampdens and his book Enemy Coast Ahead (1946) gives a strong flavour of the trials and tribulations of taking these aircraft into action.

The last Bomber Command sorties by Hampdens were flown on the night of 14/15 September 1942 by 408 Squadron, RCAF against Wilhelmshaven.[22] After being withdrawn from Bomber Command in 1942, it operated with RAF Coastal Command through 1943 as a long-range torpedo bomber, (the Hampden TB Mk I with a Mk XII torpedo in an open bomb bay and a 500-pound (230 kg) bomb under each wing) and as a maritime reconnaissance aircraft.

Non-UK service[edit]

A RAAF Hampden of No. 455 Squadron at RAF Wigsley, Nottinghamshire, circa 1942

The Hampden was also used by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF), Aviatsiya Voenno-Morskogo Flota (AV-MF: Maritime Military Fleet Aviation) of the Soviet Union and the Swedish Flygvapnet (Air Force).

The Hampden in RCAF service included the 160 examples manufactured in Canada by the Victory Aircraft consortium. Of the total built, 84 were shipped by sea to Great Britain, while the remainder came to Patricia Bay (Victoria Airport) B.C., to set up No. 32 OTU (RAF) used for bombing and gunnery training. Typical exercises at 32 OTU consisted of patrolling up the West Coast of Vancouver Island at night or flying out into the Pacific to a navigational map coordinate, often in adverse and un-forecast inclement weather. Due to attrition from accidents, about 200 "war weary" Hampdens were later flown from the U.K. to Pat Bay as replacements.[23]

In September 1942, the crews of 32 Hampdens from No. 144 Squadron RAF and No. 455 Squadron RAAF flew from Sumburgh in the Shetland Islands to Vaenga (renamed Severomorsk in 1951) in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, a hazardous route often subject to poor weather and spanning more than 2,100 nautical miles (3,900 km), partly over enemy-occupied territory in Norway and Finland. Nine Hampdens were lost en route. From Vaenga, 144 and 455 Squadrons escorted Arctic Convoy PQ 18. After the convoy arrived, the Wing's personnel returned by sea to the UK and the 23 surviving Hampdens were transferred to the Aviatsiya Voenno-Morskogo Flota. These Hampdens were then flown by the 3rd Squadron of 24 MTAP (″Минно-торпедный авиаполк/Mine-torpedo aviation regiment [Anti-Shipping Wing]) until at least 1943.[24] The Flygvapnet assigned an HP.52 to Reconnaissance Wing F 11 at Nyköping for evaluation, under the designation P5. After the war, the aircraft was sold to SAAB where it was used as an avionics testbed.

Variants[edit]

The Hampden was powered by two 980 hp (730 kW) Bristol Pegasus XVIII nine-cylinder radial engines. A Mk II variant was developed as the HP.62 by converting two Hampdens to use the 1,000 hp (750 kW) Wright Cyclone engine in 1940 but no more was done of the project.[19]

Interest in the HP.52 by the Swedish for placing a potential order led to the HP.53 prototype, which was subsequently used as a testbed for a pair of 1,000 hp (750 kW) Napier Dagger VIII 24-cylinder H-block air-cooled inline engines.

In August 1936, the Air Ministry placed an order for 100 Hampdens equipped with the Dagger engine, these aircraft subsequently received the designation HP.53 along with the name Hereford.[3] These aircraft, which were manufactured by Short & Harland in Belfast, had near identical performance to their Hampden cousins, save for issues with the engines.[25] The Dagger engine proved to be extremely problematic from the onset, being noisy and unreliable; in particular, frequent cooling issues plagued the engine while being ran on the ground, causing distortions and premature failures.[26] These issues were not satisfactorily resolved, resulted in most of the Herefords on order being converted to Hampdens instead, while those that were constructed were often re-engined to become Hampdens. A limited number of Herefords did enter squadron service, but were used as crew trainers by training units only.[11]

Operators[edit]

Hampden[edit]

 Australia
 Canada
 New Zealand
 Soviet Union
 Sweden
 United Kingdom
Handley Page Hampden of No. 83 Squadron with crew, seated on a loaded bomb trolley at Scampton, October 1940
Hampden in the process of being loaded with bombs by ground crew
Aircrews of No. 50 Squadron in front of their Hampdens at Waddington, Lincolnshire, shortly after returning from a raid on the German fleet in the Bergen Fjord, Norway, on 9 April 1940

Hereford[edit]

 United Kingdom

Survivors[edit]

Hampden P5436 at the Canadian Museum of Flight at Langley, British Columbia c.2006

No Hampdens remain in flying condition today, although two wrecks are in the process of being restored to fly:

  • Hampden I P1344
Recovered from a crash-site in Russia in 1991, the aircraft is being reconstructed at the Michael Beetham Conservation Centre at the Royal Air Force Museum Cosford. During the Second World War, it served with No. 144 Squadron RAF, part of Coastal Command. In September 1942, the squadron was transferred to the Kola Peninsula in northern Russia to help protect the Arctic convoys. While in transit over Finland, P1344 accidentally flew close by a German airfield and was shot down by two scrambled Messerschmitt Bf 109s. It crashed in a wooded area of the Kola Peninsula, three crew members were killed and two taken prisoner. After its recovery by another party, the RAF Museum gained ownership of the aircraft in 1992. It was reported in 2016 that, with the help of volunteers, work on the fuselage could be completed by 2018. [28]
  • Hampden, P5436
This aircraft has been reconstructed largely from parts of the last Canadian-built example, ditched on a training flight in November 1942 when the pilot lost control after a practice torpedo drop. The remains were recovered from 600 ft of water in Saanich Inlet on Vancouver Island in 1989. Along with recovered components from two other Hampden crashes in Canada, as of 2007, the reconstruction was about 97 per cent complete. The aircraft was to become the showpiece exhibit at the Canadian Museum of Flight at Langley, British Columbia, in the Fraser Valley, east of Vancouver.
In January 2009, a heavy snowfall snapped off the aircraft's left wing. Despite the efforts of Museum staff to clear the accumulating snow, the wing's internal structure failed and the wing separated from the fuselage, falling onto a display case containing one of the aircraft's original engines. The wing suffered considerable damage and there was additional damage to the tail and propeller.[29] The wing had largely been restored using wood parts because most of the metal parts of the wing structure had been eroded, so it did not possess the structural integrity of the original aircraft. The museum is currently seeking donations to repair the aircraft.[30] The repairs, in 2011, included the mating of the wing and propeller to the fuselage and engine.[31] As of November 2013, the repairs to the CMF Handley Page Hampden have been completed. The wing has been re-secured and the complete aircraft has been repainted.[32] By 20 April 2015 the two gunner sections were open.[citation needed]
  • The Wings Aviation Museum in the United Kingdom owns the wings and tail of "P1273"; the Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre is currently restoring AE436 to flying condition. Both of these were also 144 Squadron aircraft, lost during the transfer to Russia. The former, "P1273" was shot down by mistake by Soviet fighters over Petsamo. The latter was lost over Sweden, its remains discovered in a remote region by hikers in 1976.[33]

The Hampden in popular culture[edit]

The HP Hampden had a featured role in The Big Blockade, a 1941 Second World War propaganda film showing "blockade" bombing and its effects on the German war industry,[34] with Michael Rennie and John Mills as two of its four-man crew.[35] The trials of flying Hampdens in the early years of the Second World War are also described in the 2002 novel Damned Good Show by Derek Robinson. There is also an issue of the comic Combat about a Hampden and its crew.

Specifications (Hampden Mk I)[edit]

3-view projection of the Hampden Mark I, with inset detail of the Dagger-engined Hereford Mark I
Bristol Pegasus engine from a crashed Hampden

Data from Hampden: Defender of Liberty,[36] The Handley Page Hampden (Aircraft in Profile 58)[13]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 4 (pilot, navigator/bomb aimer, radio operator/dorsal gunner, ventral gunner)
  • Length: 53 ft 7 in (16.32 m)
  • Wingspan: 69 ft 2 in (21.09 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 11 in (4.55 m)
  • Wing area: 668 sq ft (62.1 m2)
  • Empty weight: 12,764 lb (5,789 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 22,500 lb (10,206 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Bristol Pegasus XVIII 9-cylinder radial engine, 1000 hp (754 kW)at 3,000 feet (910 m) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 247 mph (215 knots, 397 km/h) at 13,800 ft (4,210 m)
  • Cruise speed: 206 mph (179 knots, 332 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,580 m)
  • Range: 1,720 mi (1,496 nmi, 2,768 km) (Max fuel and 2,000 lb (910 kg) bombs, 206 mph (332 km/h))
  • Service ceiling: 19,000 ft (5,790 m)
  • Rate of climb: 980 ft/min[37] (300 m/min)

Armament

See also[edit]

External video
Period Aircraft Identification film on the Hampden
Colour Footage of Hampden operations
Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Crosby 2007, p. 104.
  2. ^ a b c d Moyes 1965, p. 3.
  3. ^ a b Moyes 1965, pp. 3-4.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Moyes 1965, p. 4.
  5. ^ "Latest bomber type christened 1938". British Pathe. 
  6. ^ Moyes 1965, pp. 4-5.
  7. ^ a b c d Moyes 1965, p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d Moyes 1965, p. 7.
  9. ^ Moyes 1965, pp. 7-8.
  10. ^ a b Moyes 1965, pp. 6-7.
  11. ^ a b c d e Moyes 1965, p. 10.
  12. ^ Flight May 1939
  13. ^ a b c d Moyes 1965, p. 12.
  14. ^ "Before the Lancs", Early Days, Personal Stories, The Bomber Command Association
  15. ^ a b Air International November 1984, p. 248.
  16. ^ Richards 1995, pp. 17–18.
  17. ^ a b c d Moyes 1965, p. 6.
  18. ^ a b "Campaign Diary: The Battle of Britain (June–October 1940)", Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary, 6 April 2005, archived from the original on 6 July 2007 
  19. ^ a b c Moyes 1965, p. 8.
  20. ^ Moyes 1965, pp. 8-9.
  21. ^ Moyle 1989.[page needed]
  22. ^ Air International November 1984, p. 251.
  23. ^ "Handley Page Hampden." The Canadian Museum of Flight. Retrieved: 9 October 2011.
  24. ^ "9th Guards Kirkenesskiy Red Banner Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment." ww2.dk. Retrieved: 8 October 2011.
  25. ^ Moyes 1965, pp. 9-10.
  26. ^ Moyes 1965, pp. 10, 12.
  27. ^ "RAAF Handley Page HP.52 Hampden Mk.I & TB.I 455 Sqn, RAAF". ADF-Serials. 4 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "Hampden restoration hastens". Aviation News. Key Publishing Ltd. July 2016. Retrieved July 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  29. ^ Day 2009, p. 20.
  30. ^ Niles, Russ. "Snowfall Snaps Wing Off Rare Vintage Plane." avweb.co, 4 January 2009. Retrieved: 29 July 2011.
  31. ^ "Press: Hampden repair progresses." Canadian Museum of Flight, 5 March 2011.
  32. ^ CMF update. "Canadian Museum of Flight: Collection: Handley Page Hampden"
  33. ^ Simpson, Andrew. "Individual History, Handley Page Hampden TB1 P1344/9175M." RAF Museum. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
  34. ^ "The Big Blockade". ftvdb.bfi.org.uk. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  35. ^ "Cast: The Big Blockade". ftvdb.bfi.org.uk. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  36. ^ Air International November 1984, p. 249.
  37. ^ Thetford 1957, p. 253.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barnes, C.H. and Derek N. James. Handley Page Aircraft since 1907. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-85177-803-8.
  • Bowyer, Chaz. Hampden Special. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Ltd., 1976. ISBN 0-7110-0683-0.
  • Clayton, Donald C. Handley Page, an Aircraft Album. Shepperton, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan Ltd., 1969. ISBN 0-7110-0094-8.
  • Crosby, Francis. The World Encyclopedia of Bombers. London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2007. ISBN 1-84477-511-9.
  • Day, Jerry. "Hurt Hampden." Air Classics, Volume 45, Issue 4, April 2009
  • Donald, David and Jon Lake, eds. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
  • Green, William. Famous Bombers of the Second World War. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-356-08333-0.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: RAF Bombers, Part 2. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 2nd edition revised 1981. ISBN 0-7106-0118-2.
  • Gunston, Bill. Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
  • "Hampden: Defender of Liberty". Air International, Vol. 27, No. 5, November 1984. pp. 244–252.
  • Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II. London: Hamlyn/Aerospace, 1982. ISBN 0-600-34951-9.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's, 1964 (2nd edition 1976). ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. The Handley Page Hampden (Aircraft in Profile 58). Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1965.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. Royal Air Force Bombers of World War Two, Volume Two. Chalfont St. Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK: Hylton Lacy Publishers, 1968. ISBN 0-85064-000-8.
  • Moyle, Harry. The Hampden File. Tonbridge, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1989. ISBN 0-85130-128-2.
  • Postlethwaite, Mark. Hampden Squadrons in Focus. Walton on Thames, UK: Red Kite, 2003. ISBN 978-0953806164.
  • Richards, Denis. The Hardest Victory: RAF Bomber Command in the Second World War. London: Cornet, 1995. ISBN 0-340-61720-9.
  • Roberts, Nicholas. Crash Log: Handley Page Hampden & Hereford. Earl Shilton, Leicestershire, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-904597-34-2.
  • Thetford, Owen. Aircraft of the Royal Air Force 1918–1957. London: Putnam, 1957.

External links[edit]